Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 5 oz)
|Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ|
|Percentages are relative to US|
recommendations for adults. Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 Reference Daily Intake (or Recommended Daily Intake ( RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined to be sufficient
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 5 oz)
|Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ|
|Percentages are relative to US|
recommendations for adults. Reference Daily Intake (or Recommended Daily Intake ( RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined to be sufficient
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Sugar (the word stems from the Sanskrit sharkara) consists of a class of edible crystalline substances including sucrose, lactose, and fructose. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical In Materials science, a crystal is a Solid in which the constituent Atoms Molecules or Ions are packed in a regularly ordered repeating Solubility of Pure SucroseTemperature(Cg Lactose (also referred to as milk sugar) is a Sugar which is found most notably in Milk. Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing Sugar ( Monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three Sugar is made from Sugar Beets or Sugar Cane. Sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L a member of the Chenopodiaceae family is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of Sucrose. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the Tongue, Soft palate, upper Esophagus and Epiglottis that provide information about Flavor or flavour is the sensory impression of a Food or other substance, and is determined Sweet is one of the five Basic tastes and is almost universally regarded as a pleasurable experience Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet, but also appears in fruit, honey, sorghum, sugar maple (in maple syrup), and in many other sources. Food is any substance usually composed primarily of Carbohydrates Fats water and/or Proteins that can be eaten or drunk by an Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L a member of the Chenopodiaceae family is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of Sucrose. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as Fodder plants either cultivated or as part Acer saccharum ( Sugar Maple) is a species of Maple native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America, from Nova Scotia Maple syrup is a sweetener made from the sap of Maple trees In Canada and the United States it is most often eaten with waffles and pancakes It forms the main ingredient in much candy. Candy, specifically sugar candy, is a confection made from a concentrated solution of sugar in water to which a variety of flavorings and colorants is added "Excessive" consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes, of obesity and of tooth decay. Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc Obesity is a condition in which excess Body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affected Dental caries is a disease that damages Tooth structures resulting in what is commonly called tooth decay or cavities which are holes in the teeth
In non-scientific use, the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. Solubility of Pure SucroseTemperature(Cg In Materials science, a crystal is a Solid in which the constituent Atoms Molecules or Ions are packed in a regularly ordered repeating A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume. A disaccharide is a Sugar (a Carbohydrate) composed of two Monosaccharides 'Disaccharide' is one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates ( In this informal sense, the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars.
Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel, preservation, and texture) of beverages and food. Flavor or flavour is the sensory impression of a Food or other substance, and is determined Mouthfeel is a product’s physical and Chemical interaction in the mouth A drink, or beverage, is a Liquid specifically prepared for Human consumption Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L a member of the Chenopodiaceae family is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of Sucrose. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars, including palm sugar and fructose, generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. Palm sugar was originally made from the Sugary sap of the Palmyra palm or the Date palm. Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing Sugar ( Monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica
Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. In Cooking, a syrup (from Arabic' ar شراب sharab, beverage via Latin siropus) is a thick Viscous Liquid A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. Generically known as "syrups", they may also have other more specific names such as "honey" or "molasses". Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the Molasses or Treacle is a thick Syrup by-product from the processing of the Sugarcane or Sugar beet into Sugar.
Scientifically, sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single sacchar: sugar are the most basic unit of Carbohydrates They consist of one sugar and A disaccharide is a Sugar (a Carbohydrate) composed of two Monosaccharides 'Disaccharide' is one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates ( Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"), such as glucose, store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. Potential energy can be thought of as Energy stored within a physical system Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living Organisms It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living and is often called
In a list of ingredients, any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose", "dextrose", "fructose", etc. ) will likely denote a sugar. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life.
Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. Blood plasma is the Liquid component of Blood, in which the Blood cells are suspended A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes
In culinary terms, the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Taste (or more formally gustation) is a form of direct Chemoreception and is one of the traditional five Senses Sweet is one of the five Basic tastes and is almost universally regarded as a pleasurable experience Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs, alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist, and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. A sweetener is a Food additive which adds the Basic taste of Sweetness to a food artificial sweeteners are Sugar substitutes Blood sugar, used in a physiological context is a misnomer and misleading Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc This article is about the unit of energy For its use in Nutrition and Food labelling regulations, see the article on Food energy. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb), and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most Stevia is a Genus of about 240 Species of herbs and Shrubs in the sunflower family ( Asteraceae) native to Subtropical A(n herb (ˈhɝb or /ˈɝb/ see pronunciation differences) is a plant that is valued for qualities such as medicinal properties flavor scent or the like Saccharin is an Artificial sweetener. The basic substance Benzoic sulfinide, has effectively no Food energy and is about 300 times as sweet as In general terms eating (formally ingestion) is the process of consuming Food to provide for the Nutritional needs of an Animal, particularly A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of Chemical substances The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called
Originally, people chewed the cane raw to extract its sweetness. See also Sugar The history of sugar reflects industrial growth Indians discovered how to crystallize sugar during the Gupta dynasty, around 350 AD. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Gupta Empire ( Hindi: गुप्त राजवंश was ruled by members of the Gupta dynasty from around 320 to 550 C  John F. Robyt (1998) locates the two most probable origins of sugar cultivation as North East India or the South Pacific, which provide evidence of sugarcane cultivation as early as 10,000 BC and 6,000 BC respectively. North-East India refers to the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States and Sikkim.  Further archaeological evidence associates sugar with the Indus valley. The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin 
During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, Arab entrepreneurs adopted the techniques of sugar production from India and then refined and transformed them into a large-scale industry. The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in Agriculture known as the Arab Agricultural The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding This article is about the history of South Asia prior to the Partition of British India in 1947 For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Arabs set up the first large scalesugar mills, refineries, factories and plantations. A Sugar Refinery or sugar Mill is a Factory which refines sugar from various organic sources like sugar cane or beets into a Fundamentally a plantation is usually a large Farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country on which Cotton, Tobacco
The 1390s saw the development of a better press, which doubled the juice obtained from the cane. This permitted economic expansion of sugar plantations to Andalucia and to the Algarve. Andalusia (Andalucía is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the most populous and the second largest in terms of land area The Algarve ( pron aɫ'gaɾv(ɨ is the southernmost region of mainland Portugal. The 1420s saw sugar production extended to the Canary Islands, Madeira and the Azores. The Canary Islands ( English pronunciation kəˈnæriː ˈaɪləndz Spanish: Islas Canarias, ˈizlas kaˈnarjas are a Spanish History See also History of Madeira Pre-Portuguese times Pliny mentions certain Purple Islands the position of which with reference to the The Azores ( Açores ɐˈsoɾɨʃ or) is a Portuguese Archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, about 1500 km (950  mi) from
The Portuguese took sugar to Brazil. The history of Brazil begins with the arrival of the first indigenous peoples, over 8000 years ago by crossing the Bering land bridge into Alaska and then Hans Staden, published in 1555, writes that by 1540 Santa Catarina Island had 800 sugar mills and that the north coast of Brazil, Demarara and Surinam had another 2000. Hans Staden (c 1525 in Homberg (Efze — c 1579 Wolfhagen or Korbach) was a German soldier and mariner who made two voyages to Santa Catarina Island (Portuguese Ilha de Santa Catarina) is an island in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Demerara (also spelled as 'demerera' is used as the generic name of a type of specialty raw cane Sugar often used in home baking and in sweetening coffee and tea Suriname ( Dutch: Suriname; Sranan Tongo: Sranan) officially the Republic of Suriname (traditionally spelled Surinam by Approximately 3000 small mills built before 1550 in the New World created an unprecedented demand for cast iron gears, levers, axles and other implements. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic. This is the page for mechanical Gears For other uses see Gear (disambiguation For the gear-like device used to drive a roller chain see Sprocket Specialist trades in mold-making and iron-casting developed in Europe due to the expansion of sugar production. Sugar mill construction developed technological skills needed for a nascent industrial revolution in the early 17th century. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the
After 1625 the Dutch carried sugarcane from South America to the Caribbean islands — where it became grown from Barbados to the Virgin Islands. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation See also Culture of the Virgin Islands Music of the Virgin Islands Virgin Islands Creole The years 1625 to 1750 saw sugar become worth its weight in gold. With the European colonization of the Americas, the Caribbean became the world's largest source of sugar. The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492 although there was at least one earlier colonization effort The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers since the Fifteenth century. These islands could supply sugarcane using slave labor and produce sugar at prices vastly lower than those of cane sugar imported from the East. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another
During the eighteenth century, sugar became enormously popular and the sugar market went through a series of booms. In Economics, the term boom and bust refers to the movement of an economy through Economic cycles. As Europeans established sugar plantations on the larger Caribbean islands, prices fell, especially in Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located By the eighteenth century all levels of society had become common consumers of the former luxury product. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system At first most sugar in Britain went into tea, but later confectionery and chocolates became extremely popular. Candy, specifically sugar candy, is a confection made from a concentrated solution of sugar in water to which a variety of flavorings and colorants is added Chocolate ( pronounced or /-ˈələt/ comprises a number of raw and processed foods that are produced from the seed of the tropical Cacao tree Suppliers commonly sold sugar in solid cones and consumers required a sugar nip, a pliers-like tool, to break off pieces.
