|Anthem: Southern Sudan anthem|
|Official languages||English, Arabic (Juba Arabic)|
|Recognised regional languages||over 400 dialects. The flag of Southern Sudan was adopted following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that ended the Second Sudanese civil war. Southern Sudan is an Autonomous region of the Sudan established following a 2005 peace agreement The term anthem means either a specific form of Anglican church music (in Music theory and religious contexts or more generally a song (or composition of Juba is a city in Sudan, the regional capital of Southern Sudan and the capital of the Sudanese state of Central Equatoria. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Juba Arabic is a Lingua franca spoken mainly in Equatoria Province in Southern Sudan, and derives its name from the town of Juba Sudan. A regional language is a Language spoken in an area of a Nation state, whether it be a small area a federal State or Province, or Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English.|
|Ethnic groups||Dinka and Nuer|
|-||President||Salva Kiir Mayardit|
|-||Paulino Matip Nhial||Deputy Commander-in-Chief of SPLA|
|-||Comprehensive Peace Agreement||January 9, 2005|
|-||Total||589,745 km² |
227,702 sq mi
|-||estimate||11 million1 to 27 million estimated. The Dinka are a group of tribes of south Sudan, inhabiting the swamplands of the Bahr el Ghazal region of The Nuer are a confederation of tribes located in Southern Sudan and western Ethiopia. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. List of presidents of the Government of Southern Sudan (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office List of Vice-Presidents of Salva Kiir Mayardit (born 1951 is the President of autonomous Government of Southern Sudan and the successor to the post of First Vice President List of presidents of the Government of Southern Sudan (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office List of Vice-Presidents of Riek Machar Teny (born 1952 a Dok Nuer, is the current vice-president of the autonomous Government of Southern Sudan. Events 475 - Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. M^2 redirects here For other uses see M². CM2 redirects here The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology (39,379,358 July 2007 est. - for whole of North and South)|
36. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 3/sq mi
|1||Estimated at 8. A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The Sudanese pound ( Arabic:) is the currency of Sudan. Arabic names for the denominations appear on Sudanese coins whilst both Arabic and English 5 million in 2005. natural rescources petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower. (CIA factbook)|
Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan, comprising ten of that country's states. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The Sudanese government agreed to give autonomy to the region in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed on January 9, 2005 in Naivasha, Kenya, with the SPLA/M, tentatively bringing an end to the Second Sudanese Civil War. The politics of Sudan takes place in the framework of an authoritarian Republic in which all effective political power is in the hands of President The Comprehensive Peace Agreement, commonly known as the Naivasha Agreement, was a set of agreements culminating in January 2005 that were signed between the Sudan People's Events 475 - Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Naivasha is a Market town in Rift Valley Province, Kenya, lying north west of Nairobi. The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south The Second Sudanese Civil War (sometimes referred to as Anyanya II) started in 1983 although it was largely a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil Southern Sudan borders Ethiopia to the east, Kenya, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, and the Central African Republic to the west. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to Central Africa|Central African FederationThe Central African Republic ( CAR) République Centrafricaine ʀepyblik sɑ̃tʀafʀikɛn or Centrafrique) is a Landlocked To the north lies the predominantly Arab and Muslim region directly under the control of the central government. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Sudan is a religiously mixed country although Muslims have dominated national government institutions since independence in 1956
Southern Sudan, also known as New Sudan, has nearly all of its administrative offices in Juba, the capital, which is also the largest city, based on population estimates. Juba is a city in Sudan, the regional capital of Southern Sudan and the capital of the Sudanese state of Central Equatoria.
Southern Sudanese predominantly practice traditional indigenous beliefs and Christianity, particularly Episcopal Church of the Sudan and the Roman Catholic Church. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Episcopal Church of the Sudan is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion in Sudan. The Roman Catholic Church in Sudan is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and Curia in Rome The South also contains many more ethnic groups and languages than are found in the north. Without a proper census, and given polygamy and large families, estimates of the relative proportions of the hundred ethnic groups in the South is difficult. However, it is widely agreed that the largest ethnic group in the South is Dinka, follow by Nuer. The Dinka are a group of tribes of south Sudan, inhabiting the swamplands of the Bahr el Ghazal region of The Nuer are a confederation of tribes located in Southern Sudan and western Ethiopia. Other Nilotic people include the Bari and Shilluk. Nilotic people or Nilotes, in its contemporary usage refers to some Ethnic groups mainly in Southern Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern The Bari ethnic groups in the Sudan occupy the Savanna lands of the Nile Valley. Shilluk prefer to be known as Chollo, rather than the more widely known term Shilluk and their language as dhok-Chollo, dhok being the Chollo word The Azande are a populous Ubangi nation in the west. Niam-Niam redirects here Niam-Niam can also refer to a Mancala game with a 2×8 and stores
Dinkas have dominated the political arena especially with the late Dr. John Garang de Mabior and now with the current President of the South, General Salva Kiir Mayardit. Given the diversity of Southern Sudan, this has created tensions. In addition, the oil and other mineral wealth of the South lies on what is known as Nuerland which has a high concentration of Nuers including Unity and Upper Nile states but Nuer are underrepresented in the Government of Southern Sudan.
