Space music typically evokes a sense of spatial imagery and emotion or sensations of floating, cruising, flying and other transportative sensations.
Space music, also spelled spacemusic, is an umbrella term used to describe music that evokes a feeling of contemplative spaciousness.    Space music can be found within a wide range of genres. A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other  It is particularly associated with ambient, new age, and electronic music. Ambient music is a Musical genre in which sound is more important than notes New Age music is peaceful Music of various styles which is intended to create inspiration relaxation and positive feelings often used by listeners for Yoga, Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production Some music from the western classical, world, Celtic, traditional, experimental and other idioms also falls within the definition of space music. Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music The term world music includes Traditional music (sometimes called Folk music or roots music of any culture that are created and played by indigenous musicians Celtic music is a term utilised by artists record companies music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of Musical genres that evolved out of the Folk Traditional music is the term now used in the terminology of Grammy Awards for what used to be called " folk music " Experimental music is a term introduced by composer John Cage in 1955 
Space music ranges from simple to complex sonic textures, often (though not exclusively) lacking conventional melodic, rhythmic, or vocal components, typically evoking a "continuum of spatial imagery and emotion", beneficial introspection, attentiveness for deep listening, subtle trance effects called "spacey", (defined by the Compact Oxford Dictionary as "drifting and ethereal") and psychoacoustic spatial perceptions, particularly, sensations of flying, floating, cruising, gliding, or hovering. Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human Perception of Sounds Alternatively it can be described as the study of the Psychological correlates 
Space music is used by individuals for both background enhancement and foreground listening, often with headphones, to enable states of relaxation, contemplation, inspiration, and generally peaceful expansive moods; it may promote health through relaxation, atmospherics for bodywork therapies, and effectiveness of meditation. A Relaxation technique (also known as Relaxation training) is any method process procedure or activity that helps a person to relax to attain a state of increased calmness In Automotive engineering, the bodywork of an Automobile is the structure which protects The occupants Any other payload Meditation is a mental discipline by which one attempts to get beyond the conditioned "thinking" mind into a deeper state of relaxation or awareness  Space music appears in many film soundtracks and is commonly played in planetariums. A planetarium is a Theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about Astronomy and the night sky or for training in Celestial navigation 
An eclectic form of music, produced almost exclusively by independent labels, space music occupies a small niche in the marketplace, supported and enjoyed by a relatively small audience of loyal enthusiastic listeners. Eclecticism is used to describe the combination in a single work of elements from different historical styles An independent record label (or indie record label) is a Record label operating without the funding of or outside the organizations of the Major record labels A niche market is a focused targetable portion (subset of a market 
The term "space music" has evolved and changed since it was first used over a half century ago. While there is a general agreement among contemporary Space music radio programmers, music critics, authors, and record producers about the sound and uses of the music, there is little agreement about how to define the term and how space music fits within the continuum of music genres. A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other 
Six referenced commentators do not use the term interchangeably with ambient music, one is ambiguous, and one does so. Ambient music is a Musical genre in which sound is more important than notes Nine referenced commentators use the term space music as a subgenre of new age music (separate from ambient music) and do not use it interchangeably, one is ambiguous, four use space music interchangeably with new age music, and four consider space music and new age music completely unrelated. New Age music is peaceful Music of various styles which is intended to create inspiration relaxation and positive feelings often used by listeners for Yoga, Two referenced commentators refer to space music as a sub-genre of electronic rock. Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production 
Stephen Hill, co-founder of "Music from the Hearts of Space" (syndicated nationally in the USA on National Public Radio and XM Satellite Radio), uses the phrase "contemplative music, broadly defined" as an overview to describe the music played on his station, along with the term "spacemusic". Hearts of Space is an American weekly syndicated Public radio show featuring music of a contemplative nature drawn largely from the ambient  He states that the "genre spans historical, ethnic, and contemporary styles", and that it combines elements from many cultures and genres, blended with varieties of acoustic and electronic ambient music, "woven into a seamless sequence unified by sound, emotion, and spatial imagery. " In his essay New age Music made Simple, he referred to space music as a sub-category of New Age. New Age music is peaceful Music of various styles which is intended to create inspiration relaxation and positive feelings often used by listeners for Yoga, 
Hill's partner and co-founder of "Music from the Hearts of Space" Anna Turner (1944-1996) wrote in her 1989 essay entitled Space Music, that "New Age Space music carries visions in its notes; it is transcendent inner and outer space music that opens, allows and creates space. . . this music speaks to our present moment, to the great allegory of moving out beyond our boundaries into space, and reflexively, to the unprecedented adventures of the psyche that await within. "
In her book The New Age Music Guide, author, editor and music critic P. J. Birosik classifies Space music as a subgenre of New Age music, as does Dallas Smith, writer, teacher and recording artist in his essay New Age Jazz/Fusion.  Steven Halpern, noted recording artist and workshop leader writes that Space music has been considered a synonym for New Age music: " 'Space' is a vital dimension of New Age music; so much so that one of the early appellations for the genre was simply 'space music', referring both to its texture and to the state that it tended to evoke in the listener. "
Music critic Lloyde Barde, founder of Backroads music, has also used a variety of definitions for Space music over time. He has referred to it as a type of Ambient music, along with the closely related genre New Age music, and has also stated the opposite; that Space music is a separate genre, with a distinct identity not part of Ambient or Electronic music, "while drawing from any number of traditional, ethnic, or modern styles. Ambient music is a Musical genre in which sound is more important than notes New Age music is peaceful Music of various styles which is intended to create inspiration relaxation and positive feelings often used by listeners for Yoga, "
Radio programmer John Dilaberto has stated that space music is related to electronic music,, as has Bay Area musician, composer and sound designer Robert Rich, who considers space music to be a combination of Electronic music influences from the 1970s with world music and "modern compositional methods". Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production  Forest, host of Musical Starstreams refers to Space music as a separate genre along with Ambient music, and others including dub, downtempo, trip hop, and acid jazz in the list of genres he calls "exotic electronica". Musical Starstreams (aka Starstreams) is a commercial radio broadcast that first aired in the San Francisco bay area in December 1981  Similarly, WXPN Radio's Star's End, programming ambient music since 1976, on its website lists Space music as a separate genre, along with Ambient, New Age, and others. WXPN (885 FM) is a non-commercial public Radio station operated by the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia that broadcasts Star's End is also a 1974 album by British composer David Bedford. 
Steve Sande, freelance writer for the San Francisco Chronicle considers space music to be "Anything but New Age," and writes that "spacemusic [is] also known as ambient, chill-out, mellow dub, down-tempo. The San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H " In the same article, he describes Stephen Hill's "Hearts of Space" spacemusic program as streaming ambient, electronic, world, New Age and classical music.  In contrast to this, according to author and National Endowment for the Arts researcher Judith H. The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA is a United States federally funded and donation assisted program that offers support and funding for projects exhibiting artistic excellence Balfe, Billboard editor Jerry Wood describes space music as a one of several "genres within the genre" of new age music. 
