|Emperor of Tibet|
|Full name||Songtsän Gampo|
|Wylie transliteration||Srong-btsan sGam-po|
|transcription (PRC)||Songzain Gambo|
|Pinyin Chinese||Sōngzàn Gānbù|
|Father||Namri Löntsen (Gnam-ri-slon-mtshan)|
Songtsän Gampo (Tibetan: སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་, Chinese Han Characters: 松贊干布, Wylie: Srong-btsan sGam-po, 605 or 617? - 649) was the founder of the Tibetan empire (Tufan 吐蕃), by tradition held to be the thirty-third ruler in his dynasty. The Tibetan script is an Abugida of Indic origin used to write the Tibetan language as well as the Dzongkha language, Ladakhi language The Wylie transliteration scheme is a method for transliterating the Tibetan script using the keys on a typical English language Typewriter. Tibetan pinyin is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China. The THDL Simplified Phonetic Transcription of Standard Tibetan (or THDL Phonetic Transcription for short is a system for the phonetic rendering of the Tibetan Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Events By Place Europe Heathens revolt in Kent under king Eadbald. Events By Place Europe Reccaswinth succeeds his father Chindaswinth as king of the Visigoths. Mangsong Mangtsen, Trimang Löntsen or Khri-mang-slon-rtsan (r Tibetan refers to a group of languages spoken primarily by Tibetan peoples who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia as well as by overseas The Wylie transliteration scheme is a method for transliterating the Tibetan script using the keys on a typical English language Typewriter. For the car see Peugeot 605. Events By Place Asia As a result of a quarrel between Numan III the Lakhmid Events By Place Europe Heathens revolt in Kent under king Eadbald. Events By Place Europe Reccaswinth succeeds his father Chindaswinth as king of the Visigoths. In the Chinese records his name is given as Qizonglongzan. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National 
The dates of his birth and when he took the throne are not certain. In Tibetan accounts it is generally accepted that he was born in 617 (one year before the founding of the Tang Dynasty, when Gaozu became emperor of China). The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by As he is thought to have ascended the throne at age thirteen (twelve by Western reckoning), by this reckoning c. 629 CE. 
There are difficulties with this position, however, and several earlier dates for the birth of Songtsän Gampo have been suggested, including 569, 605 or 593.  The question must remain open.
After his father, Namri Songzen, was poisoned (circa 618?), he ascended the throne while still a minor (i. e. before he was 13 - or 12 by Western reckoning). 
It is said that Songtsän Gampo was born at Gyama, in Maldro (a region to the northeast of modern Lhasa), the son of the Yarlung king, Namri Löntsen. Lhasa, ( in English l̥ʰásə or in Tibetan; Chinese: 拉萨 Pinyin: Lāsà sometimes spelled Lasa, is the administrative capital of the The traditional list of the ancient Tibetan rulers consists of 42 names According to Tibetan tradition, Songstän Gampo was enthroned as the thirty-third king of the Yarlung Dynasty, after his father was poisoned circa 618, He is said to have been born in an unspecified Ox year and was 13 years old (14 by Western reckoning), when he took the throne. Events By Place Asia The Sui Dynasty ends and the Tang Dynasty begins in China. This accords with the tradition that the Yarlung kings took the throne when they were 13, and supposedly old enough to ride a horse and rule the kingdom.  If these traditions are correct, he was probably born in the Ox year 605 CE. For the car see Peugeot 605. Events By Place Asia As a result of a quarrel between Numan III the Lakhmid The Jiu Tangshu or Book of Tang confirms that he "was still a minor when he succeeded to the throne. The Book of Tang ( or the Old Book of Tang (舊唐書/旧唐书 is the first classic work about the Tang Dynasty. " .
