Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science and the study of the nature of complex systems in nature, society, and science. In Academia, Pedagogy, Physical sciences, Earth sciences, Human sciences and Social sciences Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding This article describes complex system as a type of system For other meanings see Complex systems. Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding More specificially, it is a framework by which one can analyze and/or describe any group of objects that work in concert to produce some result. This could be a single organism, any organization or society, or any electro-mechanical or informational artifact. Systems theory as a technical and general academic area of study predominantly refers to the science of systems that resulted from Bertalanffy's General System Theory (GST), among others, in initiating what became a project of systems research and practice. Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy ( September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria – June 12, 1972, New York, USA It was Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson who developed interdisciplinary perspectives in systems theory (such as positive and negative feedback in the social sciences). Margaret Mead ( December 16, 1901, Philadelphia &ndash November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American Gregory Bateson ( 9 May 1904 – 4 July 1980) was a British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist
Ideas from systems theory have grown with diversified areas, exemplified by the work of Béla H. Bánáthy, ecological systems with Howard T. Odum, Eugene Odum and Fritjof Capra, organizational theory and management with individuals such as Peter Senge, interdisciplinary study with areas like Human Resource Development from the work of Richard A. Swanson, and insights from educators such as Debora Hammond. Béla H Bánáthy ( Gyula, Hungary, 1 Dec 1919 &ndash Chico California, 4 Sept 2003 was a Linguist, Systems scientist and Howard Thomas Odum (1924 Chapel Hill North Carolina &ndash2002 Gainesville Florida) (also known as Tom or just H Eugene Pleasants Odum ( September 17, 1913 - August 10, 2002) was an American Scientist known for his pioneering work Fritjof Capra (born February 1, 1939) is an Austrian born American Physicist. Management (covering theory practice and scope of management and Manager' (covering the people who manage might help clarify and systematise Peter Michael Senge (born 1947 is an American scientist and director of the Center for Organizational Learning at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Talent Development, part of human resource development, is the process of changing an Organization, its Employees its stakeholders and groups Richard A Swanson ( 1942) is an American organizational theorist and Distinguished Research Professor of Human Resource Development and the Sam Lindsey Chair at the University Debora Hammond (born 1951 is an American Historian of science, Provost and Professor Interdisciplinary Studies of the Hutchins School of Liberal As a transdisciplinary, interdisciplinary and multiperspectival domain, the area brings together principles and concepts from ontology, philosophy of science, physics, computer science, biology, and engineering as well as geography, sociology, political science, psychotherapy (within family systems therapy) and economics among others. In Philosophy, ontology (from the Greek, genitive: of being (part Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions foundations and implications of Science. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Computer science (or computing science) is the study and the Science of the theoretical foundations of Information and Computation and their Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems Psychotherapy is an Interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, is a branch of Psychotherapy that works with families Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Systems theory thus serves as a bridge for interdisciplinary dialogue between autonomous areas of study as well as within the area of systems science itself.
In this respect, with the possibility of misinterpretations, Bertalanffy  believed a general theory of systems “should be an important regulative device in science,” to guard against superficial analogies that “are useless in science and harmful in their practical consequences. ” Others remain closer to the direct systems concepts developed by the original theorists. For example, Ilya Prigogine, of the Center for Complex Quantum Systems at the University of Texas, Austin, has studied emergent properties, suggesting that they offer analogues for living systems. Ilya Viscount Prigogine (Илья́ Рома́нович Приго́жин ( January 25, 1917 &ndash May 28, 2003) was a Russian The Center for Complex Quantum Systems is a research institute within the Department of Physics of The University of Texas at Austin in the United States For other uses see Emergence (disambiguation, Emergent, and Emergency. Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring Information from a particular subject (the analogue or source to another particular subject (the target and Life is a state that distinguishes Organisms from non-living objects such as non-life and dead organisms being manifested by growth through Metabolism The theories of Autopoiesis of Francisco Varela and Humberto Maturana are a further development in this field. Autopoiesis literally means "auto (self-creation" (from the Greek: auto αυτό for self- and poiesis ποίησις for creation or production Francisco Javier Varela García ( Sept 7, 1946 &ndash May 28, 2001) was a Chilean biologist, philosopher and neuroscientist Humberto Maturana (born September 14, 1928, in Santiago Chile) is a Chilean Biologist. Important names in contemporary systems science include Russell Ackoff, Bela Banathy, Anthony Stafford Beer, Peter Checkland, Robert L. Flood, Fritjof Capra, Michael C. Jackson, and Werner Ulrich, among others. Russell Lincoln Ackoff ( 12 February, 1919) is an American organizational theorist consultant, and Anheuser-Busch Professor Emeritus of Management Béla H Bánáthy ( Gyula, Hungary, 1 Dec 1919 &ndash Chico California, 4 Sept 2003 was a Linguist, Systems scientist and Anthony Stafford Beer ( September 25, 1926 - August 23, 2002) was a British Theorist, Consultant and professor Peter Checkland (1930 Birmingham, UK) is a British management scientist and professor of Systems at Lancaster University. Robert L Flood (born 1955 British organizational scientist and Professor of Management Sciences at the University of Hull, UK Fritjof Capra (born February 1, 1939) is an Austrian born American Physicist. Michael C Jackson (Mike (1951 is a British Systems scientist, Consultant and Professor of Management Systems and Dean of Hull University Business Werner Ulrich ( 1948) is a Swiss organizational theorist and Professor at the University of Fribourg.