All Music Guide, one of the world's largest commercial databases of music-related information, defines Space music as a subgenre of New Age music. allmusic (previously All Music Guide) is a Metadata database about music owned by All Media Guide.  Similarly, mainstream retailer Barnes & Noble, independent online music retailer CDBaby, and RealNetwork's music download service Rhapsody all classify Space music as a subgenre of New Age music. Barnes & Noble Inc is the largest book retailer in the United States, operating mainly through its Barnes & Noble Booksellers chain of Bookstores CD Baby is an Online music store specializing in the sale of physical Compact discs and digital music downloads from independent Musicians directly to consumers Rhapsody is an online music service run by RealNetworks. Launched in December 2001 Rhapsody was the first music service to offer streaming on-demand access to nearly   Rhapsody's editorial staff writes in their music genre description for Space music (listed as a subgenre of New Age music) that "New Age composers have looked upward for inspiration, creating an abstract notion of the sounds of interstellar music. "
Musicologist Joseph Lanza relates space music to prior generations of relaxing or environmental music, with a twist, writing, "Space music is easy-listening with amnesia, sounding like the future but retaining unconscious ties to elevator music of the past. Easy listening music is a style of Popular music and radio format that emerged in the mid-20th century evolving out of swing and Big band music "
As described by Stephen Hill, the predominant defining element of spacemusic is its contemplative nature.  Within that overview, space music includes a wide variety of styles, instrumentation and influences - both acoustic or electronic.  For example, the playlist archives of the "Hearts of Space" program lists the following genres as included in their programming:
- Electronic space music: Electronic Space, Ambient/Downtempo, Ethno/Ambient
- Acoustic or partially acoustic space music - Regional or national: African/Sub-Saharan, Celtic, Japanese, Scandinavian/Arctic, Central Asian, Latin American, Southeast Asian/Indonesian, Chinese, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern/North African, Spanish/Moorish, Tibetan, Native American, World Fusion, East Indian
- Acoustic or partially acoustic space music - Western:Contemporary Instrumental, New Vocal, Holiday, Miscellaneous/Eclectic, Space Jazz, Sacred/Choral, Guitar, Piano, Orchestral/Chamber
While many space music recording artists specialize in electronic forms, evolving out of the traditional Kosmische musik of the Berlin School (also known as Krautrock),  examples of recording artists who create the contemplative experience of space music using acoustic instruments and influences of cutlures from around the world are plentiful: Andreas Vollenweider (harp), George Winston (piano), Carlos Nakai and Coyote Oldman (Native American flutes), David Darling (cello), Paul Horn (woodwinds), Paul Winter (saxophone), and more. Krautrock is a generic name for the Experimental music scene that appeared in Germany in the late 1960s and gained popularity throughout the 1970s especially in Britain The Berlin School of electronic music, or just Berlin School, was a development of Electronic music in the 1970s shaped by Berlin -based artists like Krautrock is a generic name for the Experimental music scene that appeared in Germany in the late 1960s and gained popularity throughout the 1970s especially in Britain Andreas Vollenweider (born October 4 1953) is a Swiss Musician. George Winston (born 1949) is an American pianist who was born in Michigan, and grew up in Miles City Montana, and Mississippi R Carlos Nakai (born April 16, 1946) is a Native American flautist of Navajo / Ute heritage Coyote Oldman is a duo of New Age musicians consisting of Native American flute players Barry Stramp and Michael Graham Allen David Darling may refer to David Darling (musician (born 1941 American cellist and composer David Darling (astronomer (born 1953 Paul Horn is the name of Paul Horn (jazz musician (born 1930 jazz flutist Paul Horn (computer scientist, American computer scientist Paul Winter (born August 31, 1939 in Altoona Pennsylvania) is an American saxophonist (alto and soprano saxophone and is a six-time Examples of Space music artists using combinations of acoustic and electronic instruments are Deuter (flute and other esoteric instruments), Kitaro (Japanese drums and synthesizers), Laraaji (acoustic zither with electronic processing), Constance Demby (hammered dulcimer, cello, vocals, custom acoustic instruments and synthesizers), Oregon (world music influenced jazz), Mychael Danna (ethnic instruments and orchestra with electronic minimalism), and others. Deuter is a German New Age instrumentalist and recording artist known for his meditative style that blends Eastern and Western musical styles Kitarō (喜多郎 (born Masanori Takahashi (高橋正則 Takahashi Masanori) is a Grammy award-winning Japanese Musician, Composer Laraaji is an American Musician. Born Edward Larry Gordon in 1943 in Philadelphia, he studied violin piano trombone and voice in his early years Constance Demby is an American musician and composer Biography Demby's focus has included sculpture Oregon is a Jazz and World music group with core members Ralph Towner ( Guitar, Piano, Synthesizer, Trumpet) Mychael Danna (born September 20, 1958) is a Canadian film Composer.
Author and classical music critic David Hurwitz describes Joseph Haydn's choral and chamber orchestra piece, The Creation, composed in 1798, as space music, both in the sense of the sound of the music, ("a genuine piece of 'space music' featuring softly pulsating high violins and winds above low cellos and basses, with nothing at all in the middle . David Hurwitz is a classical music writer record reviewer and percussionist . . The space music gradually drifts towards a return to the movement's opening gesture . . . "); and in the manner of its composition, relating that Haydn conceived The Creation after discussing music and astronomy with William Herschel, oboist and astronomer (discoverer of the planet Uranus). Sir Frederick William Herschel FRS KH ( 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German -born British 
Karlheinz Stockhausen used the term "space music" in an entirely different sense when describing his early development as a composer, "The first revolution occurred from 1952/53 as musique concrète, electronic tape music, and space music, entailing composition with transformers, generators, modulators, magnetophones, etc, the integration of all concrete and abstract (synthetic) possibilities within sound (also all noises) and the controlled projection of sound in space. " In the sense meant here, he stated in 1967, "Several have commented that my electronic music sounds 'like on a different star,' or 'like in outer space. ' Many have said that when hearing this music, they have sensations as if flying at an infinitely high speed, and then again, as if immobile in an immense space. " 
Noted music historian Joseph Lanza described the emerging light music style during the early 1950s as a precursor to modern space music. Light music is a generic term applied to a mainly British musical style of "light" orchestral music which originated in the 19th Century and had its heyday during He wrote that orchestra conductor Mantovani used new studio technologies to "create sound tapestries with innumerable strings" and in particular, "the sustained hum of Mantovani's reverberated violins produced a sonic vaporizor foreshadowing the synthesizer harmonics of space music. Annunzio Paolo Mantovani ( November 15, 1905 &ndash March 29, 1980) known by the Mononym Mantovani was a popular conductor Reverberation is the persistence of Sound in a particular space after the original sound is removed " 
Jazz artist Sun Ra used the term to describe his music in 1956, when he stated that the music allowed him to translate his experience of the void of space into a language people could enjoy and understand. Sun Ra (born Herman Poole Blount, Legal name Le Sony'r Ra;  In 1960, the German composer Robert Beyer published a paper about "space" or "room music" He had been inspired by Homer Dudley's 1948 invention of the Vocoder and began in 1951 to work with a device known as a Melochord, in conjunction with magnetic tape recorders, leading to a decade of working at the Cologne school specializing in "Elektronischen Musik" using magnetic tape recorders, sine wave generators and serial composition techniques. A vocoder, ˈvoʊkoʊdər (a Portmanteau of vox/voc ( voice) and encoder) is an analysis / synthesis system mostly used for speech in which the input is Harald Bode ( October 19, 1909 – January 15, 1987) was a German engineer and pioneer in the development of Electronic music instruments This article deals mainly with analog tape recorders for audio applications information on digital recording, recording of video signals, and History The academy was founded by Ferdinand Hiller in 1850 as Conservatorium der Musik in Coeln. In Music, serialism is a technique for composition that uses sets to describe musical elements, and allows the manipulation of those 
