A strategy of tension (Italian: strategia della tensione) is an alleged way to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, as well as false flag terrorist actions. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. That the manufacture of consent is capable of great refinements no one I think denies Fear is an Emotional response to Threats and Danger. It is a basic survival mechanism occurring in response to a specific Stimulus, such as Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Disinformation is the deliberate dissemination of false Information. The US Department of Defense defines psychological warfare ( PSYWAR) as" The planned use of Propaganda and other Psychological actions Traditionally an agent provocateur ( Plural: agents provocateurs, French for "inciting agent" is a person employed by the police or Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion According to historian Daniele Ganser, "It is a tactic which consists in committing bombings and attributing them to others. Military tactics ( Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army are the techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating A bomb is any of a range of devices that typically rely on the Exothermic Chemical reaction of an Explosive material to produce an extremely By the term 'tension' one refers to emotional tension, to what creates a sentiment of fear. By the term 'strategy' one refers to what feeds the fear of the people towards one particular group". 
The term was coined in Italy during the trials that followed the 1970s and 1980s years of lead, during which terror attacks and assassinations were committed by neofascist terrorists (such as Ordine Nuovo, Avanguardia Nazionale or Fronte Nazionale). Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Italy endured a period of political turmoil in the 1970s and early 1980s This page specifically pertains to fascism after World War II Ordine Nuovo ( Italian for "New Order" complete name Centro Studi Ordine Nuovo, "New Order Scholarship Center" was an Italian The National Vanguard (Avanguardia Nazionale is a name that has been used for at least two neo-fascist groups in Italy. Fronte Nazionale (Ital National Front, abbreviated FN) is a name that has been used for several Neofascist political parties and movements in italy Some claim that the terrorists were backed by the CIA and other Western intelligence agencies, the P2 masonic lodge and Operation Gladio, a NATO secret "stay-behind" army officially set up to perform guerilla and resistance activities should Italy be successfully invaded by the Soviet bloc (there were equivalent armies in most Western states). near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings An intelligence agency is a governmental agency that is devoted to the Information gathering (known in the context as " intelligence " Propaganda Due or P2 was a Masonic lodge operating under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of Italy from 1877 to 1976 (when its charter was withdrawn Gladio ( Italian, from Latin Gladius, meaning Sword) is a code name denoting the clandestine NATO " Stay-behind The North Atlantic Treaty In a stay-behind operation a country places secret operatives or organisations in its own territory for use in the event that the territory is overrun by an enemy During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were
Unmonitored by civilian agencies, "politicized partisans" began to pursue their own right-wing anti-communist agenda using violent means, which included false flag bombings, blamed on extra-parliamentary left-wing militant organizations. In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and Examples include the 1972 Peteano bombing, long thought to have been carried out by the Red Brigades, but for which the neofascist terrorist Vincenzo Vinciguerra has been imprisoned, the attempted assassination of former Interior Minister Mariano Rumor on 17 May 1973 or the 1980 Bologna massacre. This article is about the Italian group "Red Brigade" may also refer to the Japanese Red Army/Anti-Imperialist International Brigade. Vincenzo Vinciguerra is a former member of the neo-fascist ''Avanguardia Nazionale'' ("National Vanguard" and Ordine Nuovo ("New Mariano Rumor ( June 16, 1915 &ndash 22 January, 1990) was an Italian politician a member of the Democrazia Cristiana and several Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. The Bologna massacre (Strage di Bologna was a terrorist bombing at the Central Station of Bologna, Italy on the morning of August
The aim of these actions was to make the public believe that the bombings were committed by a communist insurgency, to promote the formation of an authoritarian government, and to prevent the strong Italian Communist Party (PCI) from joining the ruling Democrazia Cristiana (DC) in a national unity government (the "Historic Compromise" between Aldo Moro and Enrico Berlinguer, respective leaders of the DC and of the PCI). The Italian Communist Party (Italian Partito Comunista Italiano, or PCI emerged as the Communist Party of Italy ( Partito Comunista d'Italia) Christian Democracy ( Democrazia Cristiana, DC the Christian democratic party of Italy, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise The term Historic Compromise ( Italian: "compromesso storico") most commonly refers to the accommodation between the Italian Christian Democrats Aldo Moro ( September 23, 1916 &ndash May 9, 1978) was an Italian Politician and two-time Prime Minister of Italy Enrico Berlinguer (berliŋˈgwɛr ( May 25, 1923 - June 11, 1984) was an Italian Politician; he was national secretary An astonishing observation of the terrorism in Italy that was blamed on communists is that it coincided with election victories for the communists at the polls. So as the PCI was gaining popular support, the number of civilian-targeted bombings, random knee-cappings, and high-profile kidnappings blamed on communist terrorists increased markedly.
