Les Misérables colloquially known as Les Mis, is one of the most famous and most performed musicals worldwide. Les Misérables ( in French, le mize'ʁaːbl colloquially known as Les Mis or Les Miz, is a musical composed Musical theatre is a form of Theatre combining Music, Songs spoken Dialogue and Dance. It is based on the novel Les Misérables by Victor Hugo, which follows the struggles of a cast of characters as they seek redemption and revolution in 19th Century France. Les Misérables (pronounced /le miːzeʁabl(ə translated variously from French as The Miserable Ones, The Wretched Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. French composer Claude-Michel Schönberg composed the Tony award-winning score in 1980, with a libretto by Alain Boublil. Claude-Michel Schönberg (born July 6, 1944 in Vannes, France) is a French record producer actor singer popular songwriter and Musical The Antoinette Perry Awards for Excellence in Theatre, more commonly known as the Tony Awards, recognize achievement in live American Theatre and are presented Alain Boublil is a Librettist, born in Tunisia in 1941 best known for his collaborations with the composer Claude-Michel Schönberg. It was staged in London's West End in 1985, with English lyrics by Herbert Kretzmer. West End theatre is a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London 's "Theatreland" Herbert Kretzmer (born 5 October 1925, Kroonstad, Orange Free State, South Africa) is a South African born Newspaperman On October 8, 2006, the show celebrated its 21st anniversary and became the longest-running West End musical in history. Events 314 - Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  The show has since repeated its success on Broadway and in many other countries around the world. Broadway theater, commonly called simply Broadway, refers to theatrical performances presented in one of the 39 large professional theaters with 500 seats or more located
There have been several recordings of this material, including ones by the original London Cast and original Broadway Cast. However, only The Complete Symphonic Recording contains the entire 3-hour performance of songs, score and spoken parts, as featured on the stage.
The main characters are:
Overture is the opening song and a dramatic instrumental introduction that establishes the setting as Toulon, France, 1815. The Work Song flows from the Overture, its lyrics opening with a choir of imprisoned men, but eventually becoming a dark duet between the protagonist Jean Valjean (as a prisoner) and the prison-guard Javert.
The music is generally slow paced (with both the choir and Jean Valjean), with low brass and string instrumentation behind. Being an overture, it does have a very loud and simple, though forceful, beginning before voices are heard. It also introduces two of the main characters of the show (Valjean and Javert). This song did not appear in the original French (1980) version of the musical, nor did any of the Prologue; in the 1991 Parisian Revival version, this song is known as "Le Bagne: Pitié, Pitié. " The music is often reused throughout the show, as is the song's refrain ("Look Down" in English, "Pitié, Pitié" (Pity, Pity) in French).
Primarily Jean Valjean and Javert sing the vocals to the song, outlining an argument over Valjean's rightful place (whether to be in prison or allowed in society). Valjean reveals then that he was put in jail for nineteen years for stealing a loaf of bread to sustain his starving family. Javert proceeds to state that the crime was robbery, and he was therefore sentenced to five years in jail for it; he only stayed longer because of attempted escapes. Robbery is the Crime of seizing Property through Violence or Intimidation. Valjean also insists on being called by his real name, whereas Javert does not stop calling him by his prison number, 24601 (which he will do throughout the whole musical).
On Parole is the second song in the first act. It comes after the Overture or "Work Song" and is followed by "Valjean Arrested & Forgiven". The songs’ ends are not clearly defined: Jean Valjean has a solo at either end of it, which are sometimes counted the song before or after "On Parole". These difficulties can be avoided by referring to the songs between the "Work Song" and "What Have I Done?" simply as the "Prologue". Most recordings cut the song after Valjean's first or second solo and jump straight to the scene in the bishop's house (or leave that out as well). The only recording that includes the scene at the inn is the Complete Symphonic Recording.
The show's main character, Jean Valjean, has just been released after nineteen years of imprisonment. He hopes for a new life, but also swears not to forget the years of unjust hardship he has behind him. He finds work, but at the end, is paid only half of the salary the others get, because of his past as a convict. He tries to be admitted at an inn, but is rejected for the same reasons. He discovers that he might have left the prison, but that he can never escape his past and will always stay an outcast. As he lies down to sleep the night in the streets, the bishop of Digne comes and invites him to his house, giving him food, drink and shelter for the night. Valjean, embittered by hardship, repays him by stealing his silverware, worth twice of what he earned in nineteen years in prison.
"On Parole" is generally slow-paced and a mixture of all kinds of recurring melodies. Valjean's first solo is a soft tune found also in "Come to Me" and "The Confrontation". The work scene and the inn scene both pick up the main theme from the "Work Song", though higher-pitched, slower and much softer. Valjean's solos about his despair are in a recitative style and sung numerous times by him (e. g. "The Runaway Cart"). The bishop sings a melody later often picked up by Javert (and the constables in the next song), though a lot slower and softer.
Valjean Arrested , Valjean Forgiven is the third song in the first act. The Bishop of Digne and two police officers sing it. The two together carry a theme to the tone of their music.
The beginning of the song is considerably loud and fast-paced, while the officers sing, but becomes much softer and slower when the Bishop takes over the conversation.
The melody sung by the constables is a theme later often taken up by Javert ("Fantine's Arrest", "The Runaway Cart", "The Robbery" or "Javert's Arrival"), the melody sung by the bishop then taken up by whomever Javert is speaking to (e. g. Fantine and Bamatabois in "Fantine's Arrest"). In the Parisian Revival version of the musical, this number is known as "L'évêque de Digne" (the Bishop of Digne).