In 1969, Miles Davis was introduced to the music of Stockhausen by young arranger and cellist, and later Grammy award winner, Paul Buckmaster, leading to a period of new creative exploration for Davis. Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26 1926 &ndash September 28 1991 was an American Jazz Trumpeter, Bandleader, and Composer. Paul Buckmaster is an artist Arranger, and Composer. He is perhaps best known for his collaborations with Elton John, but he has also worked as an Biographer J. K. Chambers wrote that "The effect of Davis's study of Stockhausen could not be repressed for long. . . . Davis's own 'space music,' shows Stockhausen's influence compositionally. " His recordings and performances during this period were described as "space music" by fans, by music critic Leonard Feather, and by Buckmaster who stated: "a lot of mood changes - heavy, dark, intense - definitely space music. Leonard Geoffrey Feather ( 13 September 1914 &ndash 22 September 1994) was a British -born Jazz pianist, " 
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Grateful Dead developed a new form of improvisational space music in their extended formless jam sessions during live concerts (which their fans referred to as "Space" though the band did not formally assign that title), and their experimental space music albums such as Aoxomoxoa, and later in the 1980s, Infrared Roses, and Grayfolded. The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Infrared Roses is a live Compilation album by the Grateful Dead. Grayfolded is an album produced by John Oswald featuring the Grateful Dead song " Dark Star "   Band member Phil Lesh released experimental space music recording Seastones with computer music pioneer Ned Lagin in 1975, one of the first albums to be issued in the innovative but commercially unsuccessful format SQ-Quadwith. Phillip Chapman Lesh (born March 15, 1940 in Berkeley California) is a Musician and a founding member of the Grateful Dead. Ned Lagin (born June 11 1949 is an American Avant-garde Keyboardist. Lagin used in real-time stage and studio performance of minicomputers driving real time digital to analog converters, prior to the time digital synthesizers became commercially available in the early 1980s. A digital synthesizer is a Synthesizer that uses Digital signal processing (DSP techniques to make musical sounds
Beginning in the early 1970's, the term "space music" was applied to some of the output of such artists as Vangelis, Jean-Michel Jarre, Klaus Schulze and Tangerine Dream, due to the transcendent cosmic feelings of space evoked by the sound of the music and enhanced by the use of the emerging new instrument, the synthesizer, and also in part to the "outer space" themes that are apparent in some of their works. Evangelos Odysseas Papathanassiou (Born March 29, 1943 in Volos, Greece) ( Greek: Ευάγγελος Οδυσσέας Παπαθανασίου Jean-Michel André Jarre (born 24 August 1948, Lyon) is a French Composer, performer and Music producer. Klaus Schulze (born August 4, 1947) is a German Electronic music Composer and musician. Tangerine Dream is a German Electronic music group founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese. These space music explorations diverged from traditional pop-song formats into longer less structured compositions.  Following their early influence on the development of space music, Tangerine Dream later produced increasingly rock-influenced works that are not generally described as space music. 
In 1971-72, Sun Ra brought his "space music" philosophy to UC Berkeley where he taught as artist-in-residence for the school year, creating notoriety among the students by devoting the second half-hour of each class to solo or band performances. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley Artist-in-residence programs and other residency opportunities allow visiting artists to stay and work 'for art's sake' In 1972, San Francisco public TV station KQED producer John Coney, producer Jim Newman, and screen writer Joshua Smith worked with Sun Ra to produce a 30 minute documentary film, expanded into a feature film released in 1974, entitled "Space is the Place", featuring Sun Ra's Arkestra and filmed in Golden Gate Park. Jim Newman is an American actor writer producer and director Born in Stevens Point Wisconsin, he currently lives in Burbank California. Joshua Smith or Josh Smith may refer to Joshua Smith (artist (1905&ndash1995 Australian artist Joshua Toulmin Smith (1816&ndash1869 Space Is the Place is an 82-minute Film made in 1972 and released in 1974. Sun Ra (born Herman Poole Blount, Legal name Le Sony'r Ra; Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco California, is a large Urban park consisting of 1017 acres (4 
In 1973 KPFA Berkeley, California radio producers Anna Turner and Stephen Hill used the phrase in the title of their local public radio show Music from the Hearts of Space. KPFA (941 FM) is a listener-funded Progressive talk radio and music Radio station located in Berkeley California, broadcasting to the Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. Hearts of Space is an American weekly syndicated Public radio show featuring music of a contemplative nature drawn largely from the ambient They developed an innovative segue music assembly technique, cross-mixing "spacey" instrumental pieces to create a sustained mood. A segue is a smooth transition from one topic or section to the next The term began to be used more widely when the show was syndicated nationally in 1983.  Other US-based radio programmers adopted the term as well, among them, John Diliberto, Steve Pross, and Gino Wong with Star's End, launched in 1976, F. Star's End is also a 1974 album by British composer David Bedford. J. Forest (a. k. a. “Forest”) with Musical Starstreams, launched in 1981 and nationally syndicated in 1983, and John Diliberto again with Echoes, launched in 1989. Musical Starstreams (aka Starstreams) is a commercial radio broadcast that first aired in the San Francisco bay area in December 1981 Echoes is a daily two-hour music radio program hosted by John Diliberto featuring a soundscape of ambient, spacemusic, Electronica, and
While Space music aficionados are enthusiastic about the music, it occupies a small, specialized niche in both the retail marketplace and radio programming. 
Of the many major online retailers of music CDs or downloads, mention of space music as a genre is rare. The music is available, but is found listed under other genres, mostly New Age, or Ambient music, or both. Even the wider genre of Electronic music is limited in market presence as a separate genre, with most online retailers generally including it as part of the Dance/DJ genre. The Grammy awards have a stand-alone category for New Age music, but include Electronic/Dance music as a sub-category of Dance music and do not offer a category for Space music  . The Grammy Awards (originally called the Gramophone Awards)—or Grammys —are presented annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences Synonyms Since around the mid-1980s electronic dance music has enjoyed popularity in many Nightclubs and as of 2006 is the predominant type of music played in Often Ambient music is classified under both New Age and Dance/DJ simulataneously. Some of the major online retailers that do not mention space music as either a genre or sub-genre in their catalogs include Amazon.com, Sam Goody, Tower Records, eMusic, Microsoft/Zune, FYE/Transworld Entertainment, and iTunes. Amazoncom Inc ( is an American electronic commerce ( E-commerce) company in Seattle Washington. Sam Goody is a Music and Entertainment Retailer in the United States and formerly in the United Kingdom. Tower Records was a Retail music chain based in Sacramento California, USA eMusic is an Online music store that operates by Subscription. Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer Zune is a brand of digital media players and services sold by Microsoft. Trans World Entertainment Corporation is a chain of entertainment media retail stores in the United States. iTunes is a proprietary digital media player application introduced by Apple Inc      
In brick and mortar chain stores in the United States, a similar situation prevails - Electronic music is usually found in the Dance/DJ section, and the New Age music section is usually where the Ambient and Space music releases are displayed, as can be found for example at Barnes and Noble, Borders Books and Music, Sam Goody, and FYE/Transworld Entertainment. Barnes & Noble Inc is the largest book retailer in the United States, operating mainly through its Barnes & Noble Booksellers chain of Bookstores Borders Group ( is an international bookseller based in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Space music is generally not mentioned in mainstream music publications. In particular, Billboard magazine does not list space music in any of its genre charts; the Billboard Electronic music chart is cataegorized as part of the Dance music chart segment and includes only Dance-related forms of Electronic music. See Billboard (Turkish magazine Billboard is a weekly American Magazine devoted to the Music industry  . However Billboard does include on its New Age music chart recording artists considered by some to be space music artists and who appear in playlists on Music of the Hearts of Space; for example Andreas Vollenweider and Kitaro are listed on Billboard's Top New Age albums for 2006. 