Beginning in the late 18th century, the production of sugar became increasingly mechanized. The steam engine first powered a sugar mill in Jamaica in 1768, and soon after, steam replaced direct firing as the source of process heat. A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Today, a large beet refinery producing around 1,500 tonnes of sugar a day needs a permanent workforce of about 150 for 24-hour production.
In the case of sugar, the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar, itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical  It came to English by way of French, Spanish and/or Italian, which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar, the Spanish word azúcar, the Italian word zucchero, the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. (Compare the OED. The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English ) The Greek word for "sugar", zahari, means "pebble". Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical
Originally a luxury, sugar eventually became sufficiently cheap and common to influence standard cuisine. Britain and the Caribbean islands have cuisines where the use of sugar became particularly prominent. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting
Sugar forms a major element in confectionery and in desserts. Confectionery is a set of Food items that are rich in Sugar; modern usage may include substances rich in artificial sweeteners as well Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal usually consisting of sweet Food but sometimes of a strongly-flavored one such as some Cheeses The Cooks use it as a food preservative as well as for sweetening. A cook is a person that prepares Food for consumption A cook is sometimes referred to as a Chef, although within the professional kitchen the terms are not exchangeable A preservative is a natural or synthetic chemical that is added to products such as foods pharmaceuticals paints biological samples wood etc
Some commentators have suggested links between sugar consumption and health hazards, including obesity and tooth decay.
Tooth decay has arguably become the most prominent health hazard associated with the consumption of sugar. Dental caries is a disease that damages Tooth structures resulting in what is commonly called tooth decay or cavities which are holes in the teeth Oral bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans live in dental plaque and metabolize sugars into lactic acid. Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic Bacteria commonly found in the Human Oral cavity and is Lactic acid ( IUPAC Systematic name: 2-hydroxypropanoic acid) also known as milk acid, is a Chemical compound that plays a role High concentrations of acid may result on the surface of a tooth, leading to tooth demineralization. 
The American Dental Association sees tooth decay as caused "mostly" by starchy foods like breadsticks, cereals and potato chips that linger on teeth and prolong acid production, not by simple sugars that dissolve rapidly in the mouth. The American Dental Association (ADA is an American Professional association established in 1859 and has more than 152000 members A potato chip or crisp is a thin slice of Potato, deep fried or baked until Crisp.
Diabetes, a disease that causes the body to metabolize sugar poorly, occurs when either:
When glucose builds up in the bloodstream, it can cause two problems:
Authorities advise diabetics to avoid sugar-rich foods to prevent adverse reactions. Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc Insulin is a Hormone with intensive effects on both metabolism and several other body systems (eg vascular compliance 
In the United States of America, a scientific/health debate has started over the causes of a steep rise in obesity in the general population — and one view posits increased consumption of carbohydrates in recent decades as a major factor. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
Obesity can result from a number of factors including:
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I and Continuous indicates that the population in the United States has increased its proportion of energy consumption from carbohydrates and decreased its proportion from total fat while obesity has increased. This implies, along with the United Nations report cited below, that obesity may correlate better with sugar consumption than with fat consumption, and that reducing fat consumption while increasing sugar consumption actually increases the level of obesity. The following table summarizes this study (based on the proportion of energy intake from different food sources for US Adults 20-74 years old, as carried out by the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD):
|1971||Male||42. 4%||36. 9%||16. 5%||12. 1%|
|1971||Female||45. 4%||36. 1%||16. 9%||16. 6%|
|2000||Male||49. 0%||32. 8%||15. 5%||27. 7%|
|2000||Female||51. 6%||32. 8%||15. 1%||34. 0%|
Another study published in 2002 and conducted by the National Academy of Sciences over a 3-year period concluded: “There is no clear and consistent association between increased intakes of added sugars and BMI. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS is a corporation in the United States whose members serve Pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science ” (BMI or "Body mass index" measures body-weight and height. The body mass index ( BMI) or Quetelet index, is a statistical measurement which compares a person's weight and height )
Researchers have implicated sugary drinks high in fructose in a surge in cases of the painful joint disease gout. Gout (also called metabolic arthritis) is a disease created by a buildup of Uric acid. 