Furthermore, starting with the 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing and the 1972 Peteano attack, several bombings carried out by the far-right were at first blamed on anarchists (for the first one) and, for the second one, on the Red Brigades (BR) — although it was later found that neofascists, such as Vincenzo Vinciguerra, had organized them. Piazza Fontana bombing (strage di Piazza Fontana identifies the massacre that was a result of a serious terrorist attack occurred on December 12 1969 when This article is about the Italian group "Red Brigade" may also refer to the Japanese Red Army/Anti-Imperialist International Brigade. Vincenzo Vinciguerra is a former member of the neo-fascist ''Avanguardia Nazionale'' ("National Vanguard" and Ordine Nuovo ("New Piazza Fontana's bombing, in December 1969, marked the beginning of the "strategia della tensione", which ended around the time of the Bologna railway station bombing in 1980. The Bologna massacre (Strage di Bologna was a terrorist bombing at the Central Station of Bologna, Italy on the morning of August
In 2000, a Parliamentary report from the Olive Tree coalition concluded that the strategy of tension followed by Gladio had been supported by the United States to "stop the PCI, and to a certain degree also the PSI, from reaching executive power in the country". The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa Members of the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS), part of the Commission on Terrorism headed by senator Giovanni Pellegrino and created in 1988, also described the Italian peninsula since the end of World War II as a "country with 'limited sovereignty'" and as an "American colony" The centrist Italian Republican party described the claims as worthy of a 1970s Maoist group. The Democratic Party of the Left ( Partito Democratico della Sinistra, PDS was a post- communist democratic-socialist political party in Italy Giovanni Pellegrino (born June 4, 1939) is an Italian politician currently the president of the Province of Lecce in Apulia. After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolini's fascist regime, Italy's history was dominated by the Democrazia Cristiana (DC - Christian-Democrats World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Aldo Giannuli, a historian who works as a consultant to the parliamentary terrorism commission, see the release of the Left Democrats' report is a manoeuvre dictated primarily by domestic political considerations. "Since they have been in power the Left Democrats have given us very little help in gaining access to security service archives," he said. "This is a falsely courageous report. "
The US state department has denied involvement in terrorism and stated that some of the researchers, like Ganser above, have been influenced by a Soviet forgery, US Army Field Manual 30-31B. The US Army Field Manual 30-31B is a forgery presented as a classified appendix to a US Army Field Manual purporting to describe top-secret Counter insurgency tactics 
In December 1969, four bombings struck in Rome the Monument of Vittorio Emanuele II (Altare della Patria), the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, and in Milan the Banca Commerciale and the Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura. Piazza Fontana bombing (strage di Piazza Fontana identifies the massacre that was a result of a serious terrorist attack occurred on December 12 1969 when The Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II (National Monument of Victor Emmanuel II or Altare della Patria (Altar of the Fatherland or "Il Vittoriano" Banca Nazionale del Lavoro SpA is an Italian banking firm Founded in 1913 as Istituto di Credito per la Cooperazione, it was nationalized in 1929 The later bombing, known as the Piazza Fontana bombing of 12 December 1969, killed 16 and injured 90, marking the beginning of this violent period. Piazza Fontana bombing (strage di Piazza Fontana identifies the massacre that was a result of a serious terrorist attack occurred on December 12 1969 when Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Giuseppe Pinelli, a young anarchist, was first accused of the crime. Giuseppe "Pino" Pinelli (1928-1969 was an Italian Railway worker and Anarchist activist who died in the custody of Italian police in 1969 after Italy, in particular at the turn of the 20th century had a strong Anarcho-syndicalist movement After his suspicious death, which was claimed to be suicide by the authorities, investigator Luigi Calabresi — accused of being the murderer — came under violent criticism from the left; he would eventually be murdered a few years later. Nobel prize laureate Dario Fo wrote a piece on Pinelli's death, Accidental Death of an Anarchist. The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred Dario Fo (born March 24, 1926) is an Italian satirist, Playwright, Theater director, Actor, and Composer Accidental Death of an Anarchist
After Pinelli, the police investigated another anarchist, Pietro Valpreda. Pietro Valpreda ( 22 June 1933 - 6 July 2002) was an Italian anarchist, dancer and novelist He quickly became a hero to the left, who perceived him to be a victim of a plot to attribute a fascist bombing to the left. The leftist environment produced an investigative book, La strage di Stato ("The state massacre") , in which they claimed the state was attacking anarchists because they (by definition) could not have a political party to defend them, as communists would have had. As it would turn out through years of painstaking investigation, the bombing was indeed a work of the extreme right, even though the connection of the state to these acts is not yet clear.