In major music industry market reports in the USA, Space music does not appear at all as a genre. The 1999 National Association of Recording Merchandisers annual survey lists the market share of Space music-related genre New Age music at only 0. 5%. Electronic music is not listed separately, but is included as part of the "other" category, along with 13 additional genres, totalling a 6. 7% market share.  The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) reported similar results for the years 1994-2003, with no mention of Space music; in 2003 reporting New Age music at 0. 5%, and the "other" category (including Electronic music along with multiple other genres), bringing in 7. 6% market share.  In the Arbitron commercial radio listenership by formats reports for 2004, the genres of Space music, New Age music, and Ambient music are not mentioned, all of them falling into the catch-all "remaining formats" category, with a listenership share of 0. Arbitron ( is a Radio audience research company in the United States which collects listener data on radio audiences similar to that collected by Nielsen Media 1%. 
In film and television soundtracks
Space music has been effective for creating moods and soundscapes in film and TV soundtracks; in particular, electronic forms of space music have been used to convey an auditory metaphor for non-ordinary consciousness. A soundscape is a Sound or combination of sounds that forms or arises from an immersive environment.  Examples of space music in film soundtracks include the Vangelis score to Blade Runner,   Tangerine Dream's moody soundtracks for Legend (Tangerine Dream soundtrack) and Risky Business,   Jonn Serrie's surround-sound score for the IMAX short film, Hubble: Galaxies Across Space and Time,  Brian Eno's score for the 1989 film For All Mankind, and Michael Stearns' soundtrack for the 1985 IMAX film, Chronos, broadcast on Stephen Hill's Hearts of Space radio, on the film's opening night. Evangelos Odysseas Papathanassiou (Born March 29, 1943 in Volos, Greece) ( Greek: Ευάγγελος Οδυσσέας Παπαθανασίου Blade Runner is a 1982 American Science fiction Film, directed by Ridley Scott. Tangerine Dream is a German Electronic music group founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese. Legend is a soundtrack album released in 1986 by the German band Tangerine Dream for the North American theatrical version of the film Legend Risky Business is a 1983 Comedy film written by Paul Brickman in his directorial debut Jonn Serrie is a composer of Space music, a genre of ambient Electronic music, and New Age music IMAX (short for Image MAXimum is a Film format created by Canada 's IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater size and Brian Peter George St John le Baptiste de la Salle Eno (born 15 May 1948 commonly known as Brian Eno (ˈiːnoʊ is an English Musician, producer Michael Stearns (born in 1948) is a pioneering American ambient musician but also a film Composer, sound designer and Soundtrack Chronos is a 1985 Abstract film directed by Ron Fricke, created with custom-built Time-lapse cameras 
Television science-fiction series Babylon 5 features a score by former Tangerine Dream member Christopher Franke, also released on CD in 1996 on Franke's independent label Sonic Images. Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created produced and largely written by J Christopher Franke (born April 6, 1953 in Berlin) is a musician and composer  In 1994, the German TV station Bayerischer Rundfunk launched the television program Space Night, , featuring a constant flow of satellite and space images accompanied by space music programmed by European chill-out-DJ Alex Azary. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Bayerischer Rundfunk Broadcasting (BR is the Public broadcasting authority for the German Freistaat (Free State of Bavaria, with its main offices located Space Night (full title space night - All-Tag Nachts im Bayrischen Fernsehen) is the name of a German television program of the Bayerischer Rundfunk (BR
This list includes notable artists who have created works of space music:
Alphabetized by last name including single name
- David Arkenstone - Robot Wars, Another Star in the Sky
- Between Interval - Autumn Continent, Secret Observatory, Radio Silence
- Kevin Braheny - Galaxies
- Thom Brennan - Strange Paradise, Beneath Clouds, Signals in Moonlight
- Wendy Carlos - Tron, Digital Moonscapes
- Mychael Danna - Aurora Borealis
- David Darling - Until the End of the World
- Constance Demby - Sacred Space Music
- Deuter - Sun Spirit
- Diatonis - Perception, Dark Edges, Landscape of a Dream, Trajectories, Edge of the Dreamworld
- Enigma - MCMXC a. David Arkenstone is an American New age musician His music is primarily instrumental with occasional vocalizations Kevin Braheny Fortune is an American musician He composes and performs quiet Ambient music, often more melodic than other music of this kind Thom Brennan (born May 31, 1957 in Lubbock, Texas) is an American electronic ambient Musician Wendy Carlos (born Walter Carlos, November 14 1939 is an American Composer and electronic Musician. Cluster is a German experimental musical group who influenced the development of contemporary popular electronic and Ambient music. Mychael Danna (born September 20, 1958) is a Canadian film Composer. David Darling (born March 3, 1941) is a cellist and Composer. Constance Demby is an American musician and composer Biography Demby's focus has included sculpture Deuter is a German New Age instrumentalist and recording artist known for his meditative style that blends Eastern and Western musical styles Enigma is German electronic musical project founded by Michael Cretu, David Fairstein and Frank Peterson in 1990 D. 
- Brian Eno - Apollo, 'Music for Airports
- Les Fradkin - Telstar
- Edgar Froese
- Geodesium - A Gentle Rain of Starlight, Fourth Universe, West of the Galaxy, Double Eclipse
- Michael Garrison - Escape, In the Regions of Sunreturn, Eclipse, Point of Impact, Aurora Dawn, An Earth-Star Trilogy
- Lisa Gerrard - The Mirror Pool 
- Tom Heasley - Where the Earth Meets the Sky
- Chad Hoefler - Twilight in the Offing, Quiet Glow
- David Hykes - Hearing Solar Winds
- Michael Hedges 
- Paul Horn - Inside the Taj Mahal
- Jean Michel Jarre - Oxygene, Equinoxe, Magnetic Fields, Rendez-Vous, Revolutions
- Al Gromer Khan
- Laraaji - Celestial Vibration, Celestial Realms, Essence/Universe, Flow Goes the Universe
- Ray Lynch
- Carlos Nakai  - Cycles Volume 2
- Patrick O'Hearn - Ancient Dreams, Between Two Worlds
- Mike Oldfield - The Songs of Distant Earth
- Craig Padilla - The Light in the Shadow, Planetary Elements Vol 2, Echo System, Folding Space, Temporal Suspension
- David Parsons - Sounds of the Mothership, Atmanaut
- Jeff Pearce - To the Shores of Heaven
- Popol Vuh
- Giles Reaves - Sea of Glass
- Robert Rich - Night Sky Replies, Music from Atlas Dei
- Steve Roach - Structures From Silence
- Conrad Schnitzler - Constellations, Moon Mummy
- Klaus Schulze - Moondawn, Cyborg
- Jonn Serrie - Midsummer Century, Ixlandia
- Michael Stearns - Desert Moon Walk, Planetary Unfolding, Lyra Sound Constellation, Encounter
- Tangerine Dream - Alpha Centauri
- Robert Scott Thompson - Sidereal
- Isao Tomita - The Planets, Kosmos, Space Walk, Mind of the Universe
- Vir Unis - Aeonian Glow
- Tim Story - Shadowplay