In 2003, four United Nations agencies, (including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)) commissioned a report compiled by a panel of 30 international experts. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The panel stated that the total of free sugars (all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by manufacturers, cooks or consumers, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups and fruit juices) should not account for more than 10% of the energy intake of a healthy diet, while carbohydrates in total should represent between 55% and 75% of the energy intake. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most 
Argument continues as to the value of extrinsic sugar (sugar added to food) compared to that of intrinsic sugar (naturally present in food). Adding sugar to food particularly enhances taste, but does increase the total number of calories, among other negative effects on health and physiology. This article is about the unit of energy For its use in Nutrition and Food labelling regulations, see the article on Food energy.
In the United States of America, sugar has become increasingly evident in food products, as more food manufacturers add sugar or high fructose corn syrup to a wide variety of consumables. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS is any of a group of Corn syrups that has undergone Enzymatic processing to increase its Fructose content and is then mixed Candy bars, soft drinks, chips, snacks, fruit juice, peanut butter, soups, ice cream, jams, jellies, yogurt, and many breads have added sugars. Soft drink is a beverage that does not contain Alcohol. Carbonated soft drinks are commonly known as soda soda pop pop, or A snack food (commonly called a snack) is seen in Western culture as a type of food not meant to be eaten as a main Meal of the day – Breakfast JUICE is a widely used non-commercial Software package for editing and analysing phytosociological data Peanut butter is a food paste made primarily from ground roasted Peanuts with or without added oil Soup is a Food that is made by combining ingredients such as Meat and Vegetables in stock or hot/boiling Water, until the flavor Ice cream or ice-cream (originally iced cream) is a frozen dessert made from Dairy products such as Milk and Cream, combined Yoghurt, yogurt, yoghourt, youghurt or yogourt (see spelling below is a Five Alive, for example, portrayed by its suppliers as "all natural" and featuring pictures of five different types of fruit on its label, comprises only 41% fruit juice, having high fructose corn syrup as its primary ingredient. This article is about the fruit drink For the Carbon Leaf album see 5 Alive!.
The sugar refining industry often uses bone char (calcinated animal bones) for decolorizing. Bone char, also known as bone black or animal Charcoal, is a granular Material produced by charring animal Bones the bones are heated Calcination (also referred to as calcining) is a thermal treatment process applied to ores and other solid materials in order to bring about a Thermal decomposition  This may concern some vegans and vegetarians; about a quarter of the sugar in the U. S. gets processed using bone char as a filter and the rest gets processed with activated carbon. Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a form of Carbon that has been processed to make it extremely porous and thus to As bone char does not get into the sugar, the relevant authorities consider sugar processed this way as parve/kosher. See also Kashrut Kosher foods are those that conform to the regulations of Jewish religion 
Vegetarians and vegans may also object to the impact that the burning of the cane fields (a common part of the harvesting practice) has on insects, rats, snakes, and other life residing in the fields. Life is a state that distinguishes Organisms from non-living objects such as non-life and dead organisms being manifested by growth through Metabolism 
Table sugar (sucrose) comes from plant sources. Two important sugar crops predominate: sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae ) and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris), in which sugar can account for 12% to 20% of the plant's dry weight. Sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L a member of the Chenopodiaceae family is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of Sucrose. Some minor commercial sugar crops include the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), and the sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The Date Palm ( Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible Fruit. Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as Fodder plants either cultivated or as part Acer saccharum ( Sugar Maple) is a species of Maple native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America, from Nova Scotia In the financial year 2001/2002, worldwide production of sugar amounted to 134. A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is a period used for calculating annual ("yearly" Financial statements in Businesses 1 million tonnes. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton.
The first production of sugar from sugarcane took place in India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Alexander the Great's companions reported seeing "honey produced without the intervention of bees" and it remained exotic in Europe until the Arabs started cultivating it in Sicily and Spain. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Only after the Crusades did it begin to rival honey as a sweetener in Europe. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The Spanish began cultivating sugarcane in the West Indies in 1506 (and in Cuba in 1523). The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la The Portuguese first cultivated sugarcane in Brazil in 1532. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld
Most cane sugar comes from countries with warm climates, such as Brazil, India, China, Thailand, Mexico and Australia, the top sugar-producing countries in the world. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.  Brazil overshadows most countries, with roughly 30 million tonnes of cane sugar produced in 2006, while India produced 21 million, China 11 million, and Thailand and Mexico roughly 5 million each. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. Viewed by region, Asia predominates in cane sugar production, with large contributions from China, India and Thailand and other countries combining to account for 40% of global production in 2006. South America comes in second place with 32% of global production; Africa and Central America each produce 8% and Australia 5%. The United States, the Caribbean and Europe make up the remainder, with roughly 3% each. 