With the modern foundations for a general theory of systems following the World Wars, Ervin Laszlo, in the preface for Bertalanffy's book Perspectives on General System Theory, maintains that the translation of "general system theory" from German into English has "wroth a certain amount of Havoc" . Ervin László (born 1932 in Budapest, Hungary) is a Hungarian philosopher of science, systems theorist, integral theorist, and classical Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text likewise called a " translation The preface explains that the original concept of a general system theory was "Allgemeine Systemtheorie (or Lehre)," pointing out the fact that "Theorie" (or "Lehre") just as "Wissenschaft" (translated Scholarship), "has a much broader meaning in German than the closest English words ‘theory’ and ‘science'" . With these ideas referring to an organized body of science and "any systematically presented set of concepts, whether they are empirical, axiomatic, or philosophical," "Lehre" is associated with theory and science in the etymology of general systems, but also does not translate from the German very well; "teaching" is the closest equivalent . A central concept in Science and the Scientific method is that all Evidence must be empirical, or empirically based that is dependent on evidence Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language While many of the root meanings for the idea of a “general systems theory” might have been lost in the translation and many were led to believe that the systems theorists had articulated nothing but a pseudoscience, systems theory became a nomenclature that early investigators used to describe the interdependence of relationships in organization by defining a new way of thinking about science and scientific paradigms. Pseudoscience is defined as a body of knowledge methodology belief or practice that is claimed to be Scientific or made to appear scientific but does not adhere to the Not to be confused with Interconnectivity or Interconnectedness. An organization (or organisation &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and
A system from this frame of reference is composed of regularly interacting or interrelating groups of activities. System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma is a set of interacting or interdependent Entities, real or abstract See also Inertial frame A frame of reference in Physics, may refer to a Coordinate system or set of axes within which to For example, in noting the influence in organizational psychology as the field evolved from “an individually oriented industrial psychology to a systems and developmentally oriented organizational psychology,” it was recognized that organizations are complex social systems; reducing the parts from the whole reduces the overall effectiveness of organizations . Industrial and Organizational Psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, occupational psychology, Industrial and Organizational Psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, occupational psychology, Social structure is a term frequently used in Sociology and Social theory — yet rarely defined or clearly conceptualised (Abercrombie et al This is at difference to conventional models that center on individuals, structures, departments and units separate in part from the whole instead of recognizing the interdependence between groups of individuals, structures and processes that enable an organization to function. Laszlo  explains that the new systems view of organized complexity went "one step beyond the Newtonian view of organized simplicity" in reducing the parts from the whole, or in understanding the whole without relation to the parts. The relationship between organizations and their environments became recognized as the foremost source of complexity and interdependence. In most cases the whole has properties that cannot be known from analysis of the constituent elements in isolation. Bela H. Banathy, who argued - along with the founders of the systems society - that “the benefit of humankind” is the purpose of science, has made significant and far-reaching contributions to the area of systems theory. Béla H Bánáthy ( Gyula, Hungary, 1 Dec 1919 &ndash Chico California, 4 Sept 2003 was a Linguist, Systems scientist and For the Primer Group at ISSS, Banathy defines a perspective that iterates this view:
The systems view is a world-view that is based on the discipline of SYSTEM INQUIRY. Central to systems inquiry is the concept of SYSTEM. In the most general sense, system means a configuration of parts connected and joined together by a web of relationships. The Primer group defines system as a family of relationships among the members acting as a whole. Bertalanffy defined system as "elements in standing relationship. " 
Similar ideas are found in learning theories that developed from the same fundamental concepts, emphasizing that understanding results from knowing concepts both in part and as a whole. In fact, Bertalanffy’s organismic psychology paralleled the learning theory of Jean Piaget  Interdisciplinary perspectives are critical in breaking away from industrial age models and thinking where history is history and math is math segregated from the arts and music separate from the sciences and never the twain shall meet . Jean Piaget pjaʒɛ ( August 9, 1896 &ndash September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and The arts is a broad subdivision of Culture, composed of many expressive disciplines. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding The influential contemporary work of Peter Senge  provides detailed discussion of the commonplace critique of educational systems grounded in conventional assumptions about learning, including the problems with fragmented knowledge and lack of holistic learning from the "machine-age thinking" that became a "model of school separated from daily life. Peter Michael Senge (born 1947 is an American scientist and director of the Center for Organizational Learning at the MIT Sloan School of Management. " It is in this way that systems theorists attempted to provide alternatives and an evolved ideation from orthodox theories with individuals such as Max Weber, Emile Durkheim in sociology and Frederick Winslow Taylor in scientific management, which were grounded in classical assumptions . Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (maks 'veːbɐ (21 April 1864 &ndash 14 June 1920 was a German political economist and sociologist who was considered Émile Durkheim ( April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French Sociologist whose contributions were instrumental Frederick Winslow Taylor ( 20 March 1856 &ndash 21 March 1915) widely known as F The theorists sought holistic methods by developing systems concepts that could be integrated with different areas.