Before the song begins, Valjean is seen stealing objects from the house of the Bishop (who had graciously invited him in off the streets), to make an escape with them for food and money. Two officers who question him on how he obtained the expensive items from the reverend catch him. The two constables (correctly) accuse him of stealing and prepare to arrest him, when the Bishop steps in. Out of goodness, he protects Valjean, and confirms his story about having given him the items. After that, he gives Valjean his most prized and expensive possessions (two silver candlesticks). As the constables leave, the bishop tells Valjean to use the silver to become an honest man and that he has bought Valjean's soul from the darkness to give it to God.
"Valjean Arrested & Forgiven", though aimed entirely at Jean Valjean, has no vocals by him.
What Have I Done? is the fourth song in the first act, sung by the main character, Jean Valjean. Jean Valjean is the chief protagonist of Victor Hugo 's 1862 novel Les Misérables, or The Miserable Ones in English translation
Both instrumentation and vocals fluctuate tone and feeling: going from soft to strong and so forth as Valjean confronts an inner conflict and "discusses" and reasons through it. The end of the song becomes darker as Valjean resolves to the conflict's resolution. The "dark music's" theme and music recurs throughout the play in the future; in songs such as "Who am I?", "Stars", "On My Own", and "Javert's Suicide" (which has almost entirely the same melody and even in some parts the same text). In the Parisian Revival recording, the song was known as "Pourquoi ai-je permis à cet homme?"
Valjean sings "What Have I Done?" directly after the song "Valjean Arrested & Forgiven".
Jean Valjean is hurt by the Bishop's kindness, especially after being given extremely expensive silver candlesticks after having just robbed the Bishop. However, the bishop's words, "I have bought your soul for God," have deeply moved him. On the other hand, he has known unjust hardship for nineteen years (he had been imprisoned for stealing a loaf of bread and trying to run four times) and has only hate left towards any other man, which he doesn't want to give up so easily. Because of this, he confronts the idea of staying a criminal, and after a deep inner conflict, resolves to become a new, law abiding citizen. This, however, cannot be done without one last crime: he tears up his yellow ticket-of-leave, which condemns him as an outcast and with which no new life would be possible.
The music of At the End of the Day is fast and intricate, with different melodies coinciding as sung by various groups of poor women and men, female workers, solos by certain workers, and repetitious instrumentation. It is known as "La journée est finie" in the original French version, in which it was the first song, and "Quand un jour est passé" in the Parisian version.
"At the End of the Day" begins with a chorus of workers and some soloists singing about their lives at a factory owned by M. Madelaine (who is Jean Valjean), the mayor of Montreuil-sur-Mer, where it takes place. Jean Valjean is the chief protagonist of Victor Hugo 's 1862 novel Les Misérables, or The Miserable Ones in English translation The song then goes on to outline an argument between Fantine and another female worker. Fantine is a character in Victor Hugo 's 1862 novel Les Misérables.
In the end, Fantine's co-workers lie to Valjean's foreman about how the argument arose and Fantine's role; stating that she has an illegitimate child who is in the care of an innkeeper and who needs to be paid for. The other workers argue that Fantine is a troublemaker and a whore and pressure the foreman to fire her. Prostitution is the act of performing Sexual activity in exchange for Money. He does this, taking revenge on Fantine, who has refused his amorous advances.
I Dreamed a Dream is a renowned solo sung by Fantine during the first act. In Music, a solo (from the Italian solo, meaning alone) is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung by a single performer Fantine is a character in Victor Hugo 's 1862 novel Les Misérables.
Most of the music is soft and melancholy, but towards the end becomes louder and taut with frustration and anguish; as she cries aloud about the wretched state of her life and her unfair mistreatment. The song is called "J'avais rêvé d'une autre vie" in both French versions of Les Misérables.
The lyrics are about lost innocence and broken dreams. Fantine is abandoned by her lover, gives birth to a daughter, Cosette, out of wedlock, is wrongly dismissed from a desperately-needed job, and forced into prostitution to survive and to support her daughter. Fantine is a character in Victor Hugo 's 1862 novel Les Misérables. Cosette is a fictional character in the novel Les Misérables by Victor Hugo. It is sung directly after "At the End of the Day".
Both the plot and music to "I Dreamed a Dream" bears a close resemblance to "On My Own", a solo sung by Éponine in Act II of the play. The two can in many ways be considered reprises of each other.
Some notable relations include:
Lovely Ladies is a song from the first act. It is followed by Fantine's Arrest and sometimes the two are counted as one song. Les Misérables It is a fast-paced and joyful, though somewhat aggressive tune. The melody is later repeated in "Turning", only much slower. It slows down for Fantine's solo at the end of the number. In the Parisian version, the song is known as "Tu viens chéri!" In the original French version, a shortened version of this song was added at the end of "J'avais rêvé d'une autre vie" and features the same melody and similar events.
Most of "Lovely Ladies" is a chorus sung by a group of prostitutes about their trade. Small scenes between Fantine and an Old Woman, who first buys her locket and then her hair, interrupt it. At last, the prostitutes and a pimp persuade her to join them. Fantine, still needing money for Cosette, does so.