After the death of Garang, former rebel enemies, the SPLA and the SSDF (South South Defence Force), merged in January 2006 under the Juba Declaration. Ironically, the SSDF was founded by the current vice president of the South, Dr. Riek Machar who later defected to the SPLM/A in 1999. General Paulino Matip Nhial became the chief of staff (head) of the SSDF after Machar. Under the Juba Declaration, General Matip became the deputy commander in chief of the SPLA and his forces from the SSDF were integrated into the SPLA, swelling its ranks from 30,000 to an estimated 130,000 troops.
The distinctive Juba Arabic language is a widely used lingua franca in Southern Sudan. Juba Arabic is a Lingua franca spoken mainly in Equatoria Province in Southern Sudan, and derives its name from the town of Juba Sudan. A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely Yet, the language of education and government business is English. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Juba Arabic language (arabi juba) is derived mostly from the Bari tribal native tongue. Juba Arabic is a Lingua franca spoken mainly in Equatoria Province in Southern Sudan, and derives its name from the town of Juba Sudan. The Bari Tribe is considered the heart of Juba or Juba na Bari. Furthermore, two widely used African languages are Thuongjang and Thok Naath. This article is for the language for the ethnic group see Dinka. The Nuer language is a Nilo-Saharan language of the Western Nilotic group Thuongjang (Dinka) is officially and culturally active in the states of North Barh al Ghazal, West Barh al Ghazal, Lakes, Warab, some part of Jonglei, and autonomous independent Abiey. Nuer language (Thok Naath) is widely spoken in Unity State, Jonglei State and Upper Nile state.
Following the Naivasha Agreement which granted autonomy to Southern Sudan, the Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan was adopted in December 2005, leading to the creation of the Government of Southern Sudan and a Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly. PortalCurrent events News collections and sources See WikipediaNews collections and sources. Southern Sudan has become a semi-autonomous region of Sudan since a peace agreement was signed between the Government of Sudan and the rebel Sudan People's
The relationship between autonomous Southern Sudan and the neighbouring areas of Blue Nile State, Nuba Mountains/Southern Kurdufan, and Abyei has yet to be definitively determined, although for the time being these are effectively part of the North. Blue Nile ( Arabic: النيل الأزرق transliterated: an-Nyl al-Azraq; called Al Wustá during 1991—1994 is one of the 26 The Nuba Mountains are a Mountain range in Kordofan, a province in central Sudan, Africa. South Kurdufan ( Arabic: جنوب كردفان transliterated: Janub Kurdufan is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan Abyei is a town and district of South Kurdufan, Sudan, that is considered a historical bridge between northern and Southern Sudan.
Southern Sudan consists of the ten states, formerly composing the provinces of Equatoria (Central Equatoria, East Equatoria, and West Equatoria), Bahr el Ghazal (North Bahr al Ghazal, West Bahr al Ghazal, Lakes, and Warab), and Upper Nile (Jonglei, Unity, and Upper Nile). Below is a list of the 25 states of Sudan organized by their original provinces under British rule For the Astrometrical device please refer to Equatorium Equatoria ( Al-Istiwa'iyah in Arabic) began as a province Central Equatoria (الاستوائية الوسطى al-Istiwāʾiyya al-Wusṭā is one of the 26 states of Sudan, with an area of 22956 km² Lakes ( Arabic: البحيرات transliterated: al-Buhayrat is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. Jonglei (جونقلي sometimes Junqali, is one of the 26 States of Sudan and where the civil war started in 1983 Unity (الوحدة transliterated: al-Wahda is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. Upper Nile (أعالي النيل transliterated: (A'aly an-Nyl or (Aâlâ En Nîl is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan.
Pending elections, seats in both the Southern Sudan Assembly and the Government of the Southern Sudan are to be divided in a fixed proportion between the SPLM (70%), the NCP (the former NIF) (15%), and "other Southern political forces" (15%). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. For the Afghan Pashtun political party led by Pir Pir Sayyed Ahmad Gillani, see National Islamic Front (Afghanistan. Before his death on 30 July 2005, longtime rebel leader John Garang was the President of Southern Sudan. Events 1419 - First Defenestration of Prague. 1502 - Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Dr John Garang de Mabior ( June 23, 1945 – July 30, 2005) was First Vice President Sudan and former leader of the Garang was succeeded by Salva Kiir Mayardit who was sworn in as first vice president of Sudan on 11 August 2005. Salva Kiir Mayardit (born 1951 is the President of autonomous Government of Southern Sudan and the successor to the post of First Vice President Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
A referendum on the independence of the Southern Sudan is scheduled for January 2011. Southern Sudan will hold an independence referendum on whether or not it should remain as a part of Sudan by March 2011 2011 ( MMXI) will be a Common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar.