Neo-fascist terrorist Stefano Delle Chiaie was then arrested in Caracas, Venezuela in 1989 and rendered to Italy to stand trial for his role. This page specifically pertains to fascism after World War II Stefano Delle Chiaie (born 13 September 1936 in Caserta) is a Neofascist Italian activist (founder of ''Avanguardia Nazionale'' and Caracas (kaˈɾakas is the Capital and largest city of Venezuela. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Delle Chiaie was however acquitted by the Assise Court in Catanzaro in 1989, along with fellow accused Massimiliano Fachini. Catanzaro (Katantheros Katastarioi Lokroi is a city in Calabria, Italy, the capital of both the Province of Catanzaro and the whole region of Calabria
In 1998, David Carrett, officer of the U.S. Navy, was indicted by a Milanese magistrate, Guido Salvini, on charge of political and military espionage and his participation in the 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing, among other events. Guido Salvini is an Italian judge, based in Milan. He issued European arrest warrants in 2005 against approximatively 20 CIA agents accused of Judge Guido Salvini also opened a case against Sergio Minetto, Italian official for the US-NATO intelligence network, and pentito Carlo Digilio. Pentito ( Italian he who has repented, Plural pentiti) designates people in Italy who formerly part of criminal or terrorist La Repubblica underlined that Carlo Rocchi, the CIA's man in Milan, was surprised in 1995 searching for information concerning Operation Gladio, thus demonstrating that all was not over. la Repubblica (meaning "the Republic" is as of 2006 the largest circulation Italian daily general-interest newspaper. 
A June 20, 2001 conviction of Italian Neo-fascists Doctor Carlo Maria Maggi, Delfo Zorzi and Giancarlo Rognoni was overturned in March 2004. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. This page specifically pertains to fascism after World War II Delfo Zorzi (now Roi Hagen is an Italian-born Japanese citizen accused of terrorism in his country of origin Carlo Digilio, a suspected CIA informant, received immunity from prosecution by becoming a witness for the state (in agreement with the pentiti laws). near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all A witness is someone who has firsthand knowledge about a Crime or dramatic event through their Senses (e Pentito ( Italian he who has repented, Plural pentiti) designates people in Italy who formerly part of criminal or terrorist
According to Ordine Nuovo member Vincenzo Vinciguerra: "The December 1969 explosion was supposed to be the detonator which would have convinced the political and military authorities to declare a state of emergency. Ordine Nuovo ( Italian for "New Order" complete name Centro Studi Ordine Nuovo, "New Order Scholarship Center" was an Italian Vincenzo Vinciguerra is a former member of the neo-fascist ''Avanguardia Nazionale'' ("National Vanguard" and Ordine Nuovo ("New A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors or order government agencies "
August 4, 1974, 12 died and 105 were injured in the bombing of the train Italicus Roma-Brennero express at San Benedetto Val di Sambro. Events 70 - The Destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Events 70 - The Destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. On the night of August 4, 1974, a bomb exploded in car #5 of the Rome - Brenner express Train, killing 12 and injuring
The first judicial investigation concerning the 1974 Piazza della Loggia bombing led to the condemnation in 1979 of a member of the Brescian far-right movement. The Piazza della Loggia bombing was a bombing that took place on the morning of May 28, 1974, in Brescia, Italy during a anti-fascist However, this first sentence was cancelled in 1983 and the suspect absolved in 1985 by the Court of Cassation. A second investigation led to the accusation of another far-right activist, who was thereafter absolved in 1989 because of insufficient proofs. A third investigation is still in activity. On May 19, 2005, the Court of Cassation confirmed the arrest warrant against Delfo Zorzi, a former member of the Ordine Nuovo neo-fascist group, who was also suspected of being the material executor of the 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing. Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Delfo Zorzi (now Roi Hagen is an Italian-born Japanese citizen accused of terrorism in his country of origin Ordine Nuovo ( Italian for "New Order" complete name Centro Studi Ordine Nuovo, "New Order Scholarship Center" was an Italian Alongside Delfo Zorzi, his neo-fascist comrades Carlo Maria Maggi and Maurizio Tramonte, all members of the Ordine Nuovo group founded in 1956 by Pino Rauti, are also suspected of having organized the Piazza della Loggia bombing.