Fantine's Arrest is a song from the first act. It follows "Lovely Ladies" (the two are sometimes counted as one song) and is followed by "The Runaway Cart". In the original French version of the musical, this song was separated into two songs, which were called "Dites-moi ce qui se passe" and "Fantine et Monsieur Madeleine. "
Fantine, having become a prostitute, is mistreated by a customer and attacks him. Bamatabois (his name is not mentioned in the musical, only the book) calls for the police. Inspector Javert, known as a prison guard from the "Work Song" now Inspector in Montreuil-sur-Mer, arrives to arrest Fantine, believing only Bamatabois' version of what happened, not Fantine's. Javert is a Fictional character from the novel Les Misérables by Victor Hugo. Fantine is about to be brought away when Jean Valjean/M. Madeleine, the mayor, intervenes. He demands that Fantine, who is sick, be brought to the hospital. Fantine tells him his story in short and how she came to be fired from the factory and Valjean has her brought to the hospital, much to the displeasure of Javert.
The song changes melodies and paces all the time. The scene between Bamatabois and Fantine is medium-paced and aggressive, Javert's arrival picks up the tune already sung by the constables in "Valjean Arrested & Forgiven" with Bamatabois and Fantine singing the melody the bishop sung in that sung. As Valjean intervenes, the music changes back to slow and soft, the tune resembles the one in "Come to Me".
The Runaway Cart is a song from the first act, divided into two parts. The chorus, Fauchelevent, and Valjean sing the first with instrumental parts. Valjean sings the second one and Javert on a medium-paced tune often picked up by Javert or other policemen (first sung in "Valjean Arrested & Forgiven"). The song is cut heavily or left completely out in most recordings.
A cart has fallen on its driver (Fauchelevent) and threatens to crush him. Jean Valjean/Madeleine rescues him, by lifting the cart entirely on his own. As the crowd leaves with Fauchelevent, Inspector Javert is intrigued; he remembers a man, a convict, who was also known for his remarkable strength. He broke parole eight years ago, has just been rearrested and will be brought to court the same day. After having told the story to "Madeleine", Javert leaves him behind.
Who Am I? is a song from the first act, a solo sung by the main character Jean Valjean. Jean Valjean is the chief protagonist of Victor Hugo 's 1862 novel Les Misérables, or The Miserable Ones in English translation It is rather slow-paced, the melody is divided in two parts: The first resembles a recitative, the second and better known is soft but full of tension and can later be found in "One Day More" and "Valjean's Confession". In the Parisian Revival version of Les Misérables, this piece is known as "Le Proces: Comment Faire?". The melody comes from "L'aveu de Valjean" in the Original Version.
Javert has just informed Valjean/Madeleine, that "Jean Valjean" has been arrested. Valjean must decide, what to do: stay silent or declare himself. He first sees no reason to do anything, thinking of the workers who would fall back into misery without him, and of course not wanting to go back to prison. Then he remembers the bishop and the promise he made, to become an honest man. He realises that his final aim was not escaping the justice but to find a way back to God. He decides to declare himself, showing the court, about to condemn the false Valjean, the brand "24601" (his prison number) on his chest and escaping before being arrested. In some stagings (e. g. in Norway, Sweden and Israel), he turns back to Javert before leaving and says his only spoken sentence in the whole musical, along the lines of "You know where you can find me. "
Come to Me, also known as Fantine's Death, is a song from the first act. It is followed by "The Confrontation". It is slow-paced and the tune is very soft. In the 1991 Parisian version, it is known as "La mort de Fantine. " It has the same melody as the more famous "On My Own".
Fantine, delirious at the hospital, thinks she sees her little daughter, Cosette. Valjean, having escaped from the trial, arrives; Fantine begs him to find and take care of Cosette. After this, she dies from her illness.
The main characters Jean Valjean and Javert sing The Confrontation. It follows "Come to Me" and is followed by "Castle on a Cloud". The song is low and slow-paced. The instrumentation behind the vocals is the same as in the "Work Song", the melody partly also picks up that song. The song's highlight is Javert and Valjean singing different texts on different melodies at the same time, with the lead changing. In the Parisian Revival version of Les Misérables, the song is known simply as "La confrontation. "
Fantine has just died when Javert arrives to arrest Valjean. Valjean asks him three days time to fetch Fantine's daughter, Cosette, and promises to return. Javert laughs at this; a convict's promise is worth nothing to him. Javert does not believe that a man could possibly change; he triumphs about having at last found Valjean. He reveals that he was born in prison but chose the right way in life.
Valjean, at the same time, tells Javert, that he did not care for his beliefs, reminding him, that his only crime was stealing a loaf of bread. He says, that he will fulfil his promise to Fantine and that he would kill Javert, if he had to, being much stronger than he was
They now both make a promise: Valjean promises the dead Fantine again to fetch her child and raise her; Javert swears to Valjean, that he will never stop chasing him and that, one day, he will re-arrest him.
Valjean knocks Javert out after a short fight and escapes.
Castle on a Cloud is a solo for the part of young Cosette. In Music, a solo (from the Italian solo, meaning alone) is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung by a single performer Cosette is a fictional character in the novel Les Misérables by Victor Hugo. In the key of A minor, she sings about her wishes of a fantasy castle where she does not have to sweep floors. The song is called "Mon prince est en chemin" in the 1980 original French version, where it is preceded by a long instrumental section, and "Une poupée dans la vitrine" in the 1991 Parisian version of the musical.
Cosette has been with the Thénardiers, who run an inn, for five years; she is horribly abused, and used as a skivvy and sings. The Thénardiers (commonly referred to as Thénardier and Madame Thénardier are two of the primary villains in Victor Hugo 's novel Les Misérables Later, Mme Thénardier catches Cosette not doing her work properly;it is clear that she despises Cosette, while loving and spoiling her own daughter, Éponine. She sends Cosette out to fetch water from the well, despite the child begging her, not to send her out in the darkness.
In the Original French Version there is a small sung part called "Mam'zelle Crapaud" ("Miss Toad") that is added onto the end of "Castle on a Cloud" in the English version.