Songtsän Gampo is said to have sent his minister Thonmi Sambhota to India to devise a script for the Tibetan language, which led to the creation of the first Tibetan literary works and translations, court records and a constitution. Thonmi Sambhota (Thönmi Sambhoṭa is the traditional inventor of the Tibetan script in the 7th century AD Tibetan refers to a group of languages spoken primarily by Tibetan peoples who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia as well as by overseas A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity 
Songtsän Gampo is also credited with bringing many new cultural and technological advances to Tibet. The Tangshu or Book of Tang states that after the defeat in 648 of an Indian army in support of Chinese envoys, the Chinese Emperor, Gaozong, a devout Buddhist, gave him the title (variously written Binwang, "Guest King" or Zongwang, "Cloth-tribute King") and 3,000 rolls of multicoloured silk in 649, and granted the Tibetan king's request for:
Traditional accounts say that, during the reign of Songtsän Gampo, examples of handicrafts and astrological systems were imported from China and Minyag; Dharma and the art of writing came from India; material wealth and treasures from Nepalis and the lands of the Mongols, while model laws and administration were imported from the Uighurs to the north. Astrology (from Greek grc ἄστρον astron, "constellation star" and grc -λογία -logia) is a group of Systems The Sanskrit term ( Devanāgarī: धर्म Pali transliteration dhamma) is an Indian spiritual and religious The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. 
Songtsän Gampo is traditionally credited with being the first to bring Buddhism to the Tibetan people. Yerpa. Also Brag Yer-pa Drak Yerpa Dagyeba Dayerpa Trayerpa The entrance to the Yerpa Valley is about 16 km northeast of Lhasa on the northern bank of the Kyichu Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The Tibetan people are indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the North and West to Myanmar and China Proper Legend credits him as having invited to Tibet outstanding Buddhist teachers, such as Shantarakshita and Padmasambhava, even though both lived in the 8th century, i. Śāntarakṣita ( Devanagari: शान्तरक्षित was a renowned 8th Century Indian Buddhist Pandit and abbot of Nalanda University Padmasambhava () The Lotus Born, is said to have transmitted Tantric Buddhism to Bhutan and Tibet in the 8th century. e. more than a century after Songtsän Gampo lived. He is also said to have built many Buddhist temples, including the Jokhang in Lhasa and Changzhug in Nêdong. The Jokhang, () also called the Qokang, Jokang, Jokhang Temple, Jokhang Monastery or Tsuklakang (gTsug lag khang, is the first Lhasa, ( in English l̥ʰásə or in Tibetan; Chinese: 拉萨 Pinyin: Lāsà sometimes spelled Lasa, is the administrative capital of the Changzhug is a Vajrayana Buddhist Monastery in Nêdong County of Shannan Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region of Nêdong County, ( Tibetan: སྣེ་གདོང་རྫོང་ Wylie sne gdong rdzong Chinese: 乃东县 Pinyin: Nǎidōng Xiàn is a county
Songtsän Gampo is considered to be the first of the three Dharma Kings (chosgyal) — Songtsän Gampo, Trisong Detsen, and Ralpacan — who established Buddhism in Tibet. Trisong Detsän or Trisong Detsen ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེ་བཙན (Tibetan Wylie Khri-srong-lde-btsan; ipa ʈʂʰisoŋ tetsɛ̃; PRC Ralpacan (Wylie Khri-lde-srong-brtsan. Other transcriptions Repalcan Relpachen or Tri Ralpachen) born c Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European
The inscription on the Skar-cung pillar (erected by Ralpacan, who ruled c. 800-815) reports that during Songtsän Gampo's reign, "shrines of the Three Jewels were established by building the temple of Ra-sa [Lhasa] and so on".  The first edict of Trisong Detsen mentions a community of monks at this vihara. Trisong Detsän or Trisong Detsen ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེ་བཙན (Tibetan Wylie Khri-srong-lde-btsan; ipa ʈʂʰisoŋ tetsɛ̃; PRC Vihara (विहार is Sanskrit or Pali for ( Buddhist) Monastery. 
Songtsän Gampo was adept at diplomacy as well as on the field of battle. The king's minister, Myang Mang-po-rje, with the aid of troops from Zhang Zhung, defeated the Sumpa (Chinese: Subi) people in north-eastern Tibet circa 627 (Old Tibetan Annals [OTA] l. Zhang Zhung was an ancient culture of western and northwestern Tibet, which pre-dates the culture of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet Events By Place Byzantine Empire December 12 — Battle of Nineveh: Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians ending 2).
