Statistics and data analysis procedures can broadly be split into two parts: quantitative techniques and graphical techniques. Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. Data analysis is the process of looking at and summarizing Data with the intent to extract useful Information and develop conclusions Quantitative techniques are the set of statistical procedures that yield numeric or tabular output. Examples of quantitative techniques include hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, point estimation, confidence intervals, and least squares regression. A statistical hypothesis test is a method of making statistical decisions using experimental data In Statistics, ANOVA is short for analysis of variance Analysis of variance is a collection of Statistical models and their associated procedures in which the observed In Statistics, point estimation involves the use of sample Data to calculate a single value (known as a Statistic) which is to serve as a "best In Statistics, a confidence interval (CI is an interval estimate of a Population parameter. In statistics linear regression is a form of Regression analysis in which the relationship between one or more Independent variables and another variable called These and similar techniques are all valuable and are mainstream in terms of classical analysis.
On the other hand, there is a large collection of statistical tools that we generally refer to as graphical techniques. These include: scatter plots, histograms, probability plots, residual plots, box plots, block plots, and biplots. A scatter graph or scatter plot is a type of Display using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two Variables for a set of data In Statistics, a histogram is a Graphical display of tabulated frequencies, shown as Bars It shows what proportion of cases fall into each of The probability plot is a Graphical technique for assessing whether or not a Data set follows a given distribution such as the normal or Weibull In Descriptive statistics, a boxplot (also known as a box-and-whisker diagram or plot) is a convenient way of graphically depicting groups of numerical Biplots are a type of graph used in Statistics. A biplot allows information on both Samples and Variables of a data matrix to be displayed Exploratory data analysis (EDA) relies heavily on these and similar graphical techniques. Exploratory data analysis (EDA is an approach to analyzing data for the purpose of formulating hypotheses worth testing complementing the tools of conventional Graphical procedures are not just tools used in an EDA context; such graphical tools are the shortest path to gaining insight into a data set in terms of testing assumptions, model selection and statistical model validation, estimator selection, relationship identification, factor effect determination, and outlier detection. Model selection is the task of selecting a Statistical model from a set of potential models given data Model validation is possibly the most important step in the model building sequence In Statistics, an outlier is an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data. In addition, good statistical graphics can provide a convincing means of communicating the underlying message that is present in the data to others.
Famous graphics were designed by William Playfair who published what could be called the first pie chart and the well known diagram that depicts the evolution of England's imports and exports. William Playfair ( Sept 22, 1759 – Feb 11, 1823) was a Scottish Engineer and Political economist, who is considered the founder of A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular Chart divided into sectors illustrating relative magnitudes or frequencies or percents England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Other notorious graph makers were Florence Nightingale who used statistical graphics to persuade the British Government to improve army hygiene, John Snow (physician) who plotted deaths from cholera in London in 1854 to detect the source of the disease, and Charles Joseph Minard who designed a large portfolio of maps of which the one depicting Napoleon's campaign in Russia is the best known. Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC (in her own pronunciation ˈflɒɾəns ˈnaɪtɪŋgeɪl 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910 who came to be known as "The John Snow ( 15 March 1813 &ndash 16 June 1858) was a British physician and a leader in the adoption of Anaesthesia and medical Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Year 1854 ( MDCCCLIV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Charles Joseph Minard (27 March 1781 in Dijon &ndash 24 October 1870 in Bordeaux) was a French Civil engineer noted for his inventions in the field Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending A special type of statistical graphic are the so called isotypes. In Graphic design and Sociology, an Isotype is a system of Pictograms designed by the Austrian educator and philosopher Otto Neurath These are graphical tools designed by Otto Neurath with the specific purpose of achieving changes in society through visual education of the masses. Otto Neurath (1882 - 1945 was an Austrian philosopher of science, sociologist, and political economist.
If one is not using statistical graphics, then one is forfeiting insight into one or more aspects of the underlying structure of the data.
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