Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings See also Religion in Africa African traditional religions, also referred to as African indigenous religions or African The Niger-Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families, and Africa 's largest in terms of geographical area number of speakers and number Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major Ethnic groups of Southern Africa. Southern Africa is the Southernmost Region of the African Continent, variably defined by Geography or Geopolitics. The Nilo-Saharan languages are a hypothetical group of African languages spoken mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers (hence the term Central Africa is a core Region of the African Continent often considered to include Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a Language family with about 375 languages ( SIL estimate and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest 
It contrasts with North Africa, which is part of the Arab world. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan  The Sahel is the transitional zone between the Sahara proper and sub-Saharan Africa. See also Sahel Tunisia, a region of eastern Tunisia. The Sahel or Sahel Belt (from Arabic ساحل sāḥil 
The Horn of Africa and Southern Sudan are geographically part of sub-Saharan Africa, but nevertheless show strong Middle Eastern (Islamic) influence. The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan, comprising ten of that country's states The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings 
Sub-Saharan Africa covers an area of 24. 3 million square kilometers. 
Since around 5,400 years ago , the Saharan and sub-Saharan regions of Africa have been separated by the extremely harsh climate of the sparsely populated Sahara, forming an effective barrier interrupted by only the Nile River in Sudan, though the Nile was blocked by the river's cataracts. The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River The modern term sub-Saharan corresponds with the south of the Sahara desert. Tropical Africa and Equatorial Africa are sometimes used as alternative labels, due to the distinctive ecology of the region.
The Axumite Empire spanned the southern Sahara and the Sahel along the western shore of the Red Sea. The history of Africa begins with the first emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa, continuing into its modern present as a patchwork of Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, with one of the longest recorded histories in the world The Aksumite Empire or Axumite Empire (sometimes called the Kingdom of Aksum or Axum ( Ge'ez: አክሱም was an important trading Located in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, Aksum was deeply involved in the trade network between India and the Mediterranean. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Emerging from ca. the 4th century BC, it rose to prominence by the 1st century AD. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. The 1st century was the Century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Julian calendar. It was succeeded by the Zagwe dynasty in the 10th century. The Zagwe dynasty ruled Ethiopia from the end of the Kingdom of Axum at an uncertain date in the 9th or 10th century to 1270, when Yekuno Amlak
Somalia was under the control of Ethiopian Empire until 1527, when a revolt under Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi led to an invasion of Ethiopia. Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known The Ethiopian Empire, also known as Abyssinia, was in what is now Ethiopia and Eritrea. Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (c 1506 - February 21, 1543) ("the Conqueror" was an Imam and General of Adal The Ajuran dynasty ruled parts of East Africa from the 16th to 20th centuries. See also Somali clan The Ajuran (also Ajuuraan or Ujuuraan) is a Somali clan.
Kenya's proximity to the Arabian Peninsula invited colonization, and Arab and Persian settlements sprouted along the coast by the 8th century. The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. During the first millennium AD, Nilotic and Bantu-speaking peoples moved into the region, and the latter now comprise three-quarters of Kenya's population. Nilotic people or Nilotes, in its contemporary usage refers to some Ethnic groups mainly in Southern Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Bantu may refer to Bantu expansion, a series of migrations of Bantu speakers Bantu languages Bantu people In the centuries preceding colonization, the Swahili coast of Kenya was part of the east African region which traded with the Arab world and India especially for ivory and slaves. Ivory is formed from Dentine and constitutes the bulk of the Teeth and Tusks of animals such as the Elephant, Hippopotamus, As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Swahili, a Bantu language with many Arabic, Persian and other Middle Eastern and South Asian loan words, developed as a lingua franca for trade between the different peoples. Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely
In 1498 Vasco da Gama became the first European to reach the East African coast, and by 1525 the Portuguese had subdued the entire coast. Dom Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira ('vaʃku dɐ 'gɐmɐ ( Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, ca Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Portuguese control lasted until the early 18th century, when Arabs from Oman established a foothold in the region. Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast Assisted by Omani Arabs, the indigenous coastal dwellers succeeded in driving the Portuguese from the area north of the Ruvuma River by the early 18th century. Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast Ruvuma River, formerly also known as the Rovuma River, is a river in East Africa, forming during the greater part of its course the Border between The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system
The Nok culture, known from a type of terracotta figure found in Nigeria, dating to 500 BC - AD 200. The Nok civilization appeared in Nigeria around 500 BC and mysteriously vanished around 200 AD
There are a number of medieval kingdoms of the southern Sahara and the Sahel, based on trans-Saharan trade, including the Ghana Empire and the Mali Empire, Songhai Empire, the Kanem Empire and the subsequent Bornu Empire. Trans-Saharan trade is trade across the Sahara between Mediterranean countries and West Africa. The Ghana Empire or Wagadou Empire (existed c 750 - 1076) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania, Western Mali The Mali Empire or Manding Empire or Manden Kurufa was a Medieval West African civilization of the Mandinka from c The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire was a pre-colonial African state of west Africa. The Kanem Empire (700 - 1376 was located in the present countries of Chad and Libya. The Bornu Empire (1396-1893 was a medieval African state of Niger from 1389 to 1893 The Benin Empire was a pre-colonial state of Nigeria (1440-1897). The Benin Empire or Edo Empire (1440-1897 was a large pre-colonial African state of modern Nigeria. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal
The kingdoms of Ifẹ and Oyo in the western block of Nigeria became prominent about 700-900 and 1400 respectively. Ife (Ifè also Ilé-Ifẹ̀) is an ancient Yoruba City in south-western Nigeria. Another prominent kingdom in south western Nigeria was the Kingdom of Benin whose power lasted between the 15th and 19th century. The Benin Empire or Edo Empire (1440-1897 was a large pre-colonial African state of modern Nigeria. Their dominance reached as far as the well known city of Eko which was named Lagos by the Portuguese traders and other early European settlers. Lagos ( pron ˈleɪgɒs or /ˈlɑːgoʊs/ overseas is the most populous Conurbation in Nigeria with In the 18th century, the Oyo and the Aro confederacy were responsible for most of the slaves exported from Nigeria. The Oyo Empire (c 1400 - 1835 was a West African empire of what is today western Nigeria. The Aro Confederacy (1690-1902 was a slave trading political union orchestrated by the Igbo subgroup the Aro people, centered in Arochukwu in present 
Following the Napoleonic wars, the British expanded trade with the Nigerian interior. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. In 1885 British claims to a West African sphere of influence received international recognition and in the following year the Royal Niger Company was chartered under the leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie. The Royal Niger Company was a mercantile company chartered by the British government in the nineteenth century George Goldie Sir George Dashwood Taubman Goldie ( 20 May, 1846 &ndash 20 August, 1925) was a Manx administrator who played a In 1900 the company's territory came under the control of the British Government, which moved to consolidate its hold over the area of modern Nigeria. On January 1, 1901 Nigeria became a British protectorate, part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
The Bantu expansion has its original nucleus in West Africa, dividing into a Western and an Eastern Bantu group by about 1500 BC. The Bantu expansion was a millennia-long series of migrations of speakers of the original proto- Bantu language group The Eastern group has its nucleus at Urewe, in the first half of the 1st millennium BC. The Urewe culture developed and spread in and around the the Lake Victoria region of Africa during the African Iron Age. There follow a series of southwards advances, establishing a Congo nucleus by the end of the 1st millennium BC. In a final movement, the Bantu expansion reaches Southern Africa in the 1st millennium AD.
Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century (see Bantu expansion) displacing and absorbing the original Khoi-San speakers. The Bantu languages (technically Narrow Bantu languages) constitute a grouping belonging to the Niger-Congo family Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 The Limpopo River rises in central southern Africa, and flows generally eastwards to the Indian Ocean. The Bantu expansion was a millennia-long series of migrations of speakers of the original proto- Bantu language group Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major Ethnic groups of Southern Africa. They slowly moved south and the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. KwaZulu-Natal (kwɑːˌzuːluː nəˈtɑːl often referred to as " KZN " is a province of South Africa. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoi-San people, reaching the Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. See also Xhosa language The Xhosa (ǁʰɔsɑ( people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two The Great Fish River (called great to distinguish from the Namibian Fish River) is a river running through the South African province of the The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Bhisho.
