|IUPAC name||2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid|
|Other names||2,3-dihydroxysuccinic acid|
|Molar mass||150. IUPAC Nomenclature is a system of naming Chemical compounds and of describing the science of Chemistry in general CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes Molar mass, symbol M, is the Mass of one mole of a substance ( Chemical element or Chemical compound) 087 g/mol|
171-174 °C (L-tartaric)
|Solubility in water||133 g/100ml (20°C)|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid. The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. Solubility is the characteristic Physical property referring to the ability of a given substance the Solute, to dissolve in a Solvent. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 Kilopascals exactly An organic acid is an Organic compound with Acidic properties It occurs naturally in many plants, particularly grapes, bananas, and tamarinds, and is one of the main acids found in wine. For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is For the fruit see Banana. For other meanings see Banana (disambiguation. This article refers to the tree For other uses see Tamarindo (disambiguation. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice It is added to other foods to give a sour taste, and is used as an antioxidant. An antioxidant is a Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules Salts of tartaric acid are known as tartrates. A tartrate is a Salt or Ester of the Organic compound Tartaric acid, a Dicarboxylic acid. It is a dihydroxy derivative of dicarboxylic acid. Hydroxyl in Chemistry stands for a molecule consisting of an Oxygen atom and a Hydrogen atom connected by a Covalent bond. Dicarboxylic acids are Organic compounds that are substituted with two Carboxylic acid Functional groups In molecular formulae for dicarboxylic acids these
Tartaric acid was first isolated from potassium tartrate, known to the ancients as tartar, c. Potassium tartrate, dipotassium tartrate or argol has formula K2C4H4O6 Cream of tartar redirects here --> Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate 800 by the Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan, who was also responsible for numerous other basic chemical processes still in use today. Events By Place Europe September 15 - Oldest known mention of Monkey. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. The modern process was developed in 1769 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Year 1769 ( MDCCLXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 &ndash 21 May 1786 was a German - Swedish pharmaceutical chemist born in Stralsund, Western Pomerania, The chirality of tartaric acid was discovered in 1832 by Jean Baptiste Biot, who observed its ability to rotate polarized light. The term chiral (pronounced /ˈkaɪɹ(əl̩/ is used to describe an object that is non- superimposable on its mirror image Jean-Baptiste Biot (21 April 1774 Paris &ndash 3 February 1862 Paris) was a French Physicist, Astronomer and Mathematician Louis Pasteur continued this research in 1847 by investigating the shapes of tartaric acid crystals, which he found to be asymmetric. Louis Pasteur (27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895 a French Chemist and Microbiologist, is best known for remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Pasteur was the first to produce a pure sample of levotartaric acid.
Naturally occurring tartaric acid is chiral, meaning that it has molecules that are non-superimposable on their mirror-images. The term chiral (pronounced /ˈkaɪɹ(əl̩/ is used to describe an object that is non- superimposable on its mirror image It is a useful raw material in organic chemistry for the synthesis of other chiral molecules. The naturally occurring form of the acid is L-(+)-tartaric acid or dextrotartaric acid. The mirror-image (enantiomeric) form, levotartaric acid or D-(−)-tartaric acid, and the achiral form, mesotartaric acid, can be made artificially. Note, that the dextro and levo prefixes are not related to the D/L configuration (which is derived from the reference D- or L-glyceraldehyde), but to the orientation of the optical rotation, (+) = dextrorotatory, (−) = levorotatory. Glyceraldehyde is a Triose Monosaccharide with Chemical formula C 3 H 6 O 3 Optical rotation or optical activity is the rotation of linearly polarized Light as it travels through certain materials Sometimes, instead of capital letters, small italic d, l are used. They are abbreviations of dextro- and levo-, and nowadays should not be used. Levotartaric and dextrotartaric acid are enantiomers, mesotartaric acid is a diastereomer of both of them. In Chemistry, an enantiomer ( from the Greek ἐνάντιος opposite and μέρος part or portion is one of two Stereoisomers that are nonsuperimposable Erythro redirects here For the fictional planet see Erythro (Asimov.
