Many Medical researchers believe that stem cell treatments have the potential to change the face of human disease and alleviate suffering. Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) in general simply known as medical research, is the Basic research or Applied research conducted A number of stem cell treatments exist, although most are still experimental and/or costly, with the notable exception of bone marrow transplantation. Stem cells are cells found in most if not all multi-cellular Organisms. Medical researchers anticipate one day being able to use technologies derived from adult and embryonic stem cell research to treat cancer, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, spinal cord injuries, and muscle damage, as well as a number of other diseases and impairments. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc Spinal cord injury causes myelopathy or damage to white matter or myelinated fiber tracts that carry sensation and motor signals to and from the brain Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse" is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the
Several very promising treatments of serious diseases have already been attempted, using adult stem cells. The advantage of adult stem cells over embryonic stem cells is that there are no rejection issues, because the stem cells are normally taken from the patient.
However, there still exists a great deal of social and scientific uncertainty surrounding embryonic stem cell research. This will, most likely, only be overcome through years of intensive research and by gaining the acceptance of the public.
For over 30 years, bone marrow, and more recently, umbilical cord blood stem cells have been used to treat cancer patients with conditions such as leukemia and lymphoma. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, "white" aima αίμα, "blood" is a Cancer of the Blood Lymphoma a type of Neoplasm that originates in Lymphocytes (a type of White blood cell in the vertebrate Immune system) During chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. Chemotherapy, in its most general sense refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells specifically those of micro-organisms or Cancer. Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells Examples of toxic agents are a Chemical substance, an Immune cell or some types of Venom These agents not only kill the leukemia or neoplastic cells, but also the haematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow. Haematopoiesis (from Ancient Greek haima blood poiesis to make (or hematopoiesis in the United States sometimes also haemopoiesis or It is this unfortunate side effect of the chemotherapy that the Stem Cell Transplant attempts to reverse; the donor's healthy bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to replace those lost in the treatment. In all current Stem Cell treatments obtaining Stem Cells from a matched Donor is preferable to using the patients own. If (always as a last resort and usually because no matched Donor can be found) it is deemed necessary for the patients own stem cells to be used and the patient has not stored their own collection of stem cells (umbilical cord blood), bone marrow samples must therefore be removed before chemotherapy, and are re-injected afterwards.
Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes within the brain. Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells, these divide and act to maintain general stem cell numbers or become progenitor cells. The concept of a progenitor cell is difficult to define Like Stem cells, progenitor cells have a capacity to differentiate into a specific type of cell In healthy adult animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). Interestingly, in pregnancy and after injury, this system appears to be regulated by growth factors and can increase the rate at which new brain matter is formed. In the case of brain injury, although the reparative process appears to initiate, substantial recovery is rarely observed in adults, suggesting a lack of robustness.
Recently, results from research conducted in rats subjected to stroke, suggested that administration of drugs to increase the stem cell division rate and direct the survival and differentiation of newly formed cells could be successful. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain In the study referenced below, biological drugs were administered after stroke to activate two key steps in the reparative process. Findings from this study seem to support a new strategy for the treatment of stroke using a simple elegant approach, aimed at directing recovery from stroke by potentially protecting and/or regenerating new tissue. The authors found that, within weeks, recovery of brain structure is accompanied by recovery of lost limb function suggesting the potential for development of a new class of stroke therapy or brain injury therapy in humans.
Research injecting neural (adult) stem cells into the brains of dogs has shown to be be very successful in treating cancerous tumors. See also Cancer A tumor or tumour is the name for a swelling or lesion formed by an abnormal growth of cells (termed neoplastic With traditional techniques brain cancer is almost impossible to treat because it spreads so rapidly. A brain tumor is any intracranial Tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the Brain itself ( Neurons Researchers at the Harvard Medical School induced intracranial tumours in rodents. Harvard Medical School ( HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University and currently the #1 medical school in America as ranked by U Then, they injected human neural stem cells. Within days the cells had migrated into the cancerous area and produced cytosine deaminase, an enzyme that converts a non-toxic pro-drug into a chemotheraputic agent. As a result, the injected substance was able to reduce tumor mass by 81 percent. The stem cells neither differentiated nor turned tumorigenic. In Developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized Cell type.  Some researchers believe that the key to finding a cure for cancer is to inhibit cancer stem cells, where the cancer tumor originates. Currently, cancer treatments are designed to kill all cancer cells, but through this method, researchers would be able to develop drugs to specifically target these stem cells. 