Songtsän Gampo is traditionally said to have married the Nepalese princess Bhrikuti Devi, (which, if true, probably took place sometime before 624). Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. The Nepali Princess Bhrikuti Devi, known to Tibetans as Bal-mo-bza' Khri-btsun, Bhelsa Tritsun ('Nepali consort' or simply Khri bTsun ("Royal  Although the story of this marriage is legendary, it is widely believed Tibetans, and some scholars believe "it is quite likely to have taken place. "
Six years later (c. 632/633) Myang Mang-po-rje Zhang-shang was accused of treason and executed (OTA l. Events By Place Europe Khan Kubrat starts to rule in Great Bulgaria. Events By Place Europe Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. Osric becomes king of Deira. 4-5, Richardson 1965). Minister Mgar-srong-rtsan succeeded him.
The Jiu Tangshu records the first ever embassy from Tibet arrived in China from Songtsän Gampo in the 8th Zhenguan year or 634 CE. 
There is some confusion as to whether Central Tibet conquered Zhang Zhung during the reign of Songtsän Gampo or in the reign of Trisong Detsän, (r. Zhang Zhung was an ancient culture of western and northwestern Tibet, which pre-dates the culture of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet Trisong Detsän or Trisong Detsen ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེ་བཙན (Tibetan Wylie Khri-srong-lde-btsan; ipa ʈʂʰisoŋ tetsɛ̃; PRC 755 until 797 or 804 CE).  The records of the Tang Annals do, however, seem to clearly place these events in the reign of Songtsän Gampo for they say that in 634, Yangtong (Zhang Zhung) and various Qiang tribes "altogether submitted to him. " Following this he united with the country of Yangtong to defeat the 'Azha or Tuyuhun, and then conquered two more tribes of Qiang before threatening Songzhou with an army of more than 200,000 men. He then sent an envoy with gifts of gold and silk to the Chinese emperor to ask for a Chinese princess in marriage and, when refused, attacked Songzhou. He apparently finally retreated and apologised and later the emperor granted his request. 
Early Tibetan accounts say that the Tibetan king and the king of Zhang Zhung king had married each other's sisters in a political alliance. However, the Tibetan wife of the king of the Zhang Zhung complained of poor treatment by the king's principal wife. War ensued and through the treachery of the Tibetan princess, "King Ligmikya of Zhangzhung, while on his way to Sum-ba (Amdo province) was ambushed and killed by King Srongtsen Gampo's soldiers. Amdo ( Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ Chinese transliteration 安多, Pinyin: Ānduō is one of the As a consequence, The Zhangzhung kingdom was annexed to Bod [Central Tibet]. Thereafter the new kingdom born of the unification of Zhangzhung and Bod was known as Bod rGyal-khab. " R. A. Stein places the conquest of Zhang Zhung in 645. 
He next attacked and defeated the Dangxian, or "Western Xia" people (who later formed the Tangut state in 942 CE), the Bailan, and other Qiang tribes. The Tangut ( identified with the state of Western Xia, were a Qiangic - Tibetan people who moved to northwestern China sometime before Events By Place Asia Kaminarimon the eight-pillared gate to Japan 's Kinryuzan Sensouji Temple, is erected The Tuyuhun Kingdom ( also known as 'A-zha in Tibetan Henanguo 河南國 was a kingdom ruled by a powerful nomadic tribe in the Qiling mountains and upper Yellow  The Bailan people, were bounded on the east by the Tanguts and on the west by the Domi. They had been subject to the Chinese since 624. 
After a successful campaign against China in the frontier province of Songzhou in 635–6 (OTA l. 607), the Chinese emperor agreed to send a Chinese princess for Songtsän Gampo to marry.
Circa 639, after Songtsän Gampo had a dispute with his younger brother Tsänsong (Brtsan-srong), the younger brother was burnt to death by his own minister Khäsreg (Mkha’s sregs) (possibly at the behest of his older brother, the emperor). 