Monomotapa was a medieval kingdom (c. 1250-1629) which used to stretch between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers of Southern Africa in the modern states of Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The Zambezi (also spelled Zambesi) is the fourth-longest River in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa The Limpopo River rises in central southern Africa, and flows generally eastwards to the Indian Ocean. Southern Africa is the Southernmost Region of the African Continent, variably defined by Geography or Geopolitics. See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa It enjoys great fame for the ruins at its old capital of Great Zimbabwe. The Great Zimbabwe, or "stone buildings" is the name given to hundreds of great stone Ruins spread out over a 500 km² (200 square mile area within the modern-day
In 1487, Bartolomeu Dias became the first European to reach the southernmost tip of Africa. Bartolomeu Dias (baɾtuluˈmeu ˈdiɐʃ Anglicized Bartholomew Diaz) (c In 1652, a victualling station was established at the Cape of Good Hope by Jan van Riebeeck on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. The Cape of Good Hope ( Afrikaans: Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop Cabo da Boa Esperança Persian Language: دماغه امید نیک Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck ( 21 April, 1619 &ndash 18 January, 1677) was a Dutch colonial administrator The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian For most of the 17th and 18th centuries, the slowly-expanding settlement was a Dutch possession. The Dutch Empire was the territories controlled by The Netherlands from the 17th to the 20th century Great Britain seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1795 ostensibly to stop it falling into the hands of the French, but also seeking to use Cape Town in particular as a stop on the route to Australia and India. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 The Cape of Good Hope ( Afrikaans: Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop Cabo da Boa Esperança Persian Language: دماغه امید نیک Cape Town (Kaapstad Xhosa: Ikapa) is the second most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the metropolitan municipality of the It was later returned to the Dutch in 1803, but soon afterwards the Dutch East India Company declared bankruptcy, and the British annexed the Cape Colony in 1806. The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian
The Zulu Kingdom (1817-1879) was a Southern African state in what is now South Africa. The Zulu Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire, was a Southern African state in what is now South Africa. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The small kingdom gained world fame during and after the Anglo-Zulu War. The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Empire.
The population of sub-Saharan Africa was 770. The population of Africa has grown exponentially over the past century and consequently shows a large Youth bulge, further reinforced by a low 3 million in 2006.  The current growth rate is 2. 3%. The UN predict for the region a population of nearly 1. 5 billion in 2050. 
Sub-Saharan African countries top the list of countries and territories by fertility rate with 40 of the highest 50, all with TFR greater than 4 in 2008. This page consists of two tables Table 1 is sourced from the CIA World Factbook''' All are above the world average except South Africa. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Generally, sub-Saharan Africa is the poorest region in the world, suffering from the effects of colonialism, economic mismanagement, local corruption. and inter-ethnic conflict. The region contains many of the least developed countries in the world. Least Developed Countries ( LDCs or Fourth World countries are Countries which according to the United Nations exhibit the lowest (See Economy of Africa. The economy of Africa consists of the Trade, Industry, and resources of the peoples of Africa. )
The sub-Saharan African countries form the bulk of the ACP countries. The ACP States are the countries that are signatories of the Lomé Convention.
In 1987, Bamako was the location of a WHO conference known as the Bamako Initiative that helped reshape the health policy of sub-Saharan Africa. Bamako, population 1690471 (2006 is the Capital and largest city of Mali, and currently estimated to be the fastest growing city in The Bamako Initiative was a formal statement adopted by African health ministers in 1987 in Bamako, Mali, to implement strategies designed to increase the  The new strategy dramatically increased accessibility through community-based healthcare reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost. 
Up to and including October 2006 many governments face difficulties in implementing policies aimed at mitigating the effects of the AIDS-pandemic due to lack of technical support despite a number of mitigating measures.