A team of Korean researchers reported on November 25, 2004, that they had transplanted multipotent adult stem cells from umbilical cord blood to a patient suffering from a spinal cord injury and that she can now walk on her own, without difficulty. Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The patient had not been able stand up for roughly 19 years. The team was co-headed by researchers at Chosun University, Seoul National University and the Seoul Cord Blood Bank (SCB). Chosun University is one of the oldest and prestigious private universities in South Korea. Seoul National University ( SNU) is a national Research university in Seoul, South Korea. For the unprecedented clinical test, the scientists isolated adult stem cells from umbilical cord blood and then injected them into the damaged part of the spinal cord. Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body after embryonic development that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged 
The Korean researchers have followed up on their original work. The original treatment was conducted in November 2004. On April 18, 2005, the researchers announced that they will be conducting a second treatment on the woman. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  The researchers have followed up with a case study write-up on their work. It is located in the journal Cytotherapy. 
According to the October 7, 2005 issue of The Week, University of California researchers injected human embryonic stem cells into paralyzed mice, which resulted in the mice regaining the ability to move and walk four months later. Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Week ( was created by Jolyon Connell and Jeremy O'Grady in 1995. The University of California ( UC) is a Public university system in the state of California. The researchers discovered upon dissecting the mice that the stem cells regenerated not only the neurons, but also the cells of the myelin sheath, a layer of cells which insulates neural impulses and speeds them up, facilitating communication with the brain (damage to which is often the cause of neurological injury in humans). Myelin is an electrically-insulating Dielectric Phospholipid layer that surrounds only the Axons of many Neurons It is an outgrowth .
In January 2005, researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison differentiated human blastocyst stem cells into neural stem cells, then into the beginnings of motor neurons, and finally into spinal motor neuron cells, the cell type that, in the human body, transmits messages from the brain to the spinal cord. Embryonic stem cells (ES cells are Stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of an early stage Embryo known as a Blastocyst. In Vertebrates the term motor neuron (or motoneuron) classically applies to Neurons located in the Central nervous system (or CNS that project A message in its most general meaning is an object of Communication. The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain The spinal cord is a long thin tubular bundle of Nerves that is an extension of the Central nervous system from the brain and is enclosed in and protected The newly generated motor neurons exhibited electrical activity, the signature action of neurons. Neurons (ˈnjuːɹɒn also known as neurones and nerve cells) are responsive cells in the Nervous system that process and transmit information Lead researcher Su-Chun Zhang described the process as "you need to teach the blastocyst stem cells to change step by step, where each step has different conditions and a strict window of time. "
Transforming blastocyst stem cells into motor neurons had eluded researchers for decades. The next step will be to test if the newly generated neurons can communicate with other cells when transplanted into a living animal; the first test will be in chicken embryos. Su-Chun said their trial-and-error study helped them learn how motor neuron cells, which are key to the nervous system, develop in the first place. The nervous system is a Network of specialized cells that communicate information about an animal's surroundings and itself The new cells could be used to treat diseases like Lou Gehrig's disease, muscular dystrophy, and spinal cord injuries. A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ( ALS, sometimes called Maladie de Charcot, or in the United States Lou Gehrig's Disease) is a progressive Muscular dystrophy (MD refers to a group of genetic, Hereditary Muscle diseases that cause progressive muscle weakness
Several clinical trials targeting heart disease have shown that adult stem cell therapy is safe and effective. Adult stem cell therapy for heart disease was commercially available on at least five continents at the last count (2007).