Master of the House is one of the better-known songs of the musical and one that provides comic relief. Comic relief is the inclusion of a humorous character or scene or witty dialogue in an otherwise serious work often to relieve tension It introduces the Thénardiers and the crooked way that they operate their inn. It is called "La devise du cabaretier" in the Original French Version, and "Maître Thénardier" in the 1991 Parisian Version.
As the inn fills up for the evening, we realise what a scoundrel Thénardier really is. He finds ways of having nearly everything paid. Who serves the worst food he can find and with the help of his wife, he even robs his costumers.
The music has a comical quality. It is written in C major. The song "Beggars at the Feast" is sung to the same melody.
The Bargain and The Waltz of Treachery are two intertwined songs. The first part is often cut from recordings, the second is therefore much better known. In the Original French Version, they are two separate songs: "Valjean chez les Thénardier" and "La Valse de la Fourberie". In the Parisian recording, The Waltz of Treachery is called "La transaction".
Valjean encounters the child Cosette for the first time. Valjean and Cosette enter the Thénardiers' inn. Valjean explains that he wants to take Cosette with him, because he swore to Fantine that he would look after her child. The Thénardiers see a possibility to get some money out of this. They pretend to have loved Cosette so much; they say that she was very ill and that the doctor costs so much; at last, they accuse Valjean of having bad intentions. In the end, Valjean pays them 1500 francs and takes Cosette with him to Paris.
The first part picks up melodies from "Fantine's Arrest" and "Come to Me". The second part, which is the actual waltz, is a new melody that later is repeated in "Beggars at the Feast".
Look Down, sometimes referred to as "The Beggars" or "Paris: 1832", is one of the most well known songs from the musical as its theme is repeated throughout. The song is entitled "Donnez, donnez" in the original French, and "Bonjour Paris" in the Parisian version. In the Original Version, the song is slightly longer. It has a second solo sung by Gavroche, where he makes fun about the king Louis-Philippe and the politicians. Louis Philippe ( 6 October 1773 &ndash 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the This stanza asks for some historical knowledge, otherwise the joke can't be understood.
Nine years have passed since Jean Valjean has taken Cosette away from the Thénardiers. Jean Valjean is the chief protagonist of Victor Hugo 's 1862 novel Les Misérables, or The Miserable Ones in English translation Cosette is a fictional character in the novel Les Misérables by Victor Hugo. The Thénardiers (commonly referred to as Thénardier and Madame Thénardier are two of the primary villains in Victor Hugo 's novel Les Misérables The city Paris is in an uproar due to fact of that General Lamarque, the only man in the government who shows mercy to the poor, is ill and may die soon. Jean Maximilien Lamarque (1770–1832 was a French commander during the Napoleonic Wars who later became a member of French Parliament. The young street urchin Gavroche is in his element mixing with the Paris whores and beggars. Gavroche is also a French beer produced by Brasserie de Saint-Sylvestre. Marius and Enjolras then come and give charity to the poor where they discuss about the likely demise of the general. Novel Marius and his Father We first meet Marius in book three of Les Misérables where he lives with his rich grandfather Monsieur Gillenormand Enjolras is the charismatic leader of the Friends of the ABC in the Victor Hugo book and musical adaptation of Les Misérables. Thénardier's gang comes along and plan to get money by dressing up as beggars and fooling people into thinking they need money for their baby which is actually a loaf of bread wrapped in a blanket.
The song picks up the often-used melody from the Work Song. Even the refrain ("Look down", in English) is re-used. Gavroche's solos remind of the "Javert theme" used f. e. in "Fantine's Arrest".
The Robbery is a lesser known song from the musical, mostly because, once again, it is not clearly defined, and because there is a bigger emphasis on the plot than the music. The part known as "The Robbery" is sometimes a part of "Look Down" (f. e. in the Parisian Recording), sometimes a song in itself, the same goes for Javert's Intervention.
After Gavroche introduces Thénardier's gang, Éponine seeks Marius, with whom she is clearly in love, even though he doesn't realise that. Valjean and Cosette arrive. Marius and Cosette run into one another and fall in love instantly. Thénardier approaches Valjean and asks for money, but then recognises Valjean as the man, who took Cosette nine years ago. In the following fight, Valjean's shirt gets ripped and reveals his prison brand. Inspector Javert arrives. He, however does not recognise Valjean, until after the latter's exit and swears that he will capture the escaped convict.
Gavroche introduces the Thénardiers to the same melody as used in his first solo. Thénardier tells his gang what to do to a tune, that will later be used in the second Robbery as well. Marius' and Éponine's dialogue picks up the melody from Gavroche's solo as well. When Thénardier talks to Valjean, the tune is reminding of "The Bargain". When Javert arrives, his and Thenardier's lines are set to the "Javert theme. "
Stars is one of the two chief songs performed by Javert in this musical. It is among the better known songs from the musical. It does not appear in the Original French Version, but it is known as "Sous les Étoiles" in the Parisian version.
Inspector Javert has just realised, with the help of Thénardier, that Valjean has escaped him once more. Javert is a Fictional character from the novel Les Misérables by Victor Hugo. He then looks up at the night sky and compares his stuggle to capture Jean Valjean to the workings of the stars. Jean Valjean is the chief protagonist of Victor Hugo 's 1862 novel Les Misérables, or The Miserable Ones in English translation He prays to God, asking for help and swears to never rest until he has captured Valjean. Gavroche appears at the end, once Javert has left, and remarks on the undesired presence of the police inspector in the community.