- Vangelis - Albedo 0. Brian Peter George St John le Baptiste de la Salle Eno (born 15 May 1948 commonly known as Brian Eno (ˈiːnoʊ is an English Musician, producer Les Fradkin (born "Leslie Fradkin" 15 January 1951 in New York City, New York, USA) is a Guitarist, Songwriter Edgar Wilmar Froese (born 6 June 1944) is a German Artist and Electronic music pioneer best known for co-founding the electronic Geodesium is the name of a music project by composer and recording artist Mark C Michael Garrison (born on November 28, 1956 in Roseburg, Oregon, died on March 24, 2004 in Bend, Oregon was Lisa Gerrard (born April 12, 1961) is an Australian Musician, Singer and Composer who rose to prominence as part of Tom Heasley plays an unusual instrument for Ambient music - the Tuba. David Hykes (b 2 March 1953) is a Composer, Singer, Musician, Author, and Meditation teacher Michael Hedges ( December 31, 1953 &ndash December 2, 1997) was an American acoustic Guitarist born in Sacramento Paul Horn is the name of Paul Horn (jazz musician (born 1930 jazz flutist Paul Horn (computer scientist, American computer scientist Jean-Michel André Jarre (born 24 August 1948, Lyon) is a French Composer, performer and Music producer. Al Gromer Khan is a German-born Sitar player and Composer whose music spans the multiple genres of ambient, new age, world and Laraaji is an American Musician. Born Edward Larry Gordon in 1943 in Philadelphia, he studied violin piano trombone and voice in his early years Ray Lynch (also known as Raymond Lynch) is a classically trained guitarist and lutenist R Carlos Nakai (born April 16, 1946) is a Native American flautist of Navajo / Ute heritage Patrick O'Hearn (b September 6, 1954) is a multi-instrumentalist musician composer and recording artist Michael Gordon Oldfield (born 15 May 1953 in Reading, Berkshire) is an English Multi-instrumentalist Musician Oregon is a Jazz and World music group with core members Ralph Towner ( Guitar, Piano, Synthesizer, Trumpet) David Joseph Parsons (born 26 December 1967 in Birmingham, West Midlands) David who played only one first class cricket game has been the Jeff Pearce is an Indiana based ambient/new age musician Releasing cd's since 1993 he originally focused on creating soundscapes using solely the electric guitar Popol Vuh was a German Krautrock band founded by pianist and keyboardist Florian Fricke in 1970 together with Holger Trulzsch (percussion and Frank Fiedler Robert Rich may refer to Robert Rich (musician, American ambient musician Dalton Trumbo, American screenwriter and novelist used pen name Steve Roach may refer to Steve Roach (musician, American ambient music composer Steve Roach (rugby league, Australian rugby league footballer Hans-Joachim Roedelius ( Hans-Joachim Rödelius, born October 26, 1934 in Http//www Conrad Schnitzler (b Düsseldorf, 1937 is a prolific German experimental Musician. Klaus Schulze (born August 4, 1947) is a German Electronic music Composer and musician. Jonn Serrie is a composer of Space music, a genre of ambient Electronic music, and New Age music Michael Stearns (born in 1948) is a pioneering American ambient musician but also a film Composer, sound designer and Soundtrack Tangerine Dream is a German Electronic music group founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese. is a renowned Japanese Electronic music composer Biography Tomita was born in Tokyo and spent his early childhood with his father in China Evangelos Odysseas Papathanassiou (Born March 29, 1943 in Volos, Greece) ( Greek: Ευάγγελος Οδυσσέας Παπαθανασίου 39, Spiral, Mythodea
- George Winston 
- Prendergast, Mark. George Winston (born 1949) is an American pianist who was born in Michigan, and grew up in Miles City Montana, and Mississippi Ambient music is a Musical genre in which sound is more important than notes Drone music, also known as drone-based music, drone ambient or ambient drone, dronescape or dronology, and sometimes simply New Age music is peaceful Music of various styles which is intended to create inspiration relaxation and positive feelings often used by listeners for Yoga, Downtempo (or Downbeat) is a laid-back Electronic music style similar to Ambient music, but usually with a beat or groove unlike Programme music is a form of Art music intended to evoke extra-musical ideas images in the mind of the listener by musically representing a scene image or mood A soundscape is a Sound or combination of sounds that forms or arises from an immersive environment. Space rock is a subgenre of Rock music; the term originally referred to a group of early mostly British 1970s Progressive rock and psychedelic Eno, Brian (Foreword) (2001). The Ambient Century: From Mahler to Trance: The Evolution of Sound in the Electronic Age. Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 1582341346.
- ^ "In fact, almost any music with a slow pace and space-creating sound images could be called spacemusic. " Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, What is spacemusic?
- ^ a b "Any music with a generally slow, relaxing pace and space-creating imagery or atmospherics may be considered Space Music, without conventional rhythmic elements, while drawing from any number of traditional, ethnic, or modern styles. " Lloyde Barde, July/August 2004, Making Sense of the Last 20 Years in New Music
- ^ a b c d "When you listen to space and ambient music you are connecting with a tradition of contemplative sound experience whose roots are ancient and diverse. The genre spans historical, ethnic, and contemporary styles. In fact, almost any music with a slow pace and space-creating sound images could be called spacemusic. " Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, What is spacemusic?
- ^ Lanza, Joseph (2004). Elevator Music: A Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-listening, and Other Moodsong. University of Michigan Press, 184. ISBN 0472089420. “space music evokes vague images of regal landscapes perhaps encountered in past lives or the tones of a harmonic convergence between earth and other celestial bodies. . . ”
- ^ a b Hearts of Space Playlist - Complete list of genres
- ^ a b Herberlein, L. A. (2002). The Rough Guide to Internet Radio. Rough Guides, 95. ISBN 1858289610.
- ^ a b c "A timeless experience. . . as ancient as the echoes of a simple bamboo flute or as contemporary as the latest ambient electronica. Any music with a generally slow pace and space-creating sound image can be called spacemusic. Generally quiet, consonant, ethereal, often without conventional rhythmic and dynamic contrasts, spacemusic is found within many historical, ethnic, and contemporary genres. "Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, sidebar "What is Spacemusic?" in essay Contemplative Music, Broadly Defined
- ^ a b c d e f Significant Works of the Berlin-School. Star's End Radio (2001). “Among the core albums of this genre were Rubycon and Phaedra by Tangerine Dream, Picture Music and Mirage by Klaus Schulze and Inventions for Electric Guitar and New Age of Earth by Ash Ra Tempel. Released in the 1970s, all were considered to be ahead of their time. . . . Yet, it was the more aesthetic based elements of the day that molded Spacemusic into a musical form. Music from Karlheinz Stockhausen and his groundbreaking electronic work Hymnen as tempered by the psychedelic improvisations of rock groups like the Grateful Dead and Pink Floyd as well as epic sized classical compositions by the venerable Richard Wagner informed this movement with a sense of scale. Hymnen is a work by Karlheinz Stockhausen, composed in 1966–67 and elaborated in 1969 The result of these cultural and technological influences is a timeless and unique music characterized by a mysterious mood and evocative atmosphere. ”
- ^ a b c d "The program has defined its own niche — a mix of ambient, electronic, world, new age, classical and experimental music. . . . Slow-paced, space-creating music from many cultures — ancient bell meditations, classical adagios, creative space jazz, and the latest electronic and acoustic ambient music are woven into a seamless sequence unified by sound, emotion, and spatial imagery. " Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, essay titled Contemplative Music, Broadly Defined
- ^ a b "Hill's Hearts of Space Web site provides streaming access to an archive of hundreds of hours of spacemusic artfully blended into one-hour programs combining ambient, electronic, world, New Age and classical music. " Steve Sande, The Sky's the Limit with Ambient Music, SF Chronicle, Sunday, January 11, 2004
- ^ a b Hurwitz, David (2005). Exploring Haydn: A Listener's Guide to Music's Boldest Innovator, Amadeus Press Unlocking the Masters Series. Hal Leonard, 78-81. ISBN 1574671162.
- ^ a b Nidel, Richard (2005). World Music: The Basics. Routledge, 310. ISBN 0415968011.