Beet sugar comes from regions with cooler climates: northwest and eastern Europe, northern Japan, plus some areas in the United States (including California). In the northern hemisphere, the beet-growing season ends with the start of harvesting around September. Harvesting and processing continues until March in some cases. The availability of processing plant capacity, and the weather both influence the duration of harvesting and processing - the industry can lay up harvested beet until processed, but frost-damaged beet becomes effectively unprocessable.
The European Union (EU) has become the world's second-largest sugar exporter. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The Common Agricultural Policy of the EU sets maximum quotas for members' production to match supply and demand, and a price. The Common Agricultural Policy ( CAP) is a system of European Union Agricultural subsidies and programmes Europe exports excess production quota (approximately 5 million tonnes in 2003). Part of this, "quota" sugar, gets subsidised from industry levies, the remainder (approximately half) sells as "C quota" sugar at market prices without subsidy. These subsidies and a high import tariff make it difficult for other countries to export to the EU states, or to compete with the Europeans on world markets. In Economics, a subsidy (also known as a subvention is a form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector For other uses of this word see Tariff (disambiguation. A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary
The United States sets high sugar prices to support its producers, with the effect that many former consumers of sugar have switched to corn syrup (beverage manufacturers) or moved out of the country (candymakers). Corn syrup is a Syrup, made using Cornstarch as a feedstock and composed mainly of Glucose.
The cheap prices of glucose syrups produced from wheat and corn (maize) threaten the traditional sugar market. Corn syrup is a Syrup, made using Cornstarch as a feedstock and composed mainly of Glucose. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Used in combination with artificial sweeteners, they can allow drink manufacturers to produce very low-cost goods.
Since the 6th century BC cane sugar producers have crushed the harvested vegetable material from sugarcane in order to collect and filter the juice. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae They then treat the liquid (often with lime (calcium oxide)) to remove impurities and then neutralize it. Calcium oxide ( CaO) commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used Chemical compound. Boiling the juice then allows the sediment to settle to the bottom for dredging out, while the scum rises to the surface for skimming off. In cooling, the liquid crystallizes, usually in the process of stirring, to produce sugar crystals. Centrifuges usually remove the uncrystallized syrup. A centrifuge is a piece of equipment generally driven by a motor that puts an object in Rotation around a fixed axis, applying a force perpendicular to the axis The producers can then either sell the resultant sugar, as is, for use; or process it further to produce lighter grades. This processing may take place in another factory in another country. Sugar cane appears fourth in the list for agriculture in China.
Beet sugar producers slice the washed beets, then extract the sugar with hot water in a "diffuser". Sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L a member of the Chenopodiaceae family is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of Sucrose. An alkaline solution ("milk of lime" and carbon dioxide from the lime kiln) then serves to precipitate impurities (see carbonatation). Lime water is the common name for saturated Calcium hydroxide Solution. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Precipitation is the formation of a Solid in a Solution during a Chemical reaction. Carbonatation is a chemical reaction where Calcium hydroxide reacts with Carbon dioxide and forms insoluble Calcium carbonate: Ca(OH2 After filtration, evaporation concentrates the juice to a content of about 70% solids, and controlled crystallisation extracts the sugar. A centrifuge removes the sugar crystals from the liquid, which gets recycled in the crystalliser stages. When economic constraints prevent the removal of more sugar, the manufacturer discards the remaining liquid, now known as molasses. Molasses or Treacle is a thick Syrup by-product from the processing of the Sugarcane or Sugar beet into Sugar.
Sieving the resultant white sugar produces different grades for selling.
Little perceptible difference exists between sugar produced from beet and that from cane. Chemical tests can distinguish the two, and some tests aim to detect fraudulent abuse of European Union subsidies or to aid in the detection of adulterated fruit juice. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in JUICE is a widely used non-commercial Software package for editing and analysing phytosociological data
The production of sugarcane needs approximately four times as much water as the production of sugar beet, therefore some countries that traditionally produced cane sugar (such as Egypt) have seen the building of new beet sugar factories recently. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common On the other hand, sugar cane tolerates hot climates better. Some sugar factories process both sugar cane and sugar beets and extend their processing period in that way.
The production of sugar results in residues which differ substantially depending on the raw materials used and on the place of production. While cooks often use cane molasses in food preparation, humans find molasses from sugar beet unpalatable, and it therefore ends up mostly as industrial fermentation feedstock (for example in alcohol distilleries), or as animal feed. Molasses or Treacle is a thick Syrup by-product from the processing of the Sugarcane or Sugar beet into Sugar. Fermentation in Food processing typically refers to the conversion of Sugar to Alcohol using Yeast under Anaerobic conditions In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon Once dried, either type of molasses can serve as fuel for burning.
