Subjective logic is a type of probabilistic logic that explicitly takes uncertainty and belief ownership into account. The aim of a probabilistic logic (or probability logic) is to combine the capacity of Probability theory to handle uncertainty with the capacity of Deductive In general, subjective logic is suitable for modeling and analysing situations involving uncertainty and incomplete knowledge. For example, it can be used for modeling trust networks and for analysing Bayesian networks. In Psychology and Sociology, a trust metric is a measure of how a member of a group is trusted by the other members A Bayesian network (or a belief network) is a Probabilistic graphical model that represents a set of Variables and their probabilistic independencies
Arguments in subjective logic are subjective opinions about propositions. A binomial opinion applies to a single proposition, and can be represented as a Beta distribution. In Probability theory and Statistics, the beta distribution is a family of continuous Probability distributions defined on the interval 1 parameterized A multinomial opinion applies to a collection of propositions, and can be represented as a Dirichlet distribution. In Probability and Statistics, the Dirichlet distribution (after Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet) often denoted Dir( &alpha) is Through the correspondence between opinions and Beta/Dirichlet distributions, subjective logic provides an algebra for these functions. Opinions are also related to the belief functions of Dempster-Shafer belief theory. The Dempster-Shafer theory is a mathematical theory of Evidence based on belief functions and plausible reasoning, which is used to combine separate pieces
A fundamental aspect of the human condition is that nobody can ever determine with absolute certainty whether a proposition about the world is true or false. In addition, whenever the truth of a proposition is expressed, it is always done by an individual, and it can never be considered to represent a general and objective belief. These philosophical ideas are directly reflected in the mathematical formalism of subjective logic.
Subjective opinions express subjective beliefs about the truth of propositions with degrees of uncertainty, and can indicate subjective belief ownership whenever required. An opinion is usually denoted as where is the subject, also called the belief owner, and is the proposition to which the opinion applies. An alternative notation is . The proposition is assumed to belong to a frame of discernment (also called state space) e. g. denoted as , but the frame is usually not included in the opinion notation. The propositions of a frame are normally assumed to be exhaustive and mutually disjoint, and subjects are assumed to have a common semantic interpretation of propositions. The subject, the proposition and its frame are attributes of an opinion. Indication of subjective belief ownership is normally omitted whenever irrelevant.
Let be a proposition. A binomial opinion about the truth of a is the ordered quadruple where:
|: belief||is the belief that the specified proposition is true.|
|: disbelief||is the belief that the specified proposition is false.|
|: uncertainty||is the amount of uncommitted belief.|
|: base rate||is the a priori probability in the absence of evidence.|
These components satisfy and . The characteristics of various opinion classes are listed below.
|An opinion||where||is equivalent to binary logic TRUE,|
|where||is equivalent to binary logic FALSE,|
|where||is equivalent to a traditional probability,|
|where||expresses degrees of uncertainty, and|
|where||expresses total uncertainty.|
The probability expectation value of an opinion is defined as .
Binomial opinions can be represented on an equilateral triangle as shown below. A point inside the triangle represents a triple. The b,d,u-axes run from one edge to the opposite vertex indicated by the Belief, Disbelief or Uncertainty label. For example, a strong positive opinion is represented by a point towards the bottom right Belief vertex. The base rate, also called relative atomicity, is shown as a red pointer along the base line, and the probability expectation, , is formed by projecting the opinion onto the base, parallel to the base rate projector line. Opinions about the three propositions X, Y and Z are visualized on the triangle to the left, and their equivalent Beta distributions are visualized on the plot to the right. The numerical values and verbal discrete descriptions of each opinion are also shown.
Beta distributions are normally denoted as where and are its two parameters. In Probability theory and Statistics, the beta distribution is a family of continuous Probability distributions defined on the interval 1 parameterized The Beta distribution of a binomial opinion is the function
Let be a frame, i. e. a set of exhaustive and mutually disjoint propositions . A multinomial opinion over is the composite function , where is a vector of belief masses over the propositions of , is the uncertainty mass, and is a vector of base rate values over the propositions of . These components satisfy and as well as .
Visualising multinomial opinions is not trivial. Trinomial opinions could be visualised as points inside a triangular pyramid, but the 2D aspect of computer monitors would make this impractical. Opinions with dimensions larger than trinomial do not lend themselves to traditional visualisation.