The contradiction of reductionism in conventional theory (which has as its subject a single part) is simply an example of changing assumptions. Reductionism can either mean (a an approach to understanding the nature of complex things by reducing them to the interactions of their parts or to simpler or more fundamental things The emphasis with systems theory shifts from parts to the organization of parts, recognizing interactions of the parts are not "static" and constant but "dynamic” processes. Conventional closed systems were questioned with the development of open systems perspectives. A Closed system is a System in the state of being isolated from the environment An open system is a state of a System, in which a system continuously interacts with its environment The shift was from absolute and universal authoritative principles and knowledge to relative and general conceptual and perceptual knowledge , still in the tradition of theorists that sought to provide means in organizing human life. Absolute may mean Philosophy Absolute (philosophy, a concept in philosophy Moral absolutes, the belief that there are absolute The term "concept" is traced back to 1554–60 ( l conceptum - something conceived but what is today termed "the classical theory of concepts" is the theory of Aristotle In Psychology and the Cognitive sciences perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory Information. Meaning, the history of ideas that preceded were rethought not lost. The history of ideas is a field of Research in History that deals with the expression preservation and change of human Ideas over time Mechanistic thinking was particularly critiqued, especially the industrial-age mechanistic metaphor of the mind from interpretations of Newtonian mechanics by Enlightenment philosophers and later psychologists that laid the foundations of modern organizational theory and management by the late 19th century . Metaphor (from the Greek: μεταφορά - metaphora, meaning "transfer" is language that directly compares seemingly unrelated subjects Language interpreting or interpretation is the intellectual activity of facilitating oral and sign-language communication either simultaneously or consecutively between two Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of Macroscopic objects from Projectiles to parts of Machinery, as well as Astronomical objects The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Classical science had not been overthrown, but questions arose over core assumptions that historically influenced organized systems, within both social and technical sciences.
Whether considering the first systems of written communication with Phoenician cuneiform to Mayan numerals, or the feats of engineering with the Egyptian pyramids, systems thinking in essence dates back to antiquity. The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to originate around 1050 BC The Pre-Columbian Maya civilization used a Vigesimal ( base - twenty) Numeral system. The Egyptian pyramids are pyramid shaped structures located in Egypt, and were built as a tomb for dead pharaohs Differentiated from Western rationalist traditions of philosophy, C. In Epistemology and in its broadest sense rationalism is "any view appealing to Reason as a source of knowledge or justification" (Lacey 286 West Churchman often identified with the I Ching as a systems approach sharing a frame of reference similar to pre-Socratic philosophy and Heraclites . The I Ching ( Wade-Giles) or “Yì Jīng” ( Pinyin) also called “Classic of Changes” or “Book of Changes” is one of the oldest of the The Pre-Socratic Greek philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously but expounding knowledge developed earlier Heraclitus of Ephesus ( Ancient Greek: &mdash grc-Latn ''Hērákleitos ho Ephésios'' English Heraclitus the Ephesian) (ca Bertalanffy traced systems concepts to the philosophy of G.W. von Leibniz and Nicholas of Cusa’s Coincidentia Oppositorum. While modern systems are considerably more complicated, today’s systems are embedded in history.