So-called raw sugars comprise yellow to brown sugars made by clarifying the source syrup by boiling and drying with heat, until it becomes a crystalline solid, with minimal chemical processing. Raw beet sugars result from the processing of sugar beet juice, but only as intermediates en route to white sugar. Types of raw sugar include demerara, muscovado, and turbinado. Demerara (also spelled as 'demerera' is used as the generic name of a type of specialty raw cane Sugar often used in home baking and in sweetening coffee and tea Muscovado is a type of unrefined Brown sugar with a strong Molasses flavour Turbinado sugar, also known as turbinated sugar is made from Sugar cane extract Mauritius and Malawi export significant quantities of such specialty sugars. Mauritius (pronounced məˈrɪʃəs L’île Maurice /il mɔ'ʁis/ Mauritian Creole: Maurice) officially the Republic of Mauritius, République The Republic of Malawi (məˈlɑːwi or; formerly Nyasaland) is in southern Africa. Manufacturers sometimes prepare raw sugar as loaves rather than as a crystalline powder, by pouring sugar and molasses together into molds and allowing the mixture to dry. This results in sugar-cakes or loaves, called jaggery or gur in India, pingbian tang in China, and panela, panocha, pile, piloncillo and pão-de-açúcar in various parts of Latin America. Jaggery (also Transliterated as jaggeree) is a traditional unrefined Sugar used throughout South and South East Asia In South America, truly raw sugar, unheated and made from sugarcane grown on farms, does not have a large market-share.
Mill white sugar, also called plantation white, crystal sugar, or superior sugar, consists of raw sugar where the production process does not remove colored impurities, but rather bleaches them white by exposure to sulfur dioxide. Though the most common form of sugar in sugarcane-growing areas, this product does not store or ship well; after a few weeks, its impurities tend to promote discoloration and clumping.
Blanco directo, a white sugar common in India and other south Asian countries, comes from precipitating many impurities out of the cane juice by using phosphatation — a treatment with phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide similar to the carbonatation technique used in beet sugar refining. Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V acid, is a mineral (inorganic acid having the Chemical formula Calcium hydroxide, traditionally called slaked lime, hydrated lime, or pickling lime, is a Chemical compound with the chemical formula In terms of sucrose purity, blanco directo is more pure than mill white, but less pure than white refined sugar.
White refined sugar has become the most common form of sugar in North America as well as in Europe. Refined sugar can be made by dissolving raw sugar and purifying it with a phosphoric acid method similar to that used for blanco directo, a carbonatation process involving calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide, or by various filtration strategies. Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V acid, is a mineral (inorganic acid having the Chemical formula Carbonatation is a chemical reaction where Calcium hydroxide reacts with Carbon dioxide and forms insoluble Calcium carbonate: Ca(OH2 It is then further purified by filtration through a bed of activated carbon or bone char depending on where the processing takes place. Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a form of Carbon that has been processed to make it extremely porous and thus to Bone char, also known as bone black or animal Charcoal, is a granular Material produced by charring animal Bones the bones are heated Beet sugar refineries produce refined white sugar directly without an intermediate raw stage. White refined sugar is typically sold as granulated sugar, which has been dried to prevent clumping.
Granulated sugar comes in various crystal sizes — for home and industrial use — depending on the application:
Retailers also sell sugar cubes or lumps for convenient consumption of a standardised amount. Suppliers of sugarcubes make them by mixing sugar crystals with sugar syrup. Jakub Kryštof Rad invented sugarcubes in 1841.
Brown sugars come from the late stages of sugar refining, when sugar forms fine crystals with significant molasses content, or from coating white refined sugar with a cane molasses syrup. Brown sugar is a Sucrose Sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of Molasses. In Cooking, a syrup (from Arabic' ar شراب sharab, beverage via Latin siropus) is a thick Viscous Liquid Their color and taste become stronger with increasing molasses content, as do their moisture-retaining properties. Brown sugars also tend to harden if exposed to the atmosphere, although proper handling can reverse this.
The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups and fruit juices. This includes all the sugars referred to above. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all.
Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. Natural sugars come in fruit, grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form.
Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living Organisms It deals with the Structure and function of cellular components such as Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most Sugars include monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides - containing 1, 2, 3, and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single sacchar: sugar are the most basic unit of Carbohydrates They consist of one sugar and A disaccharide is a Sugar (a Carbohydrate) composed of two Monosaccharides 'Disaccharide' is one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates ( Trisaccharides are Oligosaccharides composed of three Monosaccharides Examples include Raffinose Melezitose An oligosaccharide is a Saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten of component sugars also known as Simple sugars. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (-CHO) or ketone groups (C=O), where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds, making the sugars reactive. An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a terminal Carbonyl group. A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the Functional group characterized by a Carbonyl group (O=C linked to two other Carbon atoms or In Organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a Functional group composed of a Carbon Atom double-bonded to an Oxygen Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. A notable exception, deoxyribose, as its name suggests, has a "missing" oxygen atom. Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an Aldopentose &mdash a Monosaccharide containing five Carbon All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of water (H2O) per bond.
As well as using classifications based on their reactive group, chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. See also Gluconeogenesis, which carries out a process wherein glucose is synthesized rather than catabolized Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose, which form part of nucleic acids. Ribose (ɹˈaɪbəʊs ɹˈaɪbəɹʊs primarily seen as D-ribose, is an Aldopentose — a Monosaccharide containing five Carbon Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an Aldopentose &mdash a Monosaccharide containing five Carbon A nucleic acid is a Macromolecule composed of chains of monomeric Nucleotides In Biochemistry these Molecules carry Genetic information Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process, including NADH and ATP. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, abbreviated NAD+, is a Coenzyme found in all living cells The compound is a dinucleotide since it consists Adenosine-5'-triphosphate ( ATP) is a multifunctional Nucleotide that is most important as a " molecular currency" of intracellular Energy Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose, a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose, which has the formula C6H12O6, and then convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch, or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). Photosynthesis is a Metabolic pathway that converts Light Energy into Chemical energy. Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide Solubility of Pure SucroseTemperature(Cg Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11.
Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. In these closed-chain forms, the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree, so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium, with less than 0. In a Chemical process, chemical equilibrium is the state in which the chemical activities or Concentrations of the reactants and products have no net change 1% of the molecules in the open-chain form.
Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides, creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). In Chemistry, a glycosidic bond is a certain type of Functional group that joins a Carbohydrate (sugar molecule to another which may be another carbohydrate Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Hydrolysis is a Chemical reaction during which one or more water molecules are split into hydrogen and hydroxide ions which may go on to participate in further reactions Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. After digestion and absorption. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose, fructose, and galactose.
The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. Note for example glycoproteins, proteins connected to one or more sugars. Not to be confused with Peptidoglycan. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain Oligosaccharide chains ( Glycans) covalently attached
Monosaccharides include fructose, glucose, galactose and mannose. Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing Sugar ( Monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. Galactose (Gal (also called brain sugar) is a type of Sugar which is less sweet than Glucose. Mannose is a Sugar Monomer of the Hexose series of Carbohydrates Metabolism Mannose enters the carbohydrate Metabolism Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar - made from one glucose and one fructose), lactose (milk sugar - made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). Lactose (also referred to as milk sugar) is a Sugar which is found most notably in Milk. Maltose, or malt sugar is a Disaccharide formed from two units of Glucose joined with an α(1→4 linkage These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11.
Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose, producing invert sugar. Hydrolysis is a Chemical reaction during which one or more water molecules are split into hydrogen and hydroxide ions which may go on to participate in further reactions Inverted sugar syrup is a Sucrose -based Syrup produced with the Glycoside hydrolase Enzyme Invertase or an Acid, which This resulting syrup, sweeter than the original sucrose, has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product.
If combined with fine ash, sugar will burn with a blue flame.
Scientists and the sugar industry use degrees Brix (symbol °Bx), introduced by Antoine Brix, as units of measurement of the mass ratio of dissolved substance to water in a liquid. Degrees Brix (symbol °Bx is a measurement of the dissolved Sugar -to-water mass ratio of a liquid A 25 °Bx sucrose solution has 25 grams of sucrose per 100 grams of liquid; or, to put it another way, 25 grams of sucrose sugar and 75 grams of water exist in the 100 grams of solution.
An infrared Brix sensor measures the vibrational frequency of the sugar molecules, giving a Brix degrees measurement. This does not equate to Brix degrees from a density or refractive index measurement because it will specifically measure dissolved sugar concentration instead of all dissolved solids. When using a refractometer, one should report the result as "refractometric dried substance" (RDS). One might speak of a liquid as having 20 °Bx RDS. This refers to a measure of percent by weight of total dried solids and, although not technically the same as Brix degrees determined through an infrared method, renders an accurate measurement of sucrose content, since sucrose in fact forms the majority of dried solids. The advent of in-line infrared Brix measurement sensors has made measuring the amount of dissolved sugar in products economical using a direct measurement.
