A sperm bank or cryobank is a facility that collects and stores human sperm mainly from sperm donors, primarily for the purposes of artificial insemination. A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( pl spermatozoa) from the Ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed and ζῷον (living being and more commonly known Sperm donation is the name of the practice by which a Man, known as a sperm donor, provides his Semen with the intention that it be used to produce a baby AIH redirects here For the indie rock band abbreviated AIH see Architecture in Helsinki Artificial insemination (AI is the process by which The first two sperm banks were opened in Iowa City, Iowa, USA and Tokyo, Japan in 1965. Iowa City is a city in Johnson County, Iowa, United States. It is the principal city of the Iowa City Iowa Metropolitan Statistical Area which The State of Iowa ( is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
The sperm is stored in small vials or straws of holding between 0. 4 and 1. 0 ml and cryogenically preserved in liquid nitrogen tanks. Cryopreservation is a process where cells or whole tissues are preserved by cooling to low sub-zero Temperatures such as (typically 77 K or −196 Liquid nitrogen (liquid density at the Triple point is 0707 g/mL is the liquid produced industrially in large quantities by Fractional distillation of There seems to be no limit on how long frozen sperm can be stored, and a baby has been conceived in the UK using sperm frozen for 21 years. Before freezing, sperm may be prepared so that it can be used for intra-cervical insemination (ICI), intra-uterine insemination (IUI) or for IVF (or assisted reproduction) (ART).
Sperm supplied by a sperm bank may be used where a woman's partner is infertile or where he carries genetic disease. The term sperm is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα sperma (meaning "seed" and refers to the male reproductive cells. Increasingly, donor sperm is used to achieve a pregnancy where a woman has no male partner, including a rising percentage of single or coupled lesbians. Sperm from a sperm donor may also be used in surrogacy arrangements and for creating embryos for embryo donation. Sperm donation is the name of the practice by which a Man, known as a sperm donor, provides his Semen with the intention that it be used to produce a baby Surrogacy is a method of Reproduction whereby a woman agrees to become pregnant and deliver a child for a contracted party An embryo (from Greek:, plural, lit "that which grows" from en- "in" + bryein "to swell be full" is a multicellular Embryo donation is a form of Third party reproduction. In vitro fertilisation often results in a number of frozen unused embryos after the woman for whom they were Donor sperm may be supplied by the sperm bank directly to the recipient to enable a woman to perform her own artificial insemination or, more usually, to a woman through a registered medical practitioner who will perform an appropriate method of insemination or IVF treatment using the donor sperm in order for the woman to become pregnant. AIH redirects here For the indie rock band abbreviated AIH see Architecture in Helsinki Artificial insemination (AI is the process by which In vitro fertilisation ( IVF) is a process by which
Sperm banks may supply other sperm banks or a fertility clinic with donor sperm to be used for achieving pregnancies. Fertility clinics are staffed medical clinics that assist couples and sometimes individuals who want to become Parents but for medical reasons have been unable to achieve this Sperm banks may also supply sperm for research or educational purposes.
In countries where sperm banks are allowed to operate, the sperm donor will not usually become the legal father of the children he produces as the result of the use of the sperm he donates, but he will be the 'biological father' of such children. In cases of surrogacy involving embryo donation, a form of 'gestational surrogacy', the 'commissioning mother' or the 'commissioning parents' will not be biologically related to the child and may need to go through an adoption procedure. Surrogacy is a method of Reproduction whereby a woman agrees to become pregnant and deliver a child for a contracted party Embryo donation is a form of Third party reproduction. In vitro fertilisation often results in a number of frozen unused embryos after the woman for whom they were Surrogacy is a method of Reproduction whereby a woman agrees to become pregnant and deliver a child for a contracted party
As with other forms of third party reproduction, the use of donor sperm from a sperm bank gives rise to a number of moral, legal and ethical issues. Third party reproduction refers to a process where another person provides sperm or eggs or where another woman provides her Uterus so that a woman can
Men may also use a sperm bank to store their own sperm for future use particularly where they anticipate traveling to a war zone or having to undergo chemotherapy which might damage the testes. Chemotherapy, in its most general sense refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells specifically those of micro-organisms or Cancer.
Sperm banks may also allow people to choose the sex of their child or to choose what characteristics they want their child or children to inherit. This is an example of selective breeding. This article focuses on selective breeding in domesticated animals
In the United States sperm banks are regulated by the FDA with new guidelines in effect May 25, 2005. There are also regulation in different states including New York and California. In the EU the sperm banks are regulated by the EU Tissue Directive in effect April 7, 2006. The Directive are setting standards of quality and safety for the donation procurement testing processing preservation storage and distribution (including import and export in/out from EU of
Using anonymous donor sperm or sperm from a known or identifiable sperm donor through a sperm bank is a safe and reliable method of achieving a pregnancy. Sperm donation is the name of the practice by which a Man, known as a sperm donor, provides his Semen with the intention that it be used to produce a baby A sperm bank takes a number of steps to ensure the health and quality of the sperm which it supplies. The donor will produce the sperm at the sperm bank and the sperm will be checked to ensure fecundity and to ensure that motile sperm survive the freezing process. In addition, donors are tested and constantly re-tested and monitored. All sperm is frozen and stored for a minimum of 6 months before being released for sale to ensure that the donor is healthy and that his sperm will not pass any sexual or other transmissable diseases. Donors are subject to tests for diseases such as human immunoviruses HIV (HIV-1 and HIV-2), human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2), syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), cystic fibrosis, Karyotyping 46  XY, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV is a Human, single-stranded RNA Retrovirus that causes T-cell Leukemia and T-cell Lymphoma Syphilis is a Sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal Bacterium Treponema pallidum pallidum. Chlamydia is a Genus of Bacteria in the family Chlamydiaceae, order Chlamydiales, class and phylum Chlamydiae Gonorrhea (also gonorrhoea) caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is a common Sexually transmitted disease. This page is for the virus For the disease see Hepatitis C. Hepatitis C virus ( HCV) is a small (50 nm in size Cytomegalovirus (CMV (from the Greek cyto-, "cell" and -megalo-, "large" is a viral Cystic fibrosis (also known as CF, mucoviscoidosis, or mucoviscidosis) is a hereditary disease affecting the exocrine (mucus glands of the lungs The XY sex-determination system is the Sex-determination system found in Humans most other Mammals some insects ( Drosophila) and some Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies' ( TSEs, also known as prion diseases) are a group of progressive conditions that affect the Brain and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease ( CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder ( Brain Disease) that is ultimately A sperm donor may also be subject to genetic testing and a sperm bank will obtain medical records of the sperm donor, often for several generations. A sperm sample is usually examined micro-biologically. A sperm donor's blood group is also checked to ensure compatibility with the recipient. Karyotyping is not a requirement in the U. S. but some sperm banks choose to test donors as an extra service to the customer.