Systems theory as an area of study specifically developed following the World Wars from the work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Anatol Rapoport, Kenneth E. Boulding, William Ross Ashby, Margaret Mead, Gregory Bateson, C. West Churchman and others in the 1950s, specifically catalyzed by the Macy conferences. Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy ( September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria – June 12, 1972, New York, USA Anatol Rapoport (Анато́лий Бори́сович Рапопо́рт born May 22 1911 - January 20 2007) was a Russian born Kenneth Ewart Boulding ( January 18 1910 – March 18 1993) was an Economist, educator peace activist Poet, religious mystic W Ross Ashby ( September 6, 1903, - November 15, 1972) was an English Psychiatrist and a pioneer in Cybernetics Margaret Mead ( December 16, 1901, Philadelphia &ndash November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American Gregory Bateson ( 9 May 1904 – 4 July 1980) was a British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist Charles West Churchman ( 29 August, 1913 &ndash 21 March, 2004 Bolinas California. The Macy Conferences were a set of meetings of scholars from various disciplines held to discuss "Circular Causal and Feedback Mechanisms in Biological and Social Systems" held Cognizant of advances in science that questioned classical assumptions in the organizational sciences, Bertalanffy's idea to develop a theory of systems began as early as the interwar period, publishing "An Outline for General Systems Theory" in the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol 1, No. 2, by 1950. Where assumptions in Western science from Greek thought with Plato and Aristotle to Newton’s Principia have historically influenced all areas from the hard to social sciences (see David Easton's seminal development of the "political system" as an analytical construct), the original theorists explored the implications of twentieth century advances in terms of systems. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. The newton (symbol N) is the SI derived unit of Force, named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on Classical David Easton (born in Toronto, 1917 is a political scientist renowned for his application of systems theory to Political science. A political system is a System of Politics and Government. It is usually compared to the Law system, Economic system, Cultural
Subjects like complexity, self-organization, connectionism and adaptive systems had already been studied in the 1940s and 1950s. In general usage complexity often tends to be used to characterize something with many parts in intricate arrangement Self-organization is a process of Attraction and repulsion in which the internal organization of a System, normally an open system, increases Connectionism is an approach in the fields of Artificial intelligence, Cognitive psychology / Cognitive science, Neuroscience and Philosophy An adaptive system is a System that is able to adapt its behavior according to changes in its environment or in parts of the system itself In fields like cybernetics, researchers like Norbert Wiener, William Ross Ashby, John von Neumann and Heinz von Foerster examined complex systems using mathematics and no more than pencil and paper. Norbert Wiener ( November 26, 1894, Columbia Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm, Sweden) was an American W Ross Ashby ( September 6, 1903, - November 15, 1972) was an English Psychiatrist and a pioneer in Cybernetics Heinz von Foerster (Nov 13 1911 Vienna – Oct 2 2002 Pescadero California) was an Austrian American scientist combining Physics and Philosophy A pencil is a Writing or Drawing instrument consisting of a thin stick of Pigment (usually Graphite, but can also be coloured pigment or Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging John von Neumann discovered cellular automata and self-reproducing systems, again with only pencil and paper. A cellular automaton (plural cellular automata) is a discrete model studied in computability theory, Mathematics, Theoretical biology A pencil is a Writing or Drawing instrument consisting of a thin stick of Pigment (usually Graphite, but can also be coloured pigment or Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Aleksandr Lyapunov and Jules Henri Poincaré worked on the foundations of chaos theory without any computer at all. Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov (Александр Михайлович Ляпунов ( June 6 1857 &ndash November 3 1918, all Jules Henri Poincaré ( 29 April 1854 &ndash 17 July 1912) (ˈʒyl ɑ̃ˈʁi pwɛ̃kaˈʁe was a French Mathematician A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. At the same time Howard T. Odum, the radiation ecologist, recognised that the study of general systems required a language that could depict energetics and kinetics at any system scale. Howard Thomas Odum (1924 Chapel Hill North Carolina &ndash2002 Gainesville Florida) (also known as Tom or just H Energetics is the scientific study of energy flows and storages under transformation Odum developed a general systems, or Universal language, based on the circuit language of electronics to fulfill this role, known as the Energy Systems Language. A universal language is a hypothetical historical or mythical language said to be spoken and understood by all or most of the world's populationor in some circles is said to be understood Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving Electrons through Nonmetal conductors (mainly Semiconductors, whereas electrical The Energy Systems Language (right also referred to as Energese, Energy Circuit Language and Generic Systems Symbols, was developed by the Ecologist Between 1929-1951, Robert Maynard Hutchins at the University of Chicago had undertaken efforts to encourage innovation and interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, aided by the Ford Foundation with the interdisciplinary Division of the Social Sciences established in 1931 (Hammond 2003: 5-9). Robert Maynard Hutchins ( January 17, 1899, Brooklyn New York – May 17, 1977, Santa Barbara California) husband of The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. The Ford Foundation is a Private foundation incorporated in Michigan and based in New York City created to fund programs that were chartered in 1936 by Numerous scholars had been actively engaged in ideas before (Tectology of Alexander Bogdanov published in 1912-1917 is a remarkable example), but in 1937 Bertalanffy presented the general theory of systems for a conference at the University of Chicago. Tectology is a term coined by Alexander Bogdanov for a discipline that consisted of unifying all social biological and physical sciences by considering them as systems of relationships Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov Александр Александрович Богданов (born Alyaksandr Malinouski, Аляксандар Маліноўскі(