Dirichlet distributions are normally denoted as where represents its parameters. In Probability and Statistics, the Dirichlet distribution (after Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet) often denoted Dir( &alpha) is The Dirichlet distribution of a multinomial opinion is the function where the vector components are given by
Most operators in the table below are generalisations of binary logic and probability operators. For example addition is simply a generalisation of addition of probabilities. Most operators are only meaningful for combining binomial opinions, but some also apply to multinomial opinions. Most operators are binary, but complement is unary, deduction is ternary and abduction is quaternary. See the referenced papers for mathematical details of each operator.
|Subjective logic operator||Operator notation||Propositional/binary logic operator|
|Multiplication||Conjunction / AND|
|Division||Unconjunction / UN-AND|
|Comultiplication||Disjunction / OR|
|Codivision||Undisjunction / UN-OR|
|Transitivity / discounting||n. a.|
|Cumulative fusion / consensus||n. a.|
|Averaging fusion||n. a.|
Apart from the computations on the opinion values themselves, subjective logic operators also affect the attributes, i. e. the subjects, the propositions, as well as the frames containing the propositions. In general, the attributes of the derived opinion are functions of the argument attributes, following the principle illustrated below. For example, the derived proposition is typically obtained using the propositional logic operator corresponding to the subjective logic operator.
The functions for deriving attributes depend on the operator. Some operators, such as cumulative and averaging fusion, only affect the subject attribute, not the proposition which then is equal to that of the arguments. Fusion for example assumes that two separate argument subjects are fused into one. Other operators, such as multiplication, only affect the proposition and its frame, not the subject which then is equal to that of the arguments. Multiplication for example assumes that the derived proposition is the conjunction of the argument propositions, and that the derived frame is composed as the Cartesian product of the two argument frames. The transitivity operator is the only operator where both the subject and the proposition attributes are affected, more specifically by making the derived subject equal to the subject of the first argument opinion, and the derived proposition and frame equal to the proposition and frame of the second argument opinion.
It is impractical to explicitly express complex subject combinations and propositional logic expressions as attributes of derived opinions. Instead, the trust origin subject and a compact substitute propositional logic term can be used.
Subject combinations can be expressed in a compact or expanded form. For example, the transitive trust path from via to can be expressed as in compact form, or as in expanded form. The expanded form is the most general, and corresponds directly with the way subjective logic expressions are formed with operators.
Subjective logic allows extremely efficient computation of mathematically complex models. This is possible by approximating the analytically correct functions whenever needed. While it is relatively simple to analytically multiply two Beta distributions in the form of a joint distribution, anything more complex than that quickly becomes intractable. In the study of Probability, given two Random variables X and Y, the joint distribution of X and Y is the distribution When combining two Beta distributions with some operator/connective, the analytical result is not always a Beta distribution and can involve hypergeometric series. In Mathematics, a hypergeometric series is a Power series in which the ratios of successive Coefficients k is a Rational function In such cases, subjective logic always approximates the result as an opinion that is equivalent to a Beta distribution.
In case the argument opinions are equivalent to binary logic TRUE or FALSE, the result of any subjective logic operator is always equal to that of the corresponding propositional/binary logic operator. Similarly, when the argument opinions are equivalent to traditional probabilities, the result of any subjective logic operator is always equal to that of the corresponding probability operator (when it exists).
In case the argument opinions contain degrees of uncertainty, the operators involving multiplication and division will produce derived opinions that always have correct expectation value but possibly with approximate variance when seen as Beta/Dirichlet probability distributions. In Probability theory and Statistics, the variance of a Random variable, Probability distribution, or sample is one measure of All other operators produce opinions where the expectation value and the variance are always equal to the analytically correct values.
Different composite propositions that traditionally are equivalent in propositional logic do not necessarily have equal opinions. For example in general although the distributivity of conjunction over disjunction, expressed as , holds in binary propositional logic. In Mathematics, and in particular in Abstract algebra, distributivity is a property of Binary operations that generalises the distributive law This is no surprise as the corresponding probability operators are also non-distributive. However, multiplication is distributive over addition, as expressed by . De Morgan's laws are also satisfied as e. In Logic, De Morgan's laws or De Morgan's theorem are rules in Formal logic relating pairs of dual Logical operators in a systematic manner expressed g. expressed by .
Subjective logic is applicable when the situation to be analysed is characterised by considerable uncertainty and incomplete knowledge. Trust networks and Bayesian networks are typical examples.
Trust networks can be modelled with a combination of the transitivity and fusion operators. Let express the trust edge from to . A simple trust network can for example be expressed as as illustrated in the figure below.
The indices 1, 2 and 3 indicate the chronological order in which the trust edges and recommendations are formed. Thus, given the set of trust edges with index 1, the origin trustor receives recommendations from and , and is thereby able to derive trust in . By expressing each trust edge and recommendation as an opinion 's trust in can be computed as .
Trust networks can express the reliability of information sources for propositions, and can be used to determine subjective opinions about propositions. There can be a separate trust network leading to the opinion about each propositional term.
Logical structures can also be analysed without reference to trust networks or belief owners. In this way, subjective logic becomes a probabilistic logic for uncertain probabilities. This uncertainty is carried through the analysis and is made explicit in the results so that it is possible to distinguish between certain and uncertain conclusions.