A supramolecular assembly or "supermolecule" is a well defined complex of molecules held together by noncovalent bonds. A noncovalent bond is a type of Chemical bond, typically between Macromolecules that does not involve the sharing of pairs of electrons but rather involves more dispersed While a supramolecular assembly can be simply composed of two molecules (e. g. , a DNA double helix or an inclusion compound), it is more often used to denote larger complexes of molecules that form sphere-, rod-, or sheet-like species. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known In Geometry a double helix (plural helices) typically consists of two congruent helices with the same axis differing by a translation In Host-guest chemistry an inclusion compound is a complex in which one Chemical compound (the "host" forms a cavity in which molecules of a The dimensions of supramolecular assemblies can range from nanometers to micrometers. Thus they allow access to nanoscale objects using a bottom-up approach in much fewer steps then a single molecule of similar dimensions.
The process by which a supramolecular assembly forms is called molecular self-assembly. Molecular self-assembly is the process by which Molecules adopt a defined arrangement without guidance or management from an outside source Some try to distinguish self-assembly as the process by which individual molecules form the defined aggregate. Self-assembly is a term used to describe processes in which a disordered system of pre-existing components forms an organized structure or pattern as a consequence of specific local Self-organization, then, is the process by which those aggregates create higher-order structures. Self-organization is a process of Attraction and repulsion in which the internal organization of a System, normally an open system, increases This can become useful when talking about liquid crystals and block copolymers. Liquid crystals are substances that exhibit a phase of matter that has properties between those of a conventional Liquid, and those of a Solid A heteropolymer or copolymer is a Polymer derived from two (or more Monomeric species as opposed to a Homopolymer where only one monomer is
Supramolecular assemblies are being investigated as new materials in a variety of contexts. For instance, Samuel Stupp and coworkers at Northwestern University showed that a supramolecular assembly of peptide amphiphiles in the form of nanofibers could be used to promote the growth of neurons. A great advantage to this supramolecular approach is that the nanofibers will degrade back into the individual peptide molecules that can be broken down by the body.
Another example with implications at the biology/materials science interface is of self-assembling dendritic dipeptides, which form hollow cylindrical supramolecular assemblies in solution and in bulk. Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Materials Science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of Science and Molecular self-assembly is the process by which Molecules adopt a defined arrangement without guidance or management from an outside source The cylindrical assemblies possess internal helical order and self-organize into columnar liquid crystalline lattices. Liquid crystals are substances that exhibit a phase of matter that has properties between those of a conventional Liquid, and those of a Solid When inserted into vesicular membranes, the porous cylindrical assemblies mediate transport of protons across the membrane.
Self-assembling dendrons have also been used to generate arrays of nanowires. Molecular self-assembly is the process by which Molecules adopt a defined arrangement without guidance or management from an outside source Electron donor-acceptor complexes comprise the core of the cylindrical supramolecular assemblies, which further self-organize into two-dimensional columnar liquid crystaline lattices. Liquid crystals are substances that exhibit a phase of matter that has properties between those of a conventional Liquid, and those of a Solid Each cylindrical supramolecular assembly functions as an individual wire. High charge carrier mobilities for holes and electrons were obtained.
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