The systems view was based on several fundamental ideas. First, all phenomena can be viewed as a web of relationships among elements, or a system. System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma is a set of interacting or interdependent Entities, real or abstract Second, all systems, whether electrical, biological, or social, have common patterns, behaviors, and properties that can be understood and used to develop greater insight into the behavior of complex phenomena and to move closer toward a unity of science. Definition In the absence of agreement about its meaning the term "social" is used in many different senses referring among other things to attitudes A pattern, from the French patron, is a theme of recurring events or objects sometimes referred to as elements of a set Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or Reactions of an object or Organism, usually System philosophy, methodology and application are complementary to this science . By 1956, the Society for General Systems Research was established, renamed the International Society for Systems Science in 1988. The Cold War had its affects upon the research project for systems theory in ways that sorely disappointed many of the seminal theorists. Some began to recognize theories defined in association with systems theory had deviated from the initial General Systems Theory (GST) view (Hull 1970). The economist Kenneth Boulding, an early researcher in systems theory, had concerns over the manipulation of systems concepts. Kenneth Ewart Boulding ( January 18 1910 – March 18 1993) was an Economist, educator peace activist Poet, religious mystic Boulding concluded from the effects of the Cold War that abuses of power always prove consequential and that systems theory might address such issues . Political power ( Imperium in Latin is a type of power held by a group in a Society which allows administration of some or all of Since the end of the Cold War, there has been a renewed interest in systems theory with efforts to strengthen an ethical view. Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life
Many early systems theorists aimed at finding a general systems theory that could explain all systems in all fields of science. The term goes back to Bertalanffy's book titled General System Theory. von Bertalanffy's objective was to bring together under one heading the organismic science that he had observed in his work as a biologist. His desire was to use the word "system" to describe those principles which are common to systems in general. In GST, he writes:
. . . there exist models, principles, and laws that apply to generalized systems or their subclasses, irrespective of their particular kind, the nature of their component elements, and the relationships or "forces" between them. It seems legitimate to ask for a theory, not of systems of a more or less special kind, but of universal principles applying to systems in general. 
Thus when von Bertalanffy spoke of Allgemeine Systemtheorie it was consistent with his view that he was proposing a new perspective, a new way of doing science. It was not directly consistent with an interpretation often put on "general system theory," to wit, that it is a (scientific) "theory of general systems. " To criticize it as such is to shoot at straw men. Von Bertalanffy opened up something much broader and of much greater significance than a single theory (which, as we now know, can always be falsified and has usually an ephemeral existence): he created a new paradigm for the development of theories.
Ludwig von Bertalanffy outlines systems inquiry into three major domains: Philosophy, the Science, and Technology. In his work with the Primer Group, Bela H. Banathy generalized the domains into four integratable domains of systemic inquiry:
These operate in a recursive relationship, he explained. Integrating Philosophy and Theory as Knowledge, and Method and Application as action, Systems Inquiry then is knowledgable action. 
Cybernetics is the study of feedback and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organisations. Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the Structure of Complex systems especially Communication processes control mechanisms and Feedback Feedback is a circular causal Process whereby some proportion of a system's output is returned (fed back to the Input. Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way Its focus is how anything (digital, mechanical or biological) processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks.
The terms "systems theory" and "cybernetics" have been widely used as synonyms. Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the Structure of Complex systems especially Communication processes control mechanisms and Feedback Some authors use the term cybernetic systems to denote a proper subset of the class of general systems, namely those systems that include feedback loops. Feedback is a circular causal Process whereby some proportion of a system's output is returned (fed back to the Input. However Gordon Pask's differences of eternal interacting actor loops (that produce finite products) makes general systems a proper subset of cybernetics. Andrew Gordon Speedie Pask (* June 28 1928 in Derby; † March 28 1996 London) was an English cybernetician and psychologist who According to Jackson (2000), Bertalanffy promoted an embryonic form of general system theory (GST) as early as the 1920s and 1930s but it was not until the early 1950s it became more widely known in scientific circles.
Threads of cybernetics began in the late 1800s that led toward the publishing of seminal works (eg. , Wiener’s Cybernetics in 1946 and von Bertalanffy’s General Systems Theory in 1968). Cybernetics arose more from engineering fields and GST from biology. If anything it appears that although the two probably mutually influenced each other, cybernetics had the greater influence. Bertalanffy (1969) specifically makes the point of distinguishing between the areas in noting the influence of cybernetics: "Systems theory is frequently identified with cybernetics and control theory. This again is incorrect. Cybernetics as the theory of control mechanisms in technology and nature is founded on the concepts of information and feedback, but as part of a general theory of systems;” then reiterates: "the model is of wide application but should not be identified with 'systems theory' in general," and that "warning is necessary against its incautious expansion to fields for which its concepts are not made. " (17-23). Jackson (2000) also claims Bertalanffy was informed by Alexander Bogdanov’s three volume Tectology that was published in Russia between 1912 and 1917, and was translated into German in 1928. Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov Александр Александрович Богданов (born Alyaksandr Malinouski, Аляксандар Маліноўскі( Tectology is a term coined by Alexander Bogdanov for a discipline that consisted of unifying all social biological and physical sciences by considering them as systems of relationships He also states it is clear to Gorelik (1975) that the “conceptual part” of general system theory (GST) had first been put in place by Bogdanov. The similar position is held by Mattessich (1978) and Capra (1996). Bertalanffy never even mentioned Bogdanov in his works, which Capra (1996) finds "surprising".