- ^ a b "The early innovators in electronic "space music" were mostly located around Berlin. The term has come to refer to music in the style of the early and mid 1970s works of Klaus Schulze, Tangerine Dream, Ash Ra Tempel, Popol Vuh and others in that scene. The music is characterized by long compositions, looping sequencer patterns, and improvised lead melody lines. " - John Diliberto, Berlin School, Echoes Radio on-line music glossary
- ^ "This music is experienced primarily as a continuum of spatial imagery and emotion, rather than as thematic musical relationships, compositional ideas, or performance values. " Essay by Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, New Age Music Made Simple
- ^ "Innerspace, Meditative, and Transcendental. . . This music promotes a psychological movement inward. " Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, essay titled New Age Music Made Simple
- ^ Lanza, Joseph (2004). Elevator Music: A Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-listening, and Other Moodsong. University of Michigan Press, p 185. ISBN 0472089420. “The mystique of communing with some larger, transpersonal, extraterretrial Gaia is commonly included as part of space music's packaging. Explaining compositions such as 'The Galactic Chalice' and 'Celestial Communion,' Constance Demby refers to the 'transformative journey' with 'sounds to awaken and activate soul memory of our true origin. '”
- ^ definition of "Spacey" in Compact Oxford Dictionary. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved on 2007-10-07. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar)
- ^ Lanza, Joseph (2004). Elevator Music: A Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-listening, and Other Moodsong. University of Michigan Press, 184. ISBN 0472089420. “Space music is just as important for its ability to confound our spoon-fed sense of time and place. Its mercurial stirrings create openings between worlds: inner and outer space; ancestral rhythms and ultra-civilized electronics, the clock on the wall and the hallucinatory "psyhonaut" time that drifts in and out of waking life. ”
- ^ Lancaster, Kurt (1999). Warlocks and Warpdrive: Contemporary Fantasy Entertainments With Interactive and Virtual Environments. McFarland & Company, p29. ISBN 0786406348. “Space music presents a virtual fantasy of traveling in outer space. ”
- ^ ". . . Spacemusic . . . conjures up either outer "space" or "inner space" " - Lloyd Barde, founder of Backroads Music Notes on Ambient Music, Hyperreal Music Archive
- ^ a b "Space And Travel Music: Celestial, Cosmic, & Terrestrial. . . This New Age sub-category has the effect of outward psychological expansion. Celestial or cosmic music removes listeners from their ordinary acoustical surroundings by creating stereo sound images of vast, virtually dimensionless spatial environments. In a word — spacey. Rhythmic or tonal movements animate the experience of flying, floating, cruising, gliding, or hovering within the auditory space. "Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, in an essay titled New Age Music Made Simple
- ^ "Restorative powers are often claimed for it, and at its best it can create an effective environment to balance some of the stress, noise, and complexity of everyday life. " -- Stephen Hill, Founder, Music from the Hearts of Space What is Spacemusic?
- ^ "This was the soundtrack for countless planetarium shows, on massage tables, and as soundtracks to many videos and movies. "- Lloyd Barde Notes on Ambient Music, Hyperreal Music Archive
- ^ a b "Like most people in the independent side of the music business, we inhabited what are called the niche genres. . . . All niche music regardless of style or content has one thing in common: it's all something that relatively small numbers of people really, truly, love. " Stephen Hill, Powered By Love: Niche Music in the New Millennium, feature article in Ambient Visions Magazine, 2002
- ^ "I acknowledge both the distaste for categories among many listeners as well as the inherent problems of categorizing music. Categories that are broad enough to include an entire era or dimension of musical style or meaning are often of little descriptive value; on the other hand, those which are too specific give no insight into the overall musical direction of which the particular piece is an example. The situation is further confused by the fact that categories may be organized by historical epochs (Baroque), by musical form (symphonic), by the means of production (electronic), etc. " Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, essay titled New Age Music Made Simple
- ^ a b All Music Guide New Age music page - includes Space music as subgenre of New Age music. ; All Music Guide Space music page - subgenre of New Age music; All Music Guide Electronica music page - does not list Space music as a subgenre; All Music Guide Ambient music page - does not list Space music as a subgenre.
- ^ a b Billboard 2006 top New Age albums
- ^ a b CD Baby - Space music is listed as a subgenre of New Age music. Both Electronic music and New Age music list Ambient as a subgenre. Electronic genre page, New Age genre page.
- ^ a b Tower Records - no listing for Space music: tower.com main genre page, tower.com New Age genre page, tower.com electronic genre page
- ^ "This sub-genre of electronic rock doesn't see that much action, but fans of space music usually can't get enough of it. " Definitions of ambient music
- ^ Lancaster, Kurt (1999). Warlocks and Warpdrive: Contemporary Fantasy Entertainments With Interactive and Virtual Environments. McFarland & Company, 26. ISBN 0786406348. “the genre known artistically as space music and commercially labeled New Age. These kinds of musicians design aural landscapes. . . . ”
- ^ a b c Dr. Ulrich D. Einbrodt (2001). Space, Mysticism, Romantic Music, Sequencing, and the Widening of Form in German Krautrock during the 70's (PDF). Justus Liebig University, Giessener Electronic Library.
- ^ Lanza, Joseph (2004). Elevator Music: A Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-listening, and Other Moodsong. University of Michigan Press, 184. ISBN 0472089420. “an elusive category many prefer to call "new age" or "space music"”
- ^ a b Balfe, Judith H. (1993). Paying the Piper: Causes and Consequences of Art Patronage. University of Illinois Press, p280. ISBN 0252063104].
- ^ "New Age Space music carries visions in its notes; it is transcendent inner and outer space music that opens, allows and creates space. . . Space music moves; the balance between the rhythm track and melody line determines a great deal of the imagery, altitude, and impact of a particular piece. . . At its best and most essential, this music speaks to our present moment, to the great allegory of moving out beyond our boundaries into space, and reflexively, to the unprecedented adventures of the psyche that await within. " Space Music, by Anna Turner, co-founder of Music from the Hearts of Space, page 134, The New Age Music Guide, P. J. Birosik, 1989 Macmillon Publishing Company, New York
- ^ "Currently no less than fourteen separate subgenres are being called New Age music. These include New Age East/West, Electronic/Computer, Environmental/Nature, Folk, Jazz/Fusion, Meditation, Native American/Indigenous, New Age Pop, New Age Progressive, Solo Instrumental, Sound Health, Space Music, Traditional. New Age, Vocal, and World Music. " Preface, page vii, P. J. Birosik, The New Age Music Guide, 1989 Macmillon Publishing Company, New York
- ^ "New Age Jazz/Fusion is distinguished from other New Age subgenres, especially space music, by its rhythm and identifiable melodies. " New Age Jazz/Fusion by Dallas Smith (writer, teacher, recording artist), page 46, The New Age Music Guide, P. J. Birosik, 1989 Macmillon Publishing Company, New York
- ^ " 'Space' is a vital dimension of New Age music; so much so that one of the early appellations for the genre was simply "space music," referring both to its texture and to the state that it tended to evoke in the listener. By "Space" we mean the elecrto-acoustic enhancement of instrumental tones, through reverb and echo; in New Age music such enhancement is not simply a "special effect", but rather an integral part of the music itself. " Notes on New Age Music by Steven Halpern (recording artist, writer, workshop leader), Introduction, page xix, The New Age Music Guide, P. J. Birosik, 1989 Macmillon Publishing Company, New York
- ^ Ambient had come to mean music with a rhythmic or trance-like nature, using (generally) electronic keyboards and/or Space Music melodies or themes. . . (Nu) Ambient music grew into its own genre out of the "chill-out" rooms that became a part of the rave scene, a place to escape the pounding, throbbing techno beats (often in excess of 160-180 beats per minute!), where DJ's mixed together nature sounds, Space Music tracks, and tape loops or other sound samples. " - Lloyde Barde, July/August 2004, Making Sense of the Last 20 Years in New Music
- ^ "Ambient music is a broader term, encompassing (at least) six sub-genres, part of which includes New Age or Spacemusic. " - Lloyd Barde, founder of Backroads Music Notes on Ambient Music, Hyperreal Music Archive
- ^ "new age, neo-classical, space, electronic, ambient, progressive, jazzy, tribal, world, folk, ensemble, acoustic, meditative, and back to new age. . . The order and placement is no accident; each comes in and out of the previous, leading into the next, with shades of overlap and crossover visible at every turn. Each 'type' has its own history, its own cornerstones and 'hall of fame' artists and titles. Each has crystallized and grown, achieving greater artistry over time, and becoming more recognizable in the marketplace. " - Lloyd Barde, founder of Backroads Music Notes on Ambient Music, Hyperreal Music Archive
- ^ "I got into space music in the '70s as a teenager and I wanted to play with those clichés again -- the cyclic, repetitive structures of '70s electronic music -- but steer away from the formula by using some of the compositional methods of Steve Reich and Terry Riley, for example. It's a combination of world music, modern compositional methods and '70s schlock. " - Bay Area musician, composer and sound designer Robert Rich, quoted in Plugged in to the Joy of Ambient Music, by j. poet, San Francisco Chronicle, May 28, 2006.