By the time of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005, humanitarian needs in Southern Sudan were significant. The amount of destruction left by over 20 years of war was massive.
However, humanitarian organizations under the leadership of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) managed to ensure sufficient funding, to bring relief to the local populations. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security "OCHA" redirects there See Ocha for other possible meanings Along with recovery and development aid, humanitarian projects were included in the 2007 Work Plan of the United Nations and partners. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 
In 2007, OCHA under the leadership of Eliane Duthoit started to phase out from Southern Sudan, as humanitarian needs gradually diminished, slowly but markedly leaving the place to recovery and development activities. Eliane Duthoit (born 1946 Brittany) a French citizen is a senior United Nations official at the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs 
It is estimated that the Southern region has a population of around 15 million (but given the lack of a recent census in decades, this estimate may be severely compromised) and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. This region has been negatively affected by the First and Second Sudanese Civil Wars for all but 10 years since independence in 1956, resulting in serious neglect, lack of infrastructure development, and major destruction and displacement. The First Sudanese Civil War (also known as Anyanya rebellion or Anyanya I, after the name of the rebels was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 The Second Sudanese Civil War (sometimes referred to as Anyanya II) started in 1983 although it was largely a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil More than 2 million people have died, and more than 4 million are internally displaced or have become refugees as a result of the civil war and war-related impacts. Internally displaced persons (IDPs are people forced to flee their homes but who unlike refugees remain within their country's borders According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race
The region has been struck by occasional famine. A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation A 1998 famine killed hundreds of thousands, while a food emergency was declared in mid-2005. The Famine in Sudan in 1998 was a Humanitarian disaster caused mainly by Human rights abuses as well as Drought and the
In recent years, a significant amount of foreign-based oil drilling has begun in Southern Sudan, raising the land's geopolitical profile abroad. Khartoum has broken much of the Sudan into blocks with about 85% of the oil coming from the South. Blocks 1, 2, and 4 are controlled by the largest overseas consortium known as the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC). GNPOC is composed of the following players: CNPC the People's Republic of China, with a 40% stake, Petronas Malaysia, with 30%, ONGC India, with 25%, and 5% to Sudapet of the Sudan government. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The other producing blocks in the South are blocks 3 and 7 in Eastern Upper Nile. These blocks are controlled by Petrodar which is 41% owned by CNPC of China, 40% by Petronas of Malaysia, 8% by Sudapet of the Sudan government, 5% by Gulf Petroleum and 5% by Al Thani. Another major block in the South called Block B by Khartoum is claimed by several players. Total of France was originally awarded the concession for the 90,000 square kilometre block in the 1980s but has since done limited work invoking "force majeure". Various elements of the SPLM handed out the block or parts thereof to other parties. Several of these pre-peace treaty deals with the SPLM have been revoked. One company called Jarch Management Group, Ltd. claims that the Government of Southern Sudan has since accepted its pre-CPA contracts. These contracts are backed by the deputy commander in chief of the SPLA, General Paulino Matip, who originally signed agreements in March 2004 as head of the South Sudan Defence Force (SSDF)and has publicly supported Jarch Management Group.
Under the CPA agreement signed in 2005, the wealth-sharing section states that all agreements signed prior to the CPA would hold and not be subject to review by the National Petroleum Commission (NPC), a commission set up by the CPA composed of both Northerners and Southerners headed by both President Beshir of the North and President Kiir of the South. However, the CPA does not specify who could sign those pre-CPA agreements. Both Khartoum and the SPLM claim the ability to sign agreements prior under the right of "self-determination" awarded to Southerners. A major issue being discussed amongst those that hold concessions from Khartoum is what happens if the South secedes from Khartoum. The CPA offers no right of continuation of the Khartoum concession agreements if the South votes in the 2011 referendum to secede. If the South secedes from Khartoum, it will become its own sovereign and as such does not need to honor agreements made with Khartoum. Those countries that stand to lose if the South secedes are China, Malaysia, India, France, and Kuwait given their large stakes in Khartoum concessions. With over 90% of the people in the South desiring independence from Khartoum, there is a high probability that many of the countries operating in the South now will change. Recently, China, Malaysia, India, and France, have begun to court President Salva Kiir to protect their respective country's oil interests. British companies have also been courting the Southern Sudanese government with respects to mining exploration specializing in cobalt and copper. However, much of the grassroot population want a new company which does not have a relationship with Khartoum especially given the past atrocities committed against the Southern people by Khartoum.