In December 2004, a team of researchers led by Dr. Luc Douay at the University of Paris developed a method to produce large numbers of red blood cells. The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century The Nature Biotechnology paper, entitled Ex vivo generation of fully mature human red blood cells, describes the process: precursor red blood cells, called hematopoietic stem cells, are grown together with stromal cells, creating an environment that mimics the conditions of bone marrow, the natural site of red blood cell growth. Nature Biotechnology ( Nat Biotechnol; ISSN 1087-0156 is an academic journal covering the science and business of Biotechnology. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are Stem cells that give rise to all the blood cell types including Myeloid ( Monocytes and Macrophages, Neutrophils In Cell biology, stromal cells are Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue Erythropoietin, a growth factor, is added, coaxing the stem cells to complete terminal differentiation into red blood cells. Erythropoietin (ɨˌɹɪθɹoʊˈpɔɪɨtɨn /ɨˌɹɪθɹoʊˈpɔɪtən/ or /ɨˌɹiːθɹoʊ-/ or EPO is a Glycoprotein Hormone that controls The term growth factor refers to a naturally occurring Protein capable of stimulating cellular growth proliferation and Cellular differentiation.
Further research into this technique should have potential benefits to gene therapy, blood transfusion, and topical medicine.
Hair follicles also contain stem cells, and some researchers predict research on these follicle stem cells may lead to successes in treating baldness through "hair multiplication", also known as "hair cloning", as early as 2007. Hair is a keratinised protein filament that grows through the epidermis from follicles deep within the Dermis. Baldness involves the state of lacking hair where it often grows especially on the head This treatment is expected to work through taking stem cells from existing follicles, multiplying them in cultures, and implanting the new follicles into the scalp. Later treatments may be able to simply signal follicle stem cells to give off chemical signals to nearby follicle cells which have shrunk during the aging process, which in turn respond to these signals by regenerating and once again making healthy hair. Ageing or aging (American English is the accumulation of changes in an organism Hair Cloning Nears Reality as Baldness Cure (WebMD November 2004)
In 2004, scientists at King's College London discovered a way to cultivate a complete tooth in mice and were able to grow them stand-alone in the laboratory. WebMD is a medical and wellness information service primarily known for its public Internet site which provides health information a symptom checklist pharmacy information blogs of King's College London is a British Higher education institution and co-founding constituent college of the federal University of London. Researchers are confident that this technology can be used to grow live teeth in human patients.
In theory, stem cells taken from the patient could be coaxed in the lab into turning into a tooth bud which, when implanted in the gums, will give rise to a new tooth, which would be expected to take two months to grow.  It will fuse with the jawbone and release chemicals that encourage nerves and blood vessels to connect with it. The process is similar to what happens when humans grow their original adult teeth.
It's estimated that it may take until 2009 before the technology is widely available to the general public, but the genetic research scientist behind the technique, Professor Paul Sharpe of King's College, estimates the method could be ready to test on patients by 2007.  His startup company, Odontis, fully expects to offer tooth replacement therapy by the end of the decade. Odontis is a UK based dental company started by Professor Paul Sharpe
In 2005, Cryopraxis a stem cell bank in Brazil, collected baby tooth stem cells and harvested different types of differentiated cell types including neurons. This technology may one day make baby teeth a good source of stem cells.
In the next three years, Paul Sharpe hopes to identify more-accessible stem cells that may be able to form not only teeth, but also--and more importantly--roots. 
There has been success in regrowing cochlea hair cells with the use of stem cells. 