- ^ "Ambient, spacemusic, dub, downtempo, trip hop, acid jazz. . . artists from all these categories. " Waveform. . . Starstreams and beyond: Ambient Visions Talks with. . . . Forest, listing styles of music played on Musical Starstreams, from interview in Ambient Visions Magazine, 2003
- ^ "The music is presented in a non-stop drifting blend and drawn from a diversity of genres including: electronic, ambient, spacemusic, chillout, avant-garde, low-intensity noise, new age, international, spoken word and classical. " Star's End Radio website-background information page
- ^ "spacemusic, also known as ambient, chill-out, mellow dub, down-tempo . . . . Anything but New Age. " Steve Sande, The sky's the Limit with Ambient Music, SF Chronicle, Sunday, January 11, 2004
- ^ Barnes & Noble website - Space music is not listed on the main music genres page. Space music is listed as a subgenre of New Age music on the New Age music genre page, as is Ambient music. Ambient also appears as a subgenre on the Dance & DJ genre page, along with Electronic music.
- ^ Space music is listed on the Rhapsody Music Service New Age music genre page as a subgenre of New Age. Space music is not listed on Rhapsody electronica/dance genre page or Rhapsody Ambient music subgenre page.
- ^ "Although there is no sound in the vacuum of space, many New Age composers have looked upward for inspiration, creating an abstract notion of the sounds of interstellar music. Space indicates not only a style of composition, but also a certain cosmic consciousness. . . . Artists like. . . Space music pioneer Michael Stearns try to evoke peace and unity with their spacescapes, creating compositions that are tranquil, hypnotic and moving. " Rhapsody online music service - definition of Space Music on New Age music subgenre page
- ^ Lanza, Joseph (2004). Elevator Music: A Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-listening, and Other Moodsong. University of Michigan Press, 185. ISBN 0472089420.
- ^ Schwartz, Elliott; Barney Childs (1998). Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music. Da Capo Press, 380. ISBN 0306808196.
- ^ "In 1967, just following the world premier of Hymnen, Stockhausen said this about the electronic music experience: '. Hymnen is a work by Karlheinz Stockhausen, composed in 1966–67 and elaborated in 1969 . . Many listeners have projected that strange new music which they experienced—especially in the realm of electronic music—into extraterrestrial space. Even though they are not familiar with it through human experience, they identify it with the fantastic dream world. Several have commented that my electronic music sounds "like on a different star," or "like in outer space. " Many have said that when hearing this music, they have sensations as if flying at an infinitely high speed, and then again, as if immobile in an immense space. Thus, extreme words are employed to describe such experience, which are not "objectively" communicable in the sense of an object description, but rather which exist in the subjective fantasy and which are projected into the extraterrestrial space. ' " Page 145, Electronic and Experimental Music: Pioneers in Technology and Composition, Thomas B. Holmes, Routledge Music/Songbooks, 2002, ISBN 0415936438
- ^ Lanza, Joseph (2004). Elevator Music: A Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-listening, and Other Moodsong. University of Michigan Press, 80. ISBN 0472089420.
- ^ According to Author Norman Mailer in 1956, quoted on page 154: "a friend took me to hear a jazz musician named Sun Ra who played 'space music. ' " and according to Sun Ra himself, also in 1956, quoted on page 384: "When I say space music, I'm dealing with the void, because that is of space too. . . So I leave the word space open, like space is supposed to be. " and on page 247, in an interview, Sun Ra states: "sometimes when I'm playing for a band, playing space music. . . I'm using ordinary instruments, but actually I'm using them in a manner. . . transforming certain ideas over into a language which the world can understand. " -- Space is the Place By John F. Szwed, 1998, Da Capo Press
- ^ A History of Electronic Music Pioneers by David Dunn, in the catalog of the exhibition: Eigenwelt der Apparatewelt: Pioneers of Electronic Art, presented as part of Ars Electronica 1992, in Linz, Austria
- ^ Chambers, J. K. (1998). Milestones: The Music and Times of Miles Davis. Da Capo Press, 246. . ISBN 0306808498.
- ^ Carr, Ian (1998). Miles Davis: The Definitive Biography. Thunder's Mouth Press, 284, 303, 304, 306. ISBN 1560252413.
- ^ "purveyors of freely improvised space music," -- Blender Magazine, May 2003
- ^ ""Dark Star," both in its title and in its structure (designed to incorporate improvisational exploration), is the perfect example of the kind of "space music" that the Dead are famous for. Oswald's titular pun "Grayfolded" adds the concept of folding to the idea of space, and rightly so when considering the way he uses sampling to fold the Dead's musical evolution in on itself. " -- Islands of Order, Part 2,by Randolph Jordan, in Offscreen Journal, edited by Donato Totaro, Ph. D, film studies lecturer at Concordia University since 1990.
- ^ "a quartet of albums, Phaedra, Rubycon, Ricochet and Stratosfear, established the Dream's modus operandi with throbbing, cosmic rubber band rhythms thrumming like galactic space basses through floating mellotron pads, ghost flutes and electronic effects whirling by at hyperspeed. This was the soundtrack for countless planetarium shows. . . the first electronic music to shed the synthesizers reputation as cold and unfeeling. . . beyond emotion, into the sensual and the transcendent. It was as if the universe were wrapping you up in a warm velvet glove and showing you the wonders of existence. " Time Warped in Space by Echoes Radio producer and host, John Diliberto.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Listed in "A Classic Space Music Countdown to Liftoff: 10 Essential classic space music albums, counting down from 10 to 1" Time Warped in Space by Echoes Radio producer and host, John Diliberto.
- ^ a b "At its most abstract - solo albums by Klaus Schulze and by Tangerine Dream's leader Edgar Froese - these were clouds of sounds to lose yourself in, a Rorschach mindscreen for projecting fantasies onto. " Reynolds, Simon. "Kings of the cosmos", in The Guardian, April 22, 2007, retrieved May 13, 2007
- ^ (2004) The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War, 1945-1990: A Handbook. Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Cambridge University Press, 342. ISBN 0306808498.
- ^ Junker, Detlef; Philipp Gassert, Wilfried Mausbach, David Brian Morris (2004). The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War, 1945-1990: A Handbook. Cambridge University Press, p342. ISBN 0521834201.
- ^ "The Dream's sound started getting a lot more rock 'n' roll in the 1980s, especially once the dreaded Private Music years set in. They'd record good music after that, but it never had the impact, cultural resonance or lasting import of their 1970s output. " Time Warped in Space by Echoes Radio producer and host, John Diliberto.
