A stone circle is an ancient monument. Such a monument is not always precisely circular and often forms an ellipse, or a setting of four stones laid on an arc of a circle. The number of stones can vary between four and 60 purposely erected standing stones, and often contain burial pits or chambers. Standing stones, orthostats, liths or more commonly Megaliths ' because of their large and cumbersome size are solitary stones set vertically in the
A stone circle is different from a henge or isolated monolith, although each of these features is often encountered in a single location. henge is a prehistoric Architectural structure. In form it is a nearly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20 Metres (65 feet) in diameter A monolith is a geological feature such as a Mountain, consisting of a single massive stone or rock or a single piece of rock placed as or within a monument Carrigagulla is a megalithic complex located 29 km north-east of Ballinagree, County Cork, Ireland. Earlier features, such as the Goseck circle in Saxony-Anhalt, may have served similar religious/calendrical/astronomical purposes, though probably at a much earlier epoch. The Goseck circle is a Neolithic structure in Goseck in the Burgenlandkreis district in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Saxony-Anhalt ( Sachsen-Anhalt) is one of the sixteen ''Bundesländer'' (federal states that make up the Federal Republic of Germany. Stone circles usually date from the late Neolithic / early Stone Age, that is, c. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos 7000-3500 B. C. 
Archaeological evidence, coupled with information from astronomy, geology and mathematics, suggests that the purpose of stone circles was connected with prehistoric peoples' beliefs, and their construction can be used to infer about ancient engineering, social organisation, and religion. Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Their precise function will always be open to debate, but a practical purpose could exist in the form of use as a burial ground, a astronomical marker points for use in determining calendar-related event timings, and usable methodologies have been suggested. The word Calendar consist of two words 1 Cal ( in Pashto means Year in Hindi and Persian is Sal- also means Year For other uses see Time (disambiguation Time is a component of a measuring system used to sequence events to compare the durations of Since astronomical event timings are intrinsically dependent on location, it is also conceivable that observations taken could form the basis of some understanding concerning geography, and proceeding from that, derivation of standardised units of measurement for not only time, as in the calendar hypothesis, but also for distance.
Because of the timescale involved, many astronomical parameters have changed, further-complicating analysis of the hypothetical purposes of these monuments. Analysis (from Greek ἀνάλυσις, "a breaking up" is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts to gain a Even with modern technology such as computerised star-map simulations, without a firm date in mind, large margins of doubt are unavoidable. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. A star chart is a map of the Night sky. Astronomers divide these into grids to easily use them Simulation is the imitation of some real thing state of affairs or process Certainly until recently, accurate retrospective calculations of many heavenly events, tied to each given location, made a comprehensive survey of monuments unapproachable. A monument is a structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of past Current technology improves our chance of gaining an insight into possible motives and uses, and perhaps patterns may emerge when large numbers of arrangements are compared systematically by automated means which are able to examine large numbers of sites as well as large ranges of dating.
One such pattern which was already documented before the recent popularisation of computers was common factors in the dimensions of such circles surveyed in Britain. In mathematics the dimension of a Space is roughly defined as the minimum number of Coordinates needed to specify every point within it
Prehistoric stone circles are found in many parts of the world.
Megalithic (simply meaning "big stone") monuments in Ireland and the United Kingdom,; several confirmed examples in Brittany, France: two on the island of Er Lannic and two more suggested at Carnac. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Carnac ( Breton = Karnag) is a commune beside the Gulf of Morbihan on the south coast of Brittany in the Morbihan
The Petit Saint Bernard circle lies further afield, in the French Alps. The Little St Bernard Pass (French Col du Petit Saint-Bernard, Italian Colle del Piccolo San Bernardo) is a Mountain pass in the Alps on the They are also known as harrespil in the Basque country, where villagers call them mairu-baratz or jentil-baratz that means "pagan garden (cemetery)", referring to mythologic giants of the pre-Christian era. Harrespil is the Basque name that can be translated by " Stone circle " given to small Megalithic monuments which abounds on mountains of the The Basque Country ( Basque Euskadi, Spanish País Vasco) is an autonomous community in northern Spain. Mairu (or mairuak with the Basque plural also called intxisu (ak in the Bidasoa valley were in Basque mythology, giants who built The jentil (or jentilak with the basque plural were a race of giants in the Basque mythology. The Mythology and Legends of many different Cultures include monsters of human appearance but prodigious size and strength
A unique form of circle, the recumbent stone circle is to be found in North East Scotland, where the largest stone is on its side. Knocknakilla (Grid Ref W297843 is a megalithic complex between Macroom and Millstreet, County Cork, Ireland. County Cork (Contae Chorcaí is the most southerly and the largest of the modern counties of Ireland. Recumbent stone circles are a variation on the more familiar standard Stone circles found throughout the British Isles and Brittany. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. These recumbent stones are almost always in the SW quadrant of the circle, and are aligned on the major moonrise. Typically the heights of the circle stones are also graded, with the smallest stone being opposite the recumbent.