While this song is probably Javert's best-known solo, it is also a song that contradicts Javert's portrayal in the book most strongly. Javert is not a religious man, believing in the Law and not in God. Also, while Javert invests quite some time in chasing Valjean, this is NOT his one and only obsession. What many people fail to realise, is that Valjean, in the early 19th century, would really have been considered a dangerous criminal, being a repeat offender (See Les Misérables#Plot Summary. Les Misérables (pronounced /le miːzeʁabl(ə translated variously from French as The Miserable Ones, The Wretched Gavroche appears at the end of the song, however his short musical comments are excluded from most recordings except, notably, the Complete Symphonic Recording.
Éponine's Errand is another rather unknown short musical number. It is important for the plot, but no grand piece of music. It only figures on the Complete Symphonic Recording.
Éponine has recognised Cosette and muses about their past. Marius arrives and asks her for help in finding Cosette, with whom he's fallen in love. Éponine accepts to try and find her, even though she also is in love with Marius, which he still doesn't realise.
The ABC Café introduces the group of young student revolutionaries, who have formed an organization called Friends of the ABC. The song name is a mixture from the Café Musain, which was their favourite meeting place in the book and their name, "La Société des Amis de l'ABC" (literally in English, the Society of Friends of the ABC). The name is a pun, as in French "ABC" is pronounced as "abaissé", "lower" (therefore, "Friends of the Lower Class or the Poor"). The song consists of many different changing parts and is often referred to in its entirety as Red and Black.
In the original French version, "Rouge et Noir" (Red and Black) was sung by Marius about his meeting with Cosette; the song was followed by "Les Amis de l'ABC"; the 1991 Version reverses the song order to match the English versions and calls them "Le café des Amis de l'ABC" and "Rouge la flamme de la colère".
The song is best divided into four sections:
Do You Hear the People Sing? is one of the principal and most recognizable songs from the musical, sometimes (especially in various translated versions of the play) called "The People's Song. " A stirring anthem, it is sung twice: once at the end of the first act, and once at the end of the musical's Finale. In both French versions, it is known as "À la volonté du peuple" ("to the will of the people"). However, the 1980 French version of the musical did not end with the full ensemble singing this song; it only was added to the end of the Finale when it was revamped for the English-language versions (and when it was translated back into French for the Parisian version). A musical ensemble is a group of two or more Musicians who perform instrumental or vocal Music.
The song is first sung by Enjolras, who has just been informed by Gavroche that General Lamarque is dead, with the other students singing along as they prepare themselves to launch their rebellion in the streets of Paris. Enjolras is the charismatic leader of the Friends of the ABC in the Victor Hugo book and musical adaptation of Les Misérables. The song is sung again in the "Finale" as the final song of the musical. This second version, which immediately follows a number by Jean Valjean and others, is sung by the entire cast with revised lyrics, and becomes progressively louder with each stanza. Jean Valjean is the chief protagonist of Victor Hugo 's 1862 novel Les Misérables, or The Miserable Ones in English translation
The song is a revolutionary call for people to overcome persecution and adversity. The "barricades" referenced in the song are erected by the rebel students in the streets of Paris in the musical's second act. They are to draw the National Guard into combat and ignite a civilian uprising meant overthrow the oppressive government, but their rebellion eventually fails. The National Guard ( la Garde nationale) was the name given at the time of the French Revolution to the Militias formed in each city in imitation of
The song was played during television coverage of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 culminating in the Tiananmen Square Massacre (referred to in Chinese as the June Fourth Incident, to avoid confusion with two 
At the special Les Misérables 10th Anniversary Concert in 1995, "Do You Hear the People Sing?" was sung as an encore by seventeen different actors who had played Jean Valjean around the world. Les Misérables - The Dream Cast in Concert aka Les Misérables in Concert is a concert version of the musical Les Misérables, Each actor sang a line of the song in his own language, and the languages sung included French, German, Japanese, Hungarian, Swedish, Polish, Dutch, Norwegian, Czech, Danish, Icelandic, and English.
In My Life is among the better-known songs from the musical. It is called "Dans la vie" in the 1980 French version and "Dans ma vie" in the 1991 Parisian Revival version ("In life" and "In my life", respectively). In the Original London recording, it plays alongside a Cosette solo, "I Saw Him Once", cut out of all other recordings.
Cosette sits in the garden of the Rue Plumet, trying to understand what happened to her earlier, when seeing Marius. Valjean enters and Cosette tries to get him to tell her about her past, but Valjean refuses. Marius and Éponine arrive outside the garden.
A Heart Full of Love is a well-known song, sung by Cosette, Marius, and Éponine immediately following "In My Life" without a break in music. Both French versions call it "Le Cœur au bonheur" (The heart of happiness). The music is later reused in "Every Day".
Marius plucks up the courage to climb into the garden and talk with Cosette. As the two sing about their love, Éponine stands outside, interjecting from time to time, singing about the grief of having lost Marius to Cosette.
The Attack on Rue Plumet is a three-part song, the first part of which plays in only two recordings: in the 1980 Original French recording, as "Voilà le soir qui tombe" (Behold, the night falls), which lasts over a minute and a half and actually occurs between "In My Life" and "A Heart Full of Love", and a much- shortened version only on the Complete Symphonic Recording and added into the beginning of The Attack on Rue Plumet. The second is a little better-known, the third is again more important for plot than music.
There are three parts to this song:
One Day More! is a showstopper from the musical. The song is a choral piece: almost all of the main characters sing in it in a counterpoint style, as well as parts by the ensemble. In Music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and Rhythm, and interdependent in Harmony It is the finale to Act 1. In the original French, the song is called "Demain", and it is called "Le grand jour" in the Parisian version. The song borrows themes from several songs from the first act.