Since 2003, researchers have successfully transplanted retinal stem cells into damaged eyes to restore vision. Using embryonic stem cells, scientists are able to grow a thin sheet of totipotent stem cells in the laboratory. Embryonic stem cells (ES cells are Stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of an early stage Embryo known as a Blastocyst. When these sheets are transplanted over the damaged retina, the stem cells stimulate renewed repair, eventually restoring vision. The vertebrate retina is a light sensitive part inside the inner layer of the Eye.  The latest such development was in June 2005, when researchers at the Queen Victoria Hospital of Sussex, England were able to restore the sight of forty patients using the same technique. For the former Queen Victoria Hospital in Melbourne Victoria, now partly demolished and converted into a women's centre see Queen Victoria Hospital Melbourne Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. The group, led by Dr. Sheraz Daya, was able to successfully use adult stem cells obtained from the patient, a relative, or even a cadaver. A cadaver or corpse is a dead Body. "Cadaver" is normally used as a more formal term for a body being used in medical training or research Further rounds of trials are ongoing. 
In April 2005, doctors in the UK transplanted corneal stem cells from an organ donor to the cornea of Deborah Catlyn, a woman who was blinded in one eye when an acid was thrown in her eye at a nightclub. The cornea is the transparent front part of the Eye that covers the iris, Pupil, and Anterior chamber. The cornea is the transparent front part of the Eye that covers the iris, Pupil, and Anterior chamber. The cornea, which is the transparent window of the eye, is a particularly suitable site for transplants. In fact, the first successful human transplant was carried out in 1905 on a cornea by Dr. Eduard Zirm. Eduard Konrad Zirm ( 18 March 1863 - 15 March 1944) was an Ophthalmologist who performed the first successful human Organ transplant The recipient was Alois Gloger, a labourer who had been blinded in an accident. The cornea has the remarkable property that it does not contain any blood vessels, making it relatively easy to transplant. The majority of corneal transplants carried out today are due to a degenerative disease called keratoconus which causes vision impairment and has no known cure even after corneal transplant. Keratoconus (from Greek: kerato- horn cornea and konos cone is a degenerative disorder of the It is hoped that stem cell research will one day provide a cure to such debilitating corneal disorders.
The University Hospital of New Jersey claims a success rate growing the new cells from transplanted stem cells varies from 25 percent to 70 percent. The University Hospital is a Hospital located in Newark NJ. It is owned and run by the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, and is 
In the April 4, 2001 edition of JAMA (Vol. Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. 285, 1691-1693), Drs. Gearhart and Kerr of Johns Hopkins University used stem cells to cure rats of an ALS-like disease. The rats were injected with a virus to kill the spinal cord motor nerves related to leg movement. Dr. Gearhart and Dr. Kerr then injected the spinal cords of the rats with stem cells. These migrated to the sites of injury where they were able to regenerate the dead nerve cells restoring the rats which were once again able to walk.
Horses have been treated with stem cells since 2003, mainly to treat injuries to the tendons, ligaments, and joints of sport horses or racehorses. Trot projection-1-jpg|right|thumb|270px|A trot showing natural suspension This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. Fat is harvested from the tail head and processed, and an animal may receive treatment within two days after the sample is taken. Injuries that may be treated include Degenerative Joint Disease, tendonitis, suspensory ligament desmitis, Osteochondrosis, fractures, and sub-chonral bone cysts. Osteoarthritis ( OA, also known as degenerative Arthritis, degenerative joint disease) is a clinical syndrome in which low-grade inflammation The Osteochondrosis are a family of Orthopedic Diseases that occur in children and in rapidly growing animals particularly pigs horses and dogs Currently, research is also being performed on stem cell application in laminitis and COPD. Laminitis is a disease of the digital Laminae of the Hoof ( Foot of an Ungulate) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) is a Disease of the lungs in which the Airways become narrowed 
A recent double-blinded, placebo controlled study showed the effectiveness of adipose-derived stem cells in dogs with osteoarthritis, specifically, bilateral hip dysplasia ([Black et al, Veterinary Therapeutics, 8 (4), 2007). ]
There is currently research being performed on chronic hepatitis and canine muscular dystrophy. This work, which has been successfully translated from mice to dogs could provide a means of treating muscular dystrophy in humans.