Cybernetics, catastrophe theory, chaos theory and complexity theory have the common goal to explain complex systems that consist of a large number of mutually interacting and interrelated parts in terms of those interactions. This article refers to the study of dynamical systems For other meanings see Catastrophe. Cellular automata (CA), neural networks (NN), artificial intelligence (AI), and artificial life (ALife) are related fields, but they do not try to describe general (universal) complex (singular) systems. Artificial life (commonly Alife or alife) is a field of study and an associated art form which examine Systems related to Life, its processes The best context to compare the different "C"-Theories about complex systems is historical, which emphasizes different tools and methodologies, from pure mathematics in the beginning to pure computer science now. Since the beginning of chaos theory when Edward Lorenz accidentally discovered a strange attractor with his computer, computers have become an indispensable source of information. Edward Norton Lorenz ( May 23, 1917) was an American Mathematician and meteorologist, and a pioneer of Chaos theory. An attractor is a set to which a Dynamical system evolves after a long enough time One could not imagine the study of complex systems without the use of computers today.
Complex adaptive systems are special cases of complex systems. Complex adaptive systems are special cases of Complex systems They are complex in that they are diverse and made up of multiple interconnected elements and adaptive This article describes complex system as a type of system For other meanings see Complex systems. They are complex in that they are diverse and made up of multiple interconnected elements and adaptive in that they have the capacity to change and learn from experience. The term complex adaptive systems was coined at the interdisciplinary Santa Fe Institute (SFI), by John H. Holland, Murray Gell-Mann and others. The Santa Fe Institute (SFI is a non-profit research institute located in Santa Fe New Mexico, United States, dedicated to the study of Complex systems John Henry Holland ( 2 February, 1929) is an American scientist and Professor of Psychology and Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929) is an American Physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work
CAS ideas and models are essentially evolutionary, and they take ground in the modern biological views on adaptation and evolution. Accordingly, the theory of complex adaptive systems bridges developments of the system theory with the ideas of 'generalized Darwinism', which suggests that Darwinian principles of evolution are capable to explain a range of complex material phenomena, from cosmic to social objects. Darwinism is a term used for various different movements or concepts related to a greater or lesser extent to Charles Darwin 's work on Evolution.
Living systems theory is an offshoot of Bertalanffy's general systems theory, created by James Grier Miller, which was intended to formalize the concept of "life". Living systems theory is a General theory about the existence of all living Systems their Structure, Interaction, Behavior and Living systems theory is a General theory about the existence of all living Systems their Structure, Interaction, Behavior and Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy ( September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria – June 12, 1972, New York, USA James Grier Miller ( 1916 - November 7, 2002) was an American biologist who authored Living systems theory and the founding director According to Miller's original conception as spelled out in his magnum opus Living Systems, a "living system" must contain each of 20 "critical subsystems", which are defined by their functions and visible in numerous systems, from simple cells to organisms, countries, and societies. In Living Systems Miller provides a detailed look at a number of systems in order of increasing size, and identifies his subsystems in each.
James Grier Miller (1978) wrote a 1,102-page volume to present his living systems theory. He constructed a general theory of living systems by focusing on concrete systems—nonrandom accumulations of matter-energy in physical space-time organized into interacting, interrelated subsystems or components. Slightly revising the original model a dozen years later, he distinguished eight “nested” hierarchical levels in such complex structures. Each level is “nested” in the sense that each higher level contains the next lower level in a nested fashion.