The song occurs on the eve of the revolution. The students, Javert, Jean Valjean, Marius, Cosette, Éponine, and the Thénardiers each sing about their viewpoint on the situation. Jean Valjean looks forward to the security of exile, Marius and Cosette sing at their despair of never meeting again. Éponine mourns the loss of Marius. Enjolras and the ABC students prepare to set up the barricades for revolution. Javert declares the revolution will end quickly and he decides to be a spy for the National Guard, whilst the Thénardiers dream of rich pickings from the chaos that is to come. It is during this song that the famous giant red flag is waved by the revolutionaries.
Each character sings his/her part to a different melody at the same time (counterpoint), before joining together for the final chorus:
The song was used by Bill Clinton in his successful 1992 campaign for the presidency of the United States. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George H 
At the Barricade, also called Upon These Stones and Building the Barricade begins as a medley-like song that opens up Act II. It is often cut out of recordings and is very minor in the Original Version; in the 1991 Parisian Version it is called "La Première Barricade" (The first Barricade).
"At the Barricade" comprises two mini-songs:
A short instrumental part at the beginning picks up the Overture, then modulates from the Overtures B Minor into a Major Key and becomes "Do You Hear the People Sing?". When Éponine and Marius talk, the music changes, so that they sing to the melody of their first dialogue in "Look down".
On My Own is a solo for the part of Éponine. In Music, a solo (from the Italian solo, meaning alone) is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung by a single performer Éponine Thénardier is a character in Victor Hugo 's 1862 novel Les Misérables. The chorus of the song is the same tune as that of "Come to Me", although it adds a bridge and the tune of the verses are different. This article is about a bridge section in a piece of popular or classical music Beginning in the key of D, modulating to Bb, then ending in F, this is her most important song. In Music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key ( tonic, or tonal center) to another
In the song, Éponine expresses her unrequited love for the character Marius, and how she dreams of being at his side but knows his love is for Cosette and not for her. Novel Marius and his Father We first meet Marius in book three of Les Misérables where he lives with his rich grandfather Monsieur Gillenormand Cosette is a fictional character in the novel Les Misérables by Victor Hugo.
The solo did not exist in the original French show. When the English version was written, the music for "On My Own" was adapted from the original French solo "L'Air de la Misère" which was sung by Fantine about her misery and suffering. In turn, Éponine's original French solo, "L'un Vers L'autre", was dropped in the English version. In the later 1991 Parisian version the title was "Mon Histoire" (My story). "On My Own" has become one of the most famous and popular songs in the musical, and Éponine has become one of its most popular characters.
"On My Own" has appeared in many famous events outside of Les Misérables, for example:
Back at the Barricade, also called Upon These Stones (Reprise), doesn't appear fully in the original French version and is known as "Sur la Barricade" in the 1991 Parisian Version.
The song returns the play's setting to the barricade where the preparing revolutionaries pledge themselves to their fight. An opposing army officer on the other side of the barricade warns the rebels that they should give up or else they will die. The rebels ignore this and affirm their dedication to the revolution.
The sing starts with the same instrumental part as "Building the Barricade", the rest rather resembles that song as well, after a short reprise of the refrain of "Red and Black".
Javert's Arrival is less a song than a scene. It is called "Je sais ce qui se trame" ("I know what is happening") in the 1991 Parisian Version, but doesn't figure in the original French version.
As the title suggests, "Javert's Arrival" (or Javert's Return) is about Javert returning to the barricades, in order to tell what he can about the enemy. Because he is actually a spy, Javert invents a couple of lies for the students, but is quickly recognised by Gavroche.
Little People begins as Gavroche proudly uncovers Javert's true identity. Gavroche is praised by Enjolras and a quarrel then starts among the revolutionaries, whether to shoot Javert now or later. Enjolras orders in the end, that Javert be tied to a chair so that the people can decide his fate later on. Javert angrily denounces the rebels, deeming them traitors.
In the Original French Version, this is a very long song ("La faute à Voltaire", or Voltaire's fault), accompanied by a background choir. The song Hugo put in the book is used as refrain. The original London version also included a much longer version sung by Gavroche, sung in the first act. For later versions of the musical, the song was cut by half to its current length. The Parisian version is called "C'est la faute à. . . " (It's the fault of. . . )
A Little Fall of Rain is a sad number. It features Marius and Éponine, the eldest daughter of the Thénardiers. Novel Marius and his Father We first meet Marius in book three of Les Misérables where he lives with his rich grandfather Monsieur Gillenormand Éponine Thénardier is a character in Victor Hugo 's 1862 novel Les Misérables.
In spite of the imminent danger, Éponine returns after she has delivered Marius' letter to be with him. Fatally shot as she climbs the barricade to rejoin the rebels, she falls into Marius' arms and he notices that she is bleeding. She begins "A Little Fall of Rain" with some of the most remembered and endearing lyrics of the show. (Éponine's death scene has been compared by one French scholar to a "pieta in reverse". The Pietà (pl same Italian for pity) is a subject in Christian art depicting The Virgin Mary cradling the dead body of Jesus, most ) For a moment, all activity on the barricade ceases. Marius and Éponine's pieta seems to suspend time itself as Éponine half-sings, half-whispers her dying words to Marius, happy that she is dying in his arms.
This is also the song in which Marius realizes that Éponine has fallen in love with him, in return for which a profound compassion for Éponine quickly grows in Marius. As Éponine dies in the end Marius, teary-eyed, leans over and gives her the kiss she dreamed of for so long.