Technicians usually measure the purity (sucrose content) of sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of plane-polarized light by a solution of sugar. Polarimetry is the measurement and interpretation of the Polarization of Transverse waves, most notably electromagnetic waves such as radio waves and Light
Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture.
The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions:
* Granular sugar 1 cup = 200g = 7. 06 oz* Powdered sugar 1 cup = 120g = 4. 23 oz* Brown sugar 1 cup = 195g = 6. 88 oz
Historically one of the most widely-traded commodities in the world, sugar accounts for around 2% of the global dry cargo market. International sugar prices show great volatility, ranging from around 3 to over 60 cents per pound in the past 50 years. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Of the world's 180-odd countries, around 100 produce sugar from beet or cane, a few more refine raw sugar to produce white sugar, and all countries consume sugar. Consumption of sugar ranges from around 3 kilograms per person per annum in Ethiopia to around 40 kg/person/yr in Belgium. Consumption per capita rises with income per capita until it reaches a plateau of around 35kg per person per year in middle income countries.
Many countries subsidize sugar production heavily. The European Union, the United States, Japan and many developing countries subsidize domestic production and maintain high tariffs on imports. Sugar prices in these countries have often exceeded prices on the international market by up to three times; today, with world market sugar futures prices currently strong, such prices typically exceed world prices by two times. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
Within international trade bodies, especially in the World Trade Organization, the "G20" countries led by Brazil have long argued that because these sugar markets essentially exclude cane sugar imports, the G20 sugar producers receive lower prices than they would under free trade. The G20 ( Group of 20, also variously G21, G22 and G20+) is a bloc of developing nations established on 20 August Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions While both the European Union and United States maintain trade agreements whereby certain developing and less developed country (LDCs) can sell certain quantities of sugar into their markets, free of the usual import tariffs, countries outside these preferred trade régimes have complained that these arrangements violate the "most favoured nation" principle of international trade. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties Most favoured nation (MFN also called Normal Trade Relations in the United States, is a status awarded by one Nation to another in International This has led to numerous tariffs and levies in the past. 
In 2004, the WTO sided with a group of cane sugar exporting nations (led by Brazil and Australia) and ruled the EU sugar-régime and the accompanying ACP-EU Sugar Protocol (whereby a group of African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries receive preferential access to the European sugar market) illegal.  In response to this and to other rulings of the WTO, and owing to internal pressures on the EU sugar-régime, the European Commission proposed on 22 June 2005 a radical reform of the EU sugar-régime, cutting prices by 39% and eliminating all EU sugar exports. Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom.  The African, Caribbean, Pacific and least developed country sugar exporters reacted with dismay to the EU sugar proposals,. Least Developed Countries ( LDCs or Fourth World countries are Countries which according to the United Nations exhibit the lowest On 25 November 2005 the Council of the EU agreed to cut EU sugar prices by 36% as from 2009. Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the In 2007 it seemed that the U. S. Sugar Program could become the next target for reform. However, some commentators expected heavy lobbying from the U. S. sugar industry, which donated $2. 7 million to US House and US Senate incumbents in the 2006 US election, more than any other group of US food-growers.  Especially prominent lobbyists include The Fanjul Brothers, so-called "sugar barons" who made the single largest individual contributions of soft money to both the Democratic and Republican parties in the political system of the United States of America. The Fanjul brothers -- Alfonso "Alfy" José "Pepe" Alexander and Andres -- are owners of Flo-Sun Inc Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Campaign finance in the United States is the financing of electoral campaigns at the federal, state, and local levels. 
Small quantities of sugar, especially specialty grades of sugar, reach the market as 'fair trade' commodities; the fair trade system produces and sells these products with the understanding that a larger-than-usual fraction of the revenue will support small farmers in the developing world. Fair trade is an organized Social movement and market-based approach to empowering developing country producers and promoting sustainability Fair trade is an organized Social movement and market-based approach to empowering developing country producers and promoting sustainability However, whilst the Fairtrade Foundation offers a premium of USD 60. 00 per tonne to small farmers for sugar branded as "Fairtrade", government schemes such the U. S. Sugar Program and the ACP Sugar Protocol offer premiums of around USD 400. 00 per tonne above world market prices. However, the EU announced on 14 September 2007 that it had offered "to eliminate all duties and quotas on the import of sugar into the EU". Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. 
The Sugar Association has launched a campaign to promote sugar over artificial substitutes. The Association now aggressively challenges many common beliefs regarding negative side effects of sugar consumption. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The campaign aired a high-profile television commercial during the 2007 Prime Time Emmy Awards on FOX Television. The Sugar Association uses the trademark tagline "Sugar: sweet by nature. "