The systems framework is also fundamental to organizational theory as organizations are complex dynamic goal-oriented processes. An organization (or organisation &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and One of the early thinkers in the field was Alexander Bogdanov, who developed his Tectology, a theory widely considered a precursor of Bertalanffy's GST, aiming to model and design human organizations (see Mattessich 1978, Capra 1996). Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov Александр Александрович Богданов (born Alyaksandr Malinouski, Аляксандар Маліноўскі( Tectology is a term coined by Alexander Bogdanov for a discipline that consisted of unifying all social biological and physical sciences by considering them as systems of relationships Kurt Lewin was particularly influential in developing the systems perspective within organizational theory and coined the term "systems of ideology", from his frustration with behavioral psychologies that became an obstacle to sustainable work in psychology . Kurt Zadek Lewin (1890 - 1947 a German-born psychologist, is one of the modern pioneers of social, organizational, and Applied psychology Jay Forrester with his work in dynamics and management alongside numerous theorists including Edgar Schein that followed in their tradition since the Civil Rights Era have also been influential. Jay Wright Forrester (born 14 July 1918, Climax Nebraska) is a pioneer American Computer engineer, Systems scientist Edgar H Schein (born 1928 a professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management has had a notable mark on the field of Organizational development in many areas The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African
The systems approach to organizations relies heavily upon achieving negative entropy through openness and feedback. In Thermodynamics (a branch of Physics) entropy, symbolized by S, is a measure of the unavailability of a system ’s Energy An open system is a state of a System, in which a system continuously interacts with its environment Feedback is a circular causal Process whereby some proportion of a system's output is returned (fed back to the Input. A systemic view on organizations is transdisciplinary and integrative. In other words, it transcends the perspectives of individual disciplines, integrating them on the basis of a common "code", or more exactly, on the basis of the formal apparatus provided by systems theory. The systems approach gives primacy to the interrelationships, not to the elements of the system. It is from these dynamic interrelationships that new properties of the system emerge. In recent years, systems thinking has been developed to provide techniques for studying systems in holistic ways to supplement traditional reductionistic methods. Systems thinking is a unique approach to problem solving in that it views certain "problems" as parts of an overall system rather than focusing on individual outcomes and contributing Distinguish from the suffix -holism, which describes addictions Reductionism can either mean (a an approach to understanding the nature of complex things by reducing them to the interactions of their parts or to simpler or more fundamental things In this more recent tradition, systems theory in organizational studies is considered by some as a humanistic extension of the natural sciences. Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal In Science, the term natural science refers to a naturalistic approach to the study of the Universe, which is understood as obeying rules or law of
In the 1960s, systems theory was adopted by the post John Von Neumann computing and information technology field, and, in fact formed the basis of structured analysis and structured design (see also Larry Constantine, Tom Demarco and Ed Yourdon). Structured Analysis ( SA) and its allied technique Structured Design (SD are methods for analyzing and converting business Requirements into Larry LeRoy Constantine (b 1943 is an industrial designer and software engineer specializing in the human side of Software development. Edward Nash Yourdon (born 1944 is a computer consultant an author and lecturer and a recognized pioneer in the software engineering methodology of Structured programming. It was also the basis for early software engineering and computer-aided software engineering principles. Software engineering is the application of a systematic disciplined quantifiable approach to the development operation and maintenance of Software. CASE (Computer-aided Software/System Engineering refers to the methods dedicated to an engineering discipline for the development of information systems together with automated tools
By the 1970s, General Systems Theory (GST) was the fundamental underpinning of most commercial software design techniques, and by the 1980, W. Vaughn Frick and Albert F. Case, Jr. had used GST to design the "missing link" transformation from system analysis (defining what's needed in a system) to system design (what's actually implemented) using the Yourdon/Demarco notation. Albert F Case Jr (born March 2 1955 a graduate of the State University of New York at Buffalo was one of the leaders in the development of Computer-Aided Software Engineering These principles were incorporated into computer-aided software engineering tools delivered by Nastec Corporation, Transform Logic, Inc. , KnowledgeWare (see Fran Tarkenton and James Martin), Texas Instruments, Arthur Andersen and ultimately IBM Corporation. Francis Asbury Tarkenton (born February 3, 1940) is a former American football player TV personality and computer software executive James Martin or Jim Martin may refer to Politicians Jim Martin (Georgia politician, candidate for Senate representing Georgia
Systems theory has also been developed within sociology. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" An important figure in the sociological systems perspective as developed from GST is Walter Buckley (who from Bertalanffy's theory). Walter Frederick Buckley ( 1922, - Jan 26 2006) was an American Professor of Sociology. Niklas Luhmann (see Luhmann 1994) is also predominant in the literatures for sociology and systems theory. Niklas Luhmann ( December 8, 1927 - November 6, 1998) was a German Sociologist, administration expert and a prominent Miller's living systems theory was particularly influential in sociology from the time of the early systems movement. Living systems theory is a General theory about the existence of all living Systems their Structure, Interaction, Behavior and Models for equilibrium in systems analysis that contrasted classical views from Talcott Parsons and George Homas were influential in integrating concepts with the general movement. Talcott Parsons ( December 13, 1902 - May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist, who served on the faculty of Harvard University With the renewed interest in systems theory on the rise since the 1990s, Bailey (1994) notes the concept of systems in sociology dates back to Auguste Comte in the 19th century, Herbert Spencer and Vilfredo Pareto, and that sociology was readying into its centennial as the new systems theory was emerging following the World Wars. Auguste Comte (full name Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; 17 January 1798 – 5 September 1857 was a French thinker who is generally credited for having Herbert Spencer ( April 27, 1820 – December 8, 1903) was an English Philosopher; prominent classical liberal Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto (vil'fredo pa'reto July 15, 1848 – August 19, 1923) or Fritz Wilfried Pareto, was an Italian
In sociology, members of Research Committee 51 of the International Sociological Association (which focuses on sociocybernetics), have sought to identify the sociocybernetic feedback loops which, it is argued, primarily control the operation of society. Sociocybernetics is an independent chapter of science in sociology based upon the General Systems Theory and Cybernetics. On the basis of research largely conducted in the area of education, Raven (1995) has, for example, argued that it is these sociocybernetic processes which consistently undermine well intentioned public action and are currently heading our species, at an exponentially increasing rate, toward extinction. See sustainability. Sustainability, in a general sense is the capacity to maintain a certain process or state indefinitely He suggests that an understanding of these systems processes will allow us to generate the kind of (non "common-sense") targeted interventions that are required for things to be otherwise - ie to halt the destruction of the planet.