The (Jiu) Tangshu, or Book of Tang, records that when the the king of 泥婆羅, Nipoluo ("Nepal"), the father of Licchavi, king Naling Deva (or Narendradeva), died, an uncle, Yu. The Book of Tang ( or the Old Book of Tang (舊唐書/旧唐书 is the first classic work about the Tang Dynasty. Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient Republic which existed in what is now Bihar state of India, since the before the sna kug. ti, Vishnagupta) usurped the throne.  "The Tibetans gave him refuge and reestablished him on his throne [in 641]; that is how he became subject to Tibet. "
Sometime later, but still within the Zhenguan period (627-650 CE), the Tibetans sent an envoy to Nepal where the king received him "joyfully" and, later, when a Tibetan mission was attacked in India around 647, the Nepalese king came to their aid. 
The Chinese Princess Wencheng, niece of the powerful Emperor Taizong of Tang China, left China in 640 to marry Songtsän Gampo, arriving the next year. Princess Wencheng ( Tibetan: Mung-chang Kungco Chinese: 文成公主 Pinyin: Wénchéng Gōngzhǔ (d Emperor Taizong of Tang ( January 23, 599 &ndash July 10 649) personal name Lǐ Shìmín ( was the second emperor of the Events By Place Europe Tulga succeeds his father Suinthila as king of the Visigoths. Peace between China and Tibet prevailed for the remainder of Songtsän Gampo's reign.
The Tangshu or Book of Tang adds that Songstän Gampo thereupon built a city for the Chinese princess, and palace for her within its walls. The Book of Tang ( or the Old Book of Tang (舊唐書/旧唐书 is the first classic work about the Tang Dynasty.
Songtsän Gampo’s sister Sad-mar-kar was sent to marry Lig-myi-rhya, the king of Zhang-zhung. Zhang Zhung was an ancient culture of western and northwestern Tibet, which pre-dates the culture of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet However, when the king refused to consummate the marriage, she then helped Songtsän Gampo to defeat Lig myi-rhya and incorporate the Zhang-zhung of Western Tibet into the Tibetan Empire in 645, thus gaining control of most, if not all, of the Tibetan plateau. Zhang Zhung was an ancient culture of western and northwestern Tibet, which pre-dates the culture of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet Events By Place Byzantine Empire The Byzantines recapture Alexandria from the Arabs Asia
Following the visit by the famous Chinese pilgrim monk, Xuanzang, to the court of Harsha, the king of Magadha, Harsha sent a mission to China which, in turn, responded by sending an embassy consisting of Li Yibiao and Wang Xuanze who probably travelled through Tibet, and whose journey is commemorated in inscriptions at Rajagrha - modern Rajgir, and Bodhgaya. See also Xuanzang (fictional character Xuanzang ( pronounced Shwan-dzang) was a famous Chinese Buddhist Monk, scholar traveler Harsha or Harshavardhana (हर्षवर्धन or "Harsha vardhan" ( 590 &ndash 647) was an Indian emperor who ruled Northern India Magadha (मगध formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas ( Sanskrit, "great countries" or regions in ancient India. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya (Hindi बोधगया is a city in Gaya district in the
Wang Xuanze made a second journey in 648 but he was badly treated by Harsha's successor and his mission plundered. Events By Topic Religion Pope Theodore I excommunicates Patriarch Paul II of Constantinople This elicited a response from Tibetan and Nepalese troops who, together, soundly defeated the Indians. 
In 649, King of Xihai Jun was conferred upon Songtsen Gampo by Tang Gaozong, the emperor of Tang Dynasty. Events By Place Europe Reccaswinth succeeds his father Chindaswinth as king of the Visigoths. Xihai Jun (西海郡 is a prefecture of ancient China located in Qingzang Plateau. Background and life as Prince of Jin Li Zhi was born in 628 He was the ninth son of his father Emperor Taizong, and the third son of his mother Emperor Taizong's wife The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by
According to the Tibetan Annals, Songtsän Gampo must have died in 649, and in 650 the Tang emperor sent an envoy with a "letter of mourning and condolences". Events By Place Europe Reccaswinth succeeds his father Chindaswinth as king of the Visigoths.  His tomb is in the Chongyas Valley near Yalung. 