In Scandinavia, there was a tradition of making stone circles during the Iron Age and especially in Götaland. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. Götaland ( Gothia, Gothland, Gothenland, Gotland, Gautland, Geatland is one of three lands of Sweden The appearance of these circles in northern Poland is considered to be a characteristic of the migrating Goths (see Stone Circle (Iron Age) and Wielbark Culture). The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s The Stone Circles of the Iron Age (ca 500 BC - ca 400 AD were a characteristic burial custom of southern Scandinavia especially on Gotland and in Götaland Wielbark culture also known as Willenberg culture (Wielbark/Willenberg-Kultur Kultura wielbarska Вельбарська культура ( Vel’bars’ka kul’tura
There was a separate period of stone circle building from the eighth to the twelfth century in West Africa. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. The best known are the Senegambian stone circles, built as funerary monuments, with more than a thousand known. The Senegambian stone circles lie in Gambia north of Janjanbureh and in central Senegal. Other stone circles can be found on the Adrar Plateau in Mauritania. The Adrar Plateau ( Berber:, lit Mountain) is a highland area of the Sahara Desert in northern Mauritania. Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country Stone circle construction has become popular since the 1970s, built either for purely monumental purposes or to serve a particular mystical purpose. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. The Estadio Monumental Antonio V Liberti, better known as El Monumental de Nuñez or River Plate Stadium, is a Stadium in the Nuñez district The new stone circles typically lack henges or other auxiliary features and are not on a particular alignment. Notable examples include the Swan Circle at the Glastonbury Festival, while Stonehenge at Maryhill (ultimately built of concrete rather than stone) is an early example, being completed in 1918. For the classical music and theatre festivals co-founded by Rutland Boughton between 1914 and 1926 see Glastonbury Festival (1914-1925 The Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The French archaeologist Jean-Pierre Mohan in his book Le Monde des Megalithes described the unusual concentration of stone circles in the British Isles as follows:
Often oriented on sight lines for the rising or setting sun or moon at certain times of the year, it seems likely that for their builders the cycle of seasons was very important. The crudeness of the stones means that they could not have been used as advanced astronomical calculators however, and their positioning is more social/educational than analytic. Definition In the absence of agreement about its meaning the term "social" is used in many different senses referring among other things to attitudes Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency
The earliest known circles were apparently erected around five thousand years ago during the Neolithic period and may have evolved from earlier burial mounds which often covered timber or stone mortuary houses. Carrigagulla is a megalithic complex located 29 km north-east of Ballinagree, County Cork, Ireland. County Cork (Contae Chorcaí is the most southerly and the largest of the modern counties of Ireland. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos It should be remembered that when discussing such timescales, geographical forms have come and gone, sea levels have risen and glaciers receded. It is thus impossible to rule out that similar forms have not been applied earlier, and obliterated by human or geographical events. Where there is land today, once there were glaciers, while in the same era, where there is sea today, there was land. 
During the Middle Neolithic (c. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos 3700–2500 BC) stone circles began to appear in coastal and lowland areas towards the north of the United Kingdom. The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture It marks the beginning of the Bronze Age and of Writing. The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. It represents a period of time in which Imperialism, or the desire to conquer grew to prominence The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Langdale axe industry in the Lake District appears to have been an important early centre for circle building, perhaps because of its economic power. The Langdale axe industry is the name given by archaeologists to the centre of a specialised Stone tool manufacturing at Great Langdale in England 's The Lake District, also known as The Lakes or Lakeland, is a rural area in North West England. Many had closely set stones, perhaps similar to the earth banks of henges, others were made from unfounded boulders rather than standing stones. henge is a prehistoric Architectural structure. In form it is a nearly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20 Metres (65 feet) in diameter
By the later Neolithic, stone circle construction had attained a greater precision and popularity. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Rather than being limited to coastal areas, they began to move inland and their builders grew more ambitious, producing examples of up to 400 m diameter in the case of the Outer Circle at Avebury. Avebury is the site of a large Henge and several Stone circles in the English county of Wiltshire surrounding the village of Avebury Most circles however measured around 25 m in diameter however. Designs became more complex with double and triple ring designs appearing along with significant regional variation. These monuments are often classed separately as concentric stone circles. A concentric stone circle is a type of prehistoric Ritual monument consisting of a circular or oval arrangement of two or more Stone circles set within one another
The final phase of stone circle construction took place in the early to middle Bronze Age (c. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for 2200–1500 BC) and saw the construction of numerous small circles which, it has been suggested, were built by individual family groups rather than the large numbers that monuments like Avebury would have required. The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. It represents a period of time in which Imperialism, or the desire to conquer grew to prominence
Many fine examples are to be found within Dartmoor National Park, Devon , the site of 18 recorded stone circles (and 75 stone rows) dating mainly from the late Neolithic to mid-Bronze Age. Dartmoor is an area of Moorland in the centre of Devon, England. Devon is a large county in the South West of England. The county is also referred to as Devonshire, but that is an entirely unofficial name Grey Wethers, a double circle on an isolated plateau, is among the most significant sites. Grey Wethers consists of a pair of Prehistoric Stone circles situated on grassy Plateau to the north of Postbridge, Dartmoor, in the
By 1500 BC stone circle construction had all but ceased. It is thought that changing weather patterns led people away from upland areas and that new religious thinking led to different ways of marking life and death. Stone circles have often been associated with the druids, but they were abandoned long before druidism came to Britain, and there is no evidence that they were ever used by the druids. A druid was a member of the priestly and learned class in the ancient Celtic societies