System Dynamics was founded in the late 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management with the establishment of the MIT System Dynamics Group. System dynamics is an approach to understanding the behaviour of Complex systems over time The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive Jay Wright Forrester (born 14 July 1918, Climax Nebraska) is a pioneer American Computer engineer, Systems scientist At that time, he began applying what he had learned about systems during his work in electrical engineering to everyday kinds of systems. Electrical engineering, sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering, is a field of Engineering that deals with the study and application of Determining the exact date of the founding of the field of system dynamics is difficult and involves a certain degree of arbitrariness. Jay W. Forrester joined the faculty of the Sloan School at MIT in 1956, where he then developed what is now System Dynamics. The first published article by Jay W. Forrester in the Harvard Business Review on "Industrial Dynamics", was published in 1958. The members of System Dynamics Society have chosen 1957 to mark the occasion as it is the year in which the work leading to that article, which described the dynamics of a manufacturing supply chain, was done.
As an aspect of systems theory, system dynamics is a method for understanding the dynamic behavior of complex systems. System dynamics is an approach to understanding the behaviour of Complex systems over time The basis of the method is the recognition that the structure of any system — the many circular, interlocking, sometimes time-delayed relationships among its components — is often just as important in determining its behavior as the individual components themselves. Examples are chaos theory and social dynamics. In Mathematics, chaos theory describes the behavior of certain dynamical systems – that is systems whose state evolves with time – that may exhibit dynamics that Social dynamics is the study of the ability of a Society to react to inner and outer changes and deal with its regulation mechanisms It is also claimed that, because there are often properties-of-the-whole which cannot be found among the properties-of-the-elements, in some cases the behavior of the whole cannot be explained in terms of the behavior of the parts. An example is the properties of these letters which when considered together can give rise to meaning which does not exist in the letters by themselves. This further explains the integration of tools, like language, as a more parsimonious process in the human application of easiest path adaptability through interconnected systems. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them Parsimony is a 'less is better' concept of frugality economy stinginess or caution in arriving at a hypothesis or course of action An adaptation is a characteristic of an Organism that has been favored by Natural selection and
Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means for enabling the realization and deployment of successful systems. Systems engineering is an Interdisciplinary field of Engineering that focuses on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed Systems engineering is an Interdisciplinary field of Engineering that focuses on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed In Academia, Pedagogy, Physical sciences, Earth sciences, Human sciences and Social sciences System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma is a set of interacting or interdependent Entities, real or abstract It can be viewed as the application of engineering techniques to the engineering of systems, as well as the application of a systems approach to engineering efforts.  Systems Engineering integrates other disciplines and specialty groups into a team effort, forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation and disposal. Systems Engineering considers both the business and the technical needs of all customers, with the goal of providing a quality product that meets the user needs. 
Systems psychology is a branch of psychology that studies human behaviour and experience in complex systems. Systems psychology is a branch of Applied psychology that studies Human behaviour and Experience in Complex systems It is inspired by Systems Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and For the Björk song see Human Behaviour Human behavior is the collection of Behaviors exhibited by Human beings and influenced by Experience as a general concept comprises Knowledge of or skill in or Observation of some thing or some event gained through involvement in or This article describes complex system as a type of system For other meanings see Complex systems. It is inspired by systems theory and systems thinking, and based on the theoretical work of Roger Barker, Gregory Bateson, Humberto Maturana and others. Systems thinking is a unique approach to problem solving in that it views certain "problems" as parts of an overall system rather than focusing on individual outcomes and contributing Roger Garlock Barker (1903 Macksburg Iowa - 1990 was a Social scientist, a founder of Environmental psychology and a leading figure in the field for Gregory Bateson ( 9 May 1904 – 4 July 1980) was a British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist Humberto Maturana (born September 14, 1928, in Santiago Chile) is a Chilean Biologist. It is an approach in psychology, in which groups and individuals, are considered as systems in homeostasis. Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma is a set of interacting or interdependent Entities, real or abstract Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος hómos, "equal" and ιστημι istēmi, "to stand" lit Systems psychology includes the domain of engineering psychology, but in addition is more concerned with societal systems and with the study of motivatial, affective, cognitive and group behavior than is engineering psychology. Ergonomics is the Scientific discipline concerned with Designing according to the human needs and the profession that applies theory principles data and methods  In systems psychology characteristics of organizational behaviour for example individual needs, rewards, expectations, and attributes of the people interacting with the systems are considered in the process in order to create an effective system. In the case of Uncertainty, expectation is what is considered the most likely to happen System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma is a set of interacting or interdependent Entities, real or abstract 
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