Educational institutions are often categorised along several dimensions. The most important is perhaps the age or level of the students in the institution, but funding source, affiliation, and gender, racial, or ethnic exclusivity are also commonly used.
For children up to about age 5. In most places, this level of education is still optional, with some students staying home with parents until the next stage. Schools of this type are often not part of any formal education system, and many are not free of charge even where the school system as a whole is.
The first years of the formal educational system are known most generally as "primary school", although they also have the following names in some areas (not all entirely synonymous):
Many jurisdictions have no formal "middle" level between primary school and secondary school, but in those that do, "middle school" is a generic term for it. A nursery school is a school for children between the ages of three and five staffed by qualified teachers and other professionals who encourage and supervise educational play rather than Day care or child care is care of a child during the Day by a person other than the child's Parents or Legal guardians typically someone outside ( German, literally means "children's garden" is a form of education for young children which serves as a transition from home to the commencement of more formal schooling See also Primary education A primary school (from French école primaire) is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory See also Primary education An elementary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory education known as elementary A grammar school is one of several different types of School in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries See also Primary education An elementary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory education known as elementary An Infant school is a type of School which caters for young children usually between the ages of 4 and 7 years First school and lower school are terms used in some areas of the United Kingdom to describe the first stage of Primary education. A junior school is a type of School which caters for children often between the ages of 4 and 11 Middle school or Junior High School serves as a "bridge" between the Elementary School and the High School Some areas treat "junior high" as an interchangeable synonym for "middle school", but others maintain a distinction as to level (junior high being slightly higher) or style (junior high being modeled more closely after a secondary school). Middle school or Junior High School serves as a "bridge" between the Elementary School and the High School Some jurisdictions have both, in which case the middle school is typically grades 5–6 and the junior high grades 7–8. Some also use "intermediate" school.
In some areas, there is no formal middle school, but the secondary schools have a "junior division". This is more common among private schools.
In England, a "Preparatory school" is a specific type of middle school. In English language usage in the former British Empire, the present-day Commonwealth, a preparatory school (usually abbreviated to prep school
Secondary school can start at different ages (typically anywhere from 11 to 15). Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational Institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling known as Secondary education, takes They usually educate children up to the ages of 18 or 19. They go by a variety of now-mostly-synonymous names:
There is no truly generic term for all post-secondary education. A gymnasium (pronounced with ɡ- in several languages is a type of school providing Secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. Some types of post-secondary (or tertiary) education include:
A special note about the term "college": in North American and especially US usage, this is a truly generic term for all post-secondary education, right up to and including university, but can also be understood to mean a smaller, four-year, baccalaureate institution. Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage third level and' post-secondary education', is the educational level following the completion of a school providing A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Liberal arts colleges are primarily colleges with an emphasis upon Undergraduate study in the Liberal arts. A seminary, theological college, or divinity school is a specialized and often live-in Higher education institution for the purpose of instructing students normal school was a school created to train high school graduates to be teachers The term junior college refers to different educational institutions in different countries A community college is a type of Educational institution. The term has different meanings in different countries ATTENTION *** This article is not "Vocational education in the United States" College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. Elsewhere, it is more commonly understood to mean only the junior colleges and vocational schools. An older usage still persists in the proper names of some secondary schools. Generally, the term is not suitable for an international audience without further definition.
Schools that offer postgraduate education are often, but not always, one unit of a larger university. Categories include:
Another major classifier is whether the institution is state-funded or not. A graduate school or ("grad school" is a school that awards advanced degrees such as doctoral degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned Professional school may refer to Journalism school Law school Business school Public policy school Medical education A medical school or faculty of medicine is a Tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches Medicine A law school (also known as a school of law or college of law) is an institution specializing in Legal education. A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in Business Administration (1) This is complicated by contradictory international usage.
Note (1): While full public (aka state) funding generally denotes a public school in North America, technically this isn't always the case, and isn't the literal definition of a public school. A government may provide full funding for a student to go to a private school, such as school vouchers, even paying for all students at such a school, but it remains private, as a private organization owns and controls the school. A school voucher, also called an education voucher, is a certificate issued by the government by which parents can pay for the Education of their children at a Conversely, a "public" school may charge high fees, and seek other private funding sources, but be "public" by virtue of the "public" owning and controlling the school (e. g. it is owned by a public school board, or other public authority).
Historically, most schools were segregated by gender (and many more were all-male than all-female). The modern norm is for schools to be coeducational; the vast majority of publicly funded schools in the English-speaking world are so, although this is not universal worldwide. Mixed-sex education, (or just Mixed education) also known as Coeducation, is the integrated education to males and females at the same school facilities Many private schools, both religious and secular, remain single-sex schools. Single-sex education ( SSE) is the practice of conducting Education where male and female students attend separate classes or in separate buildings
Until the mid-20th century, schools in much of the US were explicitly racially segregated. This is no longer the case, although a number of institutions of higher learning still call themselves historically black colleges. Historically black colleges and universities ( HBCUs) are institutions of Higher education in the United States that were established before 1964 with the intention
In many areas of the world where different ethnicities coexist, especially when different languages are spoken in those communities, parallel school systems are often organised to serve them. Motivations for this can vary; such a system can be oppressive if one of the parallel systems is inferior to the other, but it can be empowering if it enables a minority community to perpetuate its languages, traditions, and norms. Oppression is the act of using power to empower and/or privilege a group at the expense of disempowering marginalizing silencing and subordinating another group Empowerment refers to increasing the spiritual, political, Social or economic strength of individuals and communities