- ^ official website for "Space is the Place", documentary film about Sun Ra's Arkestra, filmed in 1972
- ^ "Hill began the program as a volunteer at KPFA-FM, Berkeley, in 1973, and worked with Anna Turner as co-producer. Ten years later--Jan. 8, 1983--the program went national. " Hearts of Space: a mellow carriage leader after a decade on the public radio satellite -- published Feb. 1, 1993 in Current, "the newspaper about public television and radio in the United States"
- ^ Grammy Awards complete category list
- ^ Amazon. com (also includes Borders and Virgin Megastores websites) - no listing for Space music. Ambient appears as subgenre of both Electronic and New Age, with the links redirecting to the same page, a low level page with no subgenres. Amazon dance & dj includes subgenres Ambient & Electronica, Amazon New Age includes subgenre Ambient, Amazon Ambient list does not include subgenres
- ^ Sam Goody - no listing for Space music: Dance & Electronic genre page at Sam Goody, New Age genre page at Sam Goody
- ^ eMusic - no listing for Space music: eMusic main genre listing, eMusic Electronic Ambient genre page, eMusic New Age Ambient genre page
- ^ Microsoft Network - no listing for Space music: MSN New Age genre page, MSN Electronica genre page
- ^ FYE/Transworld - no listing for Space music: main category list at FYE, New Age genre at FYE, Dance genre at FYE, Ambient genre at FYE
- ^ Billboard 2006 year-end complete chart index
- ^ 1999 NARM annual survey, Published by the National Association of Recording Merchandisers, reports market share as New Age 0. 5%, and Other 6. 7%. “Other” is defined as including: Ethnic, Standards, Big Band, Swing, Latin, Electronic, Instrumental, Comedy, Humor, Spoken Word, Exercise, Language, Folk, and Holiday Music.
- ^ Recording Industry Association of America, 2005, quoted by the Northwestern University Media Management Center: Music purchases by genre 1994-2003
- ^ Arbitron Format Trends Report, Fall 2004, quoted by the Northwestern University Media Management Center: Radio Formats Listened to by Age and Radio Listenership by Formats
- ^ Norman, Katharine (2004). Sounding Art: Eight Literary Excursions Through Electronic Music. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. , p32. ISBN 0754604268.
- ^ ". . . includes music in his 'classic' style, ethnically influenced e-music, deep sequences, symphonic synths, and sci-fi space music. " Blade Runner soundtrack album review (Mutli-CD extended version), Jim Brenholts, Windows Media Guide, from All Music Guide
- ^ "Vangelis. . . composes and performs mainly instrumental music and film scores. . . . he has flirted with many genres and has proved to be very hard to categorize. His music has been filed as 'synthesizer music', 'new age', 'progressive rock', 'Symphonic rock', 'Space music', 'electronic music', etc" Vangelis Papathanassiou Biography, Newsfinder, A literary favour to world culture, Gus Leous, July 2003
- ^ "The terms New Age and Space Music have been aptly applied to the ethereal improvisational electronic work of Tangerine Dream. . . . Tangerine Dream lends itself to movie soundtracks; their music graces dozens of popular motion pictures. " Tangerine Dream Biography Contemporary Musicians, Ed. Suzanne M. Bourgoin. Vol. 12. Thomson Gale, 1994. eNotes. com. 2006
- ^ " In 1983 the group made a substantial contribution to the soundtrack for the film Risky Business, . . . . the title piece, also known as Love On A Real Train involved repetitive elements that were close to the minimalism of Steve Reich. . . 'we stumbled upon a minimal kind of thing, like Steve Reich or Philip Glass. It was a new way of drawing a romantic theme, which we still get credit for today. ' " Tangerine Dream - Their Changing Use Of Technology Part 2: 1977-1994, Sound on Sound Magazine, January 1995
- ^ "the award-winning IMAX short film, Hubble: Galaxies Across Space and Time, . . . transforms images and data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope into a voyage that sweeps viewers across the cosmos. . . . . space music composer Jonn Serrie wrote the surround-sound score. " Hubble IMAX Film Takes Viewers on Ride Through Space and Time Hubble Telescope News Release, June 24, 2004
- ^ Harpole, Charles; Charles Musser, Eileen Bowser, Richard Koszarski, Donald Crafton, Tino Balio, Thomas Schatz, Stephen Prince, David A. Cook, Paul Monaco, Peter Lev (2004). History of the American Cinema. Simon and Schuster, p385. ISBN 068480493X.
- ^ "[Michael Stearns] scored the IMAX film Chronos for Ron Fricke. . . Chronos opened in May of 1985 and on opening night the soundtrack was beamed via satellite to over 200 radio stations nationwide on Stephen Hill's program Music From the Hearts of Space. " from Stearns' bio on the Michael Sterns official website
- ^ "don't get confused and start thinking that classically crafted space music is a thing of the past. We recently received several releases from Sonic Images, an independent Los Angeles label operated by synthesist Christopher Franke, who played with Tangerine Dream for 17 years during the apex of the German group's popularity. Franke, who now resides in L. A. , is represented on the label by two recent albums: a compilation of soundtrack music for the sci-fi TV series Babylon 5 and Klemania," DECLARATIONS OF INDEPENDENTS, Billboard Magazine, January 27, 1996
- ^ Space night official website
- ^ a b c d e f "Pioneered by Tangerine Dream, Klaus Schulze and Walter Carlos, then popularised by Tomita, Jean Michel Jarre, and Vangelis, this genre - space music, some call it. . . " Reynolds, Simon. "Kings of the cosmos", in The Guardian, April 22, 2007, retrieved May 13, 2007
- ^ RIVERS OF BELIEF-an ENIGMAtic mix of the spiritual & the seductive. Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Hearts of Space (24-May-1991).
- ^ a b c d e Steve Sande. "The sky's the limit with ambient music", SF Chronicle, Sunday, January 11, 2004. "10 essential spacemusic CDs, Selected by Stephen Hill of Hearts of Space"
- ^ Planetarium Music
- ^ Hearts of Space playlist
- ^ Hearts of Space playlist
- ^ Patti Jean Birosik, The New Age Music Guide: Profiles and Recordings of 500 Top New Age Musicians, , p113, 1989, Collier MacMillan, ISBN 0020416407, "Deep Breakfast. . . one of the best-selling New Age Space music albums ever"
- ^ Affirmation Spot "Ray Lynch. . . one of the luminaries of the "space music" genre"
- ^ Insound Review of R. Carlos Nakai, Cycles, Vol. 2 (1985) "This is a set of heavenly space music compositions with their bases firmly in the Northern plains and Southwestern deserts. "
- ^ Jim Brenholts, All Music Guide, Sundance Season, R. Carlos Nakai "Nakai is one of the leading practitioners of this style. In his hands, the flute takes on space music qualities. "
- ^ Hearts of Space playlist
- ^ "As in previous Spacejazz excursions, we favor the more melodic or space creating players over the instrumental technicians. We'll be hearing from the group OREGON with music from 45th PARALLEL;" -- Music from the Hearts of Space, Program 260 : "Spacejazz 6 Animato"
- ^ "Among the first, and arguably the best to bring that psychedelic ethos into the electronic age was Tangerine Dream. While their 1970 debut, Electronic Meditation, sounded like Karlheinz Stockhausen meeting the Grateful Dead, their later albums essayed the sound that would be the template of space music. " Time Warped in Space by Echoes Radio producer and host, John Diliberto.
- ^ eNotes biography of George Winston "prime acoustic example of what is popularly called new age space music"
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