Bologna railway bombing killed 85 persons and injured 200. Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) The Bologna massacre (Strage di Bologna was a terrorist bombing at the Central Station of Bologna, Italy on the morning of August A long, troubled and controversial court case and political issue ensued. The relatives of the victims formed an association (Associazione tra i famigliari delle vittime della strage alla stazione di Bologna del 2 agosto 1980) to raise and maintain civil awareness on the Bologna massacre. On 23 November 1995 the Italian Supreme Court (Corte di Cassazione) issued the final sentence:
General Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa's murder, in 1982, by the mafia in Palermo is allegedly part of the strategy of tension. Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa ( Saluzzo, September 27, 1920 – Palermo, 3 September, 1982) was a general of the Italian The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Alberto Dalla Chiesa had arrested Red Brigades founders Renato Curcio and Alberto Franceschini in September, 1974, and was later charged of investigation concerning Christian democrat leader Aldo Moro, assassinated in 1978. This article is about the Italian group "Red Brigade" may also refer to the Japanese Red Army/Anti-Imperialist International Brigade. Renato Curcio (born September 23, 1941) is the former leader of the Italian left-wing terrorist organization the Red Brigades ( Brigate Aldo Moro ( September 23, 1916 &ndash May 9, 1978) was an Italian Politician and two-time Prime Minister of Italy
In 1974, Vito Miceli, P2 member, chief of the SIOS (Servizio Informazioni), Army Intelligence's Service from 1969 and SID's head from 1970 to 1974, was arrested on charges of "conspiration against the state" concerning investigations about Rosa dei venti, a state-infiltrated group involved in terrorist acts. Vito Miceli (1916&ndash1990 was an Italian General and Politician. Propaganda Due or P2 was a Masonic lodge operating under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of Italy from 1877 to 1976 (when its charter was withdrawn Servizio Informazioni Operative e Situazione (Intelligence and Current Status Service was an Italian military Counterintelligence service Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare ( Military Intelligence and Security Service) was the Military intelligence agency of Italy In 1977, the secret services were reorganized in a democratic attempt. With law #801 of 24/10/1977, SID was divided into SISMI (Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare), SISDE (Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Democratica) and CESIS (Comitato Esecutivo per i Servizi di Informazione e Sicurezza). Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare ( Military Intelligence and Security Service) was the Military intelligence agency of Italy Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare ( Military Intelligence and Security Service) was the Military intelligence agency of Italy Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Democratica (Intelligence and Democratic Security Service was the domestic Intelligence agency of Italy. Comitato Esecutivo per i Servizi di Informazione e Sicurezza (Executive Committee for Intelligence and Security Services was a government committee whose mission was the coordination of The CESIS has a coordination role, led by the President of Council. Prime Ministers of Italy (1861-Present Presidents of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946 Presidents of the Council of Ministers
Other alleged examples include the Turkish branch of Gladio, Counter-Guerrilla, who allegedly followed a similar strategy in Turkey, leading to the 1980 military coup. The September 12 1980 Turkish coup d'état, headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third Coup d'etat in the history of Others Operation Condor in South America and events in Algeria during the 1990s (see Organisation of Young Free Algerians). For other uses of Operation Condor please see Operation Condor (disambiguation Operation Condor (Operación Cóndor Operação Condor was a campaign Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's The Organisation of Young Free Algerians ( OJAL, French Organisation des jeunes Algériens libres) claimed credit for various attacks against civilian Islamist Stefano Delle Chiaie apparently had a hand in both what was happening in Italy and with Operation Condor, as he as met with Michael Townley (a US expatriate, DINA agent). Stefano Delle Chiaie (born 13 September 1936 in Caserta) is a Neofascist Italian activist (founder of ''Avanguardia Nazionale'' and For the Australian politician see Michael Townley (Australian politician. Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional ( English: National Intelligence Directorate) or DINA was the Chilean Secret police in the government It has been claimed that Delle Chiaie was involved in the murder of General Carlos Prats in Buenos Aires, Argentina on September 30, 1974. General Carlos Prats González ( February 24, 1915 - September 30, 1974) was a Chilean Army officer a Political figure Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Delle Chiaie, along with fellow extremist Vincenzo Vinciguerra, also testified in Rome in December 1995 before judge María Romilda Servini de Cubría that Enrique Arancibia Clavel (a former Chilean secret police agent prosecuted for crimes against humanity in 2004 ) and Michael Townley were directly involved in this assassination. Vincenzo Vinciguerra is a former member of the neo-fascist ''Avanguardia Nazionale'' ("National Vanguard" and Ordine Nuovo ("New Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Enrique Arancibia is a former Chilean DINA agent who resided in unofficial exile in Buenos Aires after the assassination of Chilean Army Chief of Staff René Schneider In Public international law, a crime against humanity is an act of Persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people and is the highest level of .