There is wide spread controversy over the use of embryonic stem cells. Stem cell controversy is the ethical debate centered on research involving the creation usage and destruction of Human embryonic stem cells Some opponents of the research argue This controversy is over the technique used to create new embryonic stem cell lines, which often requires the destruction of the blastocyst. A stem cell line is a family of constantly-dividing cells the product of a single parent group of Stem cells. The blastocyst is the structure formed in early Embryogenesis, after the formation of the Blastocoel, but before Implantation.
Opposition to the use of human embryonic stem cells in research is based on moral or religious objections. Others point to the success already being achieved with stem cell therapy that does not result in the destruction of a developing human being, such as the use of cord blood cells to treat spinal cord injury paralysis or recent research in turning skin fibroblasts into embryonic stem cell-like cells, and argue that research should be aimed in those avenues with a proven safety and efficacy.
It was reported in the New York Times (14 August 2006), by Nicholas Wade, that some scientists see a shift in stem cell hopes. Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Several mentioned that the main role of stem cells was in research. Many no longer see cell therapy as the first goal of the research, parting company with those whose near-term expectations for cell therapy remain high. 
Thomas M. Jessell, a neurobiologist at Columbia University said "Many of us feel that for the next few years the most rational way forward is not to push stem cell therapies. "
Stem cell research and treatment is actively practiced in China. State funded Chinese Companies based in the Shenzhen Hi-Tech Industrial Zone claim to treat the symptoms of numerous disorders with adult stem cell therapy. Shenzhen is a city of sub-provincial administrative status in southern China's Guangdong province situated immediately Hospitals throughout eastern China provide numerous therapies to patients in coordination with the stem cell providers. These companies' therapies are currently focused on the treatment of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders. Neurodegenerative Disease ( Greek νέυρο- néuro-, "nerval" and Latin dēgenerāre, "to decline" or "to Cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular diseases refers to the class of diseases that involve the Heart or Blood vessels ( arteries and
Chinese stem cell research has not been restricted by the ethical dilemmas and legislative gridlock surrounding the procurement and use of human embryonic stem cells in other developed nations such as the US, UK, and Australia. Stem cell controversy is the ethical debate centered on research involving the creation usage and destruction of Human embryonic stem cells Some opponents of the research argue These issues have also hampered the development of adult stem cell research and therapy, as unrelated a cellular origin as they may have. Most stem cell therapies provided in China utilize umbilical cord stem cells (drawn from Wharton's jelly) donated from live births. Wharton's jelly is a gelatinous substance within the Umbilical cord, composed of cells that originate in the original egg and sperm of conception The stem cells are then expanded in centralized blood banks. Cells are delivered to patients via IV, spinal epidural, subcutaneous injection or transplantation. Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of Liquid substances directly into a Vein. The term epidural is often short for epidural anesthesia, a form of Regional anesthesia involving injection of drugs through a Catheter placed into the An injection is an infusion method of putting Liquid into the Body, usually with a hollow needle and a Syringe which is pierced through
While anecdotal evidence of secondary adult stem cell activity has existed for several decades alongside bone marrow transplant therapies, "off-label" uses for stem cells are strictly forbidden in the USA. Off-label use is the practice of prescribing drugs for a purpose outside the scope of the drug's approved label most often concerning the drug's indication. There, protocols for proposed treatments are described and enforced by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In America, the period between laboratory experimentation and clinical treatment can be decades long. Researchers actively treating patients with experimental therapies outside of carefully monitored clinical trials can be subject to harsh disciplinary action by their institutions. The Chinese Ministry of Health has already accepted the use of stem cell therapy for many disorders. After years of practice, stem cell therapy is no longer considered new or dangerous in China and is regularly used by the Chinese in the treatment of the degenerative effects of Multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. A degenerative disease is a disease in which the function or structure of the affected tissues or organs will progressively deteriorate over time whether due to normal Multiple sclerosis (abbreviated MS also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata) is an autoimmune condition in which the Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the Central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's International "Medical Tourists" are among the thousands of patients treated in China every year for disorders the patients' home country's medical professionals offer no treatment. Medical tourism (also called medical travel, health tourism or global healthcare is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the Mass media