Songtsän Gampo was succeeded by his infant grandson Mangsong Mangtsen or Khri-mang-slon-rtsan, 650-676 CE. Mangsong Mangtsen, Trimang Löntsen or Khri-mang-slon-rtsan (r Real power was left in the hands of the minister Mgar-srong-rtsan.  After this point the dates in Tibetan history become somewhat firmer.
Some Dunhuang documents say that, as well as his sister Sad-mar-kar (or Sa-tha-ma-kar), Songtsän Gampo had a younger brother who was betrayed and died in a fire, sometime after 641. Gyantse (rGyal rtse also spelled Gyangtse, Gyangdzê; ( Chinese: 江孜镇 Wylie: rgyal rtse; Tibetan: རྒྱལ་རྩེ་ Dunhuang ( also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; is a City (pop Apparently, according to one partially damaged scroll from Dunhuang, there was hostility between Sa-tha-ma-kar and Songtsän Gampo's younger brother, bTzan-srong, who, as a result, was forced to settle in gNyal (an old district to the southeast of Yarlung and across the 5,090 metre (16,700 ft) Yartö Tra Pass, which bordered on modern Bhutan and Arunachel Pradesh in India). The Kingdom of Bhutan (buːˈtɑːn is a Landlocked nation in South Asia. But little, if anything, else is known about this brother. 
Songtsän Gampo is said to have had five wives. Nepalese princess Khri b'Tsun, or "Royal Lady" (Bhrikuti Devi), and the Chinese Princess Wencheng, both devout Buddhists, are the best known, but he also married daughters of the King of Zhang-zhung and the King of Minyak, as well as one each from the Ruyong and Mong (or Mang) clans (although other lists exist). Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. The Nepali Princess Bhrikuti Devi, known to Tibetans as Bal-mo-bza' Khri-btsun, Bhelsa Tritsun ('Nepali consort' or simply Khri bTsun ("Royal Princess Wencheng ( Tibetan: Mung-chang Kungco Chinese: 文成公主 Pinyin: Wénchéng Gōngzhǔ (d Zhang Zhung was an ancient culture of western and northwestern Tibet, which pre-dates the culture of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet Minyak is a place in Eastern Tibet. Guru Tashi a 13th century Buddhist saint hailed from Minyak 
Songtsän Gampo's only son, Gungsrong Gungtsen (Gung-srong gung-btsan), was born to Mangza Tricham (Mang bza' Khri lcham or Mang bza' Khri-mo-mnyen lDong-steng), Princess of Mang, from Tolung (sTod lung), a valley to the west of Lhasa. Gungsrong Gungtsen, Gungsong Gungsten, or Kungsong Kungtsen (Gung-srong gung-btsan was the only known son of Songtsän Gampo (605 or 617? - 649 the first 
Some accounts say that when Gungsrong Gungtsen reached the age of thirteen (twelve by Western reckoning), his father, Songtsän Gampo, retired and he ruled for five years (which could have been the period when Songtsän Gampo was working on the new constitution). Gungsrong Gungtsen is also said to have married 'A-zha Mang-mo-rje when he was thirteen and they had a son, Mangsong Mangtsen (r. Mangsong Mangtsen, Trimang Löntsen or Khri-mang-slon-rtsan (r 650-676 CE). Gungsrong Gungtsen is said to have only ruled for five years when he died at eighteen. His father, Songtsän Gampo, took the throne again.  Gungsrong Gungtsen is said to have been buried at Donkhorda, the site of the royal tombs, to the left of the tomb of his grandfather Namri Songtsen (gNam-ri Srong-btsan). Namri Songtsen, also known as "Namri Löntsen" ( (?-629 was according to tradition the 32th King of Tibet ( Yarlung dynasty) despite the fact he formerly The dates for these events are very unclear. 
Songtsän Gampo was followed by his grandson, Mangsong Mangtsen, probably in 650 CE. Mangsong Mangtsen, Trimang Löntsen or Khri-mang-slon-rtsan (r
605 or 617?-649