The song starts in F Major, and then modulates numerous times between Ab Major and F Major, before finally ending in Ab Major. In the original French, the song was called "Ce n'est rien" (It is nothing), and in the Parisian version, it was known as "Un peu de sang qui pleure" (A little blood that cries).
Night of Anguish is a musical interlude scene; it does not appear in the same form in either French Versions, but the 1980 version included "La nuit de l'angouisse" (The night of anguish), which contains much of the same musical material, appears much earlier, and is about the revolutionaries' lamentation of their predicament. It also includes material that would later be used in "Drink With Me".
There are two parts:
Parallel to "Javert at the Barricade".
The First Attack begins as an instrumental number with no extended singing, only a few lines, many of them spoken. The song does not figure in the French Original Version, but is called "La première barricade" in the Parisian version.
The government's army troops attack for the first time. Valjean proves to be an excellent marksman, shooting a sniper who misses Enjolras only by inches and, therefore, saving Enjolras' life. The army troops temporarily retreat. To thank Valjean, Enjolras agrees to let him "deal with" the spy Javert. As Valjean approaches Javert and draws his knife, Javert assumes he is going to execute him. However, Valjean instead uses the knife to cut Javert free from his bonds. Javert continues to mock Valjean, believing that he wants to make some sort of bargain. Valjean, however, only claims he is doing what is right and that Javert has always been wrong about him. As Javert runs off, confused that Valjean could have such good in him, Valjean fires his gun into the air so that the others believe he has killed the spy. Javert disappears and Valjean returns to the barricade.
The first attack from the government's troups is accompagnied by a musical theme, that could well be named the "Barricade theme". It appears at the start of "Building the Barricade", "Upon these stones", "The second Attack" and "The Last Attack"
Drink with Me is the revolutionaries' mellow song as night falls and they await their enemy's retaliation. In the Original French Version, one stanza of it can be found in the song "La nuit de l'angoisse"; in the 1991 Parisian Version it is called "Souviens-toi des jours passés" (Remember the past days).
Before going to sleep behind the barricade, the rebels sing this song, about the "good, old times. " They ask themselves, if anyone will ever remember them. Marius wonders whether Cosette will cry for him, when she learns of his death.
Both French Versions use text coming from the book, where Hugo noted the lyrics as poems written by Jean Prouvaire.
Bring Him Home is probably Valjean's best known solo. It doesn't appear in the Original French Version, but in the 1991 Parisian Version, it's known as "Comme un homme" ("Like a Man").
During the night, Valjean gets up and prays for Marius. He begs God to let Marius live, as he is only a boy. He even offers his own life, in exchange for Marius'.
The melody is not a difficult one, but the original composition is in C major, ending on a high C. It is often transposed to A major.
As is the case with "Stars", the best known song of a character is also the one that contradicts the book most strongly. In the book, Valjean feels nothing but hate for Marius, sensing that Marius will take Cosette from him. When joining the rebels, he is not even sure what he wants to do if he finds Marius. Valjean saves him only because he after all swore to make Cosette happy. In the musical version, however, Valjean has already figured out which rebel is Marius and wishes him to be protected in the battle to come.
Dawn of Anguish is another minor interlude.
The next morning on the barricades, the rebels have come realise that the people of Paris still live in fear and are not going to join them in their uprising. Enjolras realises that they will all die and so dismisses all the women and fathers of children from the barricade. Followed by a short reprise of the refrain from "Drink with Me".
The Second Attack is one of plot important, but otherwise rather unknown. It figures in both French Versions.
The rebels fire another several rounds at the returning enemy until Feuilly declares that they're about to run out of ammunition. Both Marius and Valjean volunteer to go out and fetch the cartridges on the bodies lying all around, but young Gavroche, who is faster, goes to the other side of the barricade before they can stop him. As he collects the cartridges, Gavroche is shot four times and killed .
The first part is a reprise of the "Barricade theme", followed by an instrumental version of "Do You Hear the People Sing" and the recitative style beginning of "Red and Black". Gavroche then sings a reprise of "Little People" and is cut of in mid-sentence during the last stanza. After his death, we hear a funeral-like reprise of the Overture.
In the Original French Version, it remains unknown, where Gavroche was shot. It begins with Gavroche making fun about Javert (whose suicide somehow is the song just before this). The students are aghast that the troops really shot a child. Gavroche, in his joking way, tells them what happened, to the tune of his solo in "Look Down". To the melody of the "Work Song". He leaves his cap to his friends, the only thing he owns and doesn't need any more. He starts singing "C'est la faute à. . . " again, but dies before finishing the first refrain.
The Final Battle is a mostly instrumental number, often left out of recordings, as the important bit about the number is the action on the stage.
After one last warning from an army officer beyond the barricade, the revolutionaries vow that they will exact revenge for their fallen brethren, especially the beloved Gavroche, and will fight "until the earth is free. " Gunfire breaks out and Marius is shot first, though he is not killed. Enjolras and Graintaire see him fall and Enjorlas valiantly waves their red flag atop the barricade. A sudden burst of cannonfire shakes the barricade for the first time, and Enjolras is killed. After a second blast, the rebels begin to die one after the other. Graintaire is the last to fall. All have died except Valjean and the wounded Marius.
After the gunfire has ceased, Valjean wakes up and discovers that Marius, too, is not dead. He looks for an escape and discovers an opening leading to the sewers. Without hesitation, he carries the unconscious Marius down there. He has just closed the grill over him, when Javert climbs over the barricade looking for Valjean. He discovers the only possible escape and runs to head Valjean off at the River Seine.
The first part is mainly the same music as "Upon these Stones", followed by the "Barricade Theme". When Valjean wakes up, the orchestra plays a reprise of "Bring Him Home".
The Sewers is a lengthy completely instrumental song followed by Dog Eats Dog, a song performed by Thénardier. The former doesn't figure in the Original French Version; in the 1991 Version it is called "Fureurs Cannibales".
In the sewers, Thénardier is busy robbing a corpse, glorifying what he does. He hides, when he hears someone approaching. It is Valjean with the unconscious Marius on his shoulders, and collapsing right in front of Thénardier. Thénardier robs Marius, taking a ring and a watch from him. When he turns his attention to Valjean, the latter wakes and Thénardier recognises him and runs.
One of the few songs to have a melody of its own. Only when Valjean arrives, bits of the "Work Song" melody are inserted.
Javert's Suicide is the second and last chief song performed by Javert (for obvious reasons), sung between "Dog eats Dog" and "Turning". It is called "Noir ou Blanc" (Black or White) in the original French version.
The song often starts with an instrumental part during which Valjean drags the unconscious Marius through the sewer. However, this bit is sometimes part of "Dog Eats Dog" or is left out altogether. It is followed by Javert meeting Valjean at the issue of the sewer, next to the River Seine. The Seine (sɛn in French) is a slow flowing major River and commercial waterway within the regions of Île-de-France and Haute-Normandie Valjean accepts his arrest by Javert, but begs him for an hour to get Marius to a doctor. Despite Javert's spite for Valjean and his talk about mercy and justice, he allows him to take Marius away with the words: "I will be waiting, 24601. "
After Valjean has gone, Javert can't believe what he has just done. It is revealed, that already the fact that Valjean spared his life earlier, confused him greatly. He is not only caught in the moral dilemma of whether he can arrest a man who just saved his life, as would be his duty, but he also has to realise, that everything he believed in so far, that a criminal is a criminal all his life, that the world is clearly split into Good and Evil, is wrong. Unable to decide what to do, unable to continue his life after all his beliefs are shattered, he throws himself in the Seine and drowns.
The instrumental part recalls the Overture and the Work Song, but is played much faster, giving the whole music a hurrying edge. The conversation between Valjean and Javert picks up the melody from their dialogue in the "Work Song" or the "Confrontation". Javert's suicide itself, his solo, is sung to exactly the same melody as "What have I done?" earlier in the musical. There are only minor changes due to the different range (Valjean is a high tenor, Javert a mid-range baritone). The reason for this is easy to find: Both characters are in a similar state of mind, having just been saved by somebody who had more than one reason not to do so. Only Valjean realises that he can change his life, whereas Javert is unable to do so.
Turning is called "Tourne, Tourne" in the 1991 Parisian Version; it does not figure in the Original Version.
The song features the women of Paris mourning the loss of the students and their own hopeless cycles of misery.
The melody is the same as "Lovely Ladies" sung at a different tempo.
Empty Chairs at Empty Tables is a solo sung by the character Marius near the end of the show. In Music, a solo (from the Italian solo, meaning alone) is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung by a single performer Novel Marius and his Father We first meet Marius in book three of Les Misérables where he lives with his rich grandfather Monsieur Gillenormand In the Parisian Revival version, this song is known as "Seul Devant Ces Tables Vides" (Alone in front of these empty tables).
Marius sings it upon finding that he is the only one among the rebel students who has survived the attacks on their barricade, and asks that "his friends forgive him that he lives and they are gone. Survivor guilt, otherwise known as Survivor syndrome, is the mental condition that results from the appraisal that a person has done wrong by surviving traumatic events such "
The piece was originally composed in F minor, climaxing at a high G. However, various performers have sung the piece in different keys that better suit their range. This is mainly a result of the placement of the part of Marius, which is in between the range of a tenor and a baritone. The tenor is the highest male voice within the Modal register, just above the Baritone voice This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type.
Every Day is a two part song sung by Cosette, Marius and Valjean. The second part is often known as "A Heart Full of Love (Reprise)". It doesn't figure in either of the French Recordings.
Cosette and Marius are happy together. Cosette looks after Marius and remarks how he is getting better every day. Marius still wonders who saved him from the barricades. Valjean appears and decides to consent to their Wedding.
The first part is sung only by Cosette and Marius to a melody similar to "In my life". The second part is, of course a reprise of "A Heart full of Love" with Valjean singing the interjections that Éponine sings in "A Heart Full of Love".
Valjean's Confession is a scarcely known musical number sung by Valjean and Marius. It is only important for the plot, the music is just a "Who am I?"-warmup. In the Original French Version it was called "L'aveu de Jean Valjean" and was much longer.
Marius thanks Valjean for allowing him to marry Cosette. He outlines their happy life together, when Valjean stops him and tells him, that there is something, Marius must know before. He tells Marius of his past and explains that he has to leave, because the shame would be too much for Cosette, if he ever were arrested. He makes Marius promise, never to tell Cosette and Marius makes only a half-hearted attempt to hold him back.
The Original French Version explain Valjean's motives clearer: When Marius asks why Valjean confesses to him, Valjean explains, that his conscience won't let him rest until he has done so. Valjean asks Marius, if he should better not see Cosette again and Marius says, that he thinks so. This fits much better to the description in the book.
The Wedding is also known as "Wedding Chorale" and is sung by the guests on Cosette's and Marius' wedding. The 1980 and 1991 French recordings referred to it as "Soyez Heureux" and "Sonnez, Sonnez" (Be Happy, and Ring, Ring, respectively