A rarely occurring optically inactive form of tartaric acid, DL-tartaric acid is a 1:1 mixture of the levo and dextro forms. It is distinct from mesotartaric acid and was called racemic acid (from Latin racemus - "a bunch of grapes"). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The word racemic later changed its meaning, becoming a general term for 1:1 enantiomeric mixtures - racemates. In Chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral Tartaric acid is used to prevent Copper(II) ions from reacting with the hydroxide ions present in the preparation of copper(I) oxide. Copper(I) oxide is a reddish brown solid, and is produced by the reduction of a Cu(II) salt with an aldehyde, in an alkaline solution.
DL-tartaric acid (racemic acid)
|Forms of Tartaric Acid|
|Common name||tartaric acid||levotartaric acid||dextrotartaric acid||mesotartaric acid||racemic acid|
|(2R,3S)-tartaric acid||DL-(S,S/R,R)-(±)-tartaric acid|
|PubChem||CID 875||CID 439655||CID 444305||CID 78956||CID 5851|
Important derivatives of tartaric acid include its salts, Cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate), Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate, a mild laxative) and tartar emetic (antimony potassium tartrate). Cream of tartar redirects here --> Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate Potassium sodium tartrate is a Double salt first prepared (in about 1675) by an apothecary, Pierre Seignette, of La Rochelle, Laxatives (or purgatives) are foods compounds or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool most often taken to treat Constipation.
Tartaric acid is a muscle toxin, which works by inhibiting the production of malic acid, and in high doses causes paralysis and death. Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse" is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the A toxin ( Greek:, toxikon, lit (poison for use on arrows is a Poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms that is active at very low Malic acid is an Organic compound with the formula HO2CCH2CHOHCO2H The minimum recorded fatal dose for a human is about 7. 5 grams/kg. Given this figure, it would take over 500g to kill a person weighing 70kg, and so it may be safely included in many foods, especially sour-tasting sweets. Sweet is one of the five Basic tastes and is almost universally regarded as a pleasurable experience As a food additive, tartaric acid is used as an antioxidant with E number E334, tartrates are other additives serving as antioxidants or emulsifiers. Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavour or improve its taste and appearance An antioxidant is a Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules E numbers are number codes for Food additives and are usually found on Food labels throughout the European Union. A tartrate is a Salt or Ester of the Organic compound Tartaric acid, a Dicarboxylic acid. An emulsion ( IPA: /ɪˈmʌlʃən/ is a mixture of two Immiscible (unblendable liquids
When cream of tartar is added to water, a suspension results which serves to clean copper coins very well. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 main - title Coin keywords numismatics coin review This is due to the fact that the tartrate solution can dissolve the layer of copper(II) oxide present on the surface of the coin. The resulting Copper(II)-tartrate complex that results is easily soluble in water.
Tartaric acid may be most immediately recognizable to wine drinkers as the source of "wine diamonds," the small potassium bitartrate crystals that sometimes form spontaneously on the cork. Cream of tartar redirects here --> Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate Cork material is a Prime-subset of generic cork tissue, harvested for commercial use primarily from the Cork Oak tree Quercus These "tartrates" are harmless, despite sometimes being mistaken for broken glass, and are prevented in many wines through cold stabilization. Winemaking, or vinification, is the production of Wine, starting with selection of the Grapes and ending with bottling the finished wine The tartrates that remain on the inside of aging barrels were at one time a major industrial source of potassium bitartrate. An aging barrel is a barrel used to age Wine or distilled spirits such as Whiskey, Brandy, or Rum.
However, tartaric acid plays an important role chemically, lowering the pH of fermenting "must" to a level where many undesirable spoilage bacteria cannot live, and acting as a preservative after fermentation. Fermentation in Food processing typically refers to the conversion of Sugar to Alcohol using Yeast under Anaerobic conditions In the mouth, tartaric acid provides some of the tartness that is currently out of fashion in the wine world, although citric and malic acids also play a role. Citric acid is a weak organic Acid. It is a natural Preservative and is also used to add an acidic or sour taste to foods and Soft drinks Malic acid is an Organic compound with the formula HO2CCH2CHOHCO2H The modern practice of extended hang time, where grapes are allowed to sit on the vine nearly until they become raisins, can dramatically reduce the taste of tartaric acid in a wine, leaving it smoother but also potentially less compatible with food. Raisins are dried Grapes They are produced in many regions of the world such as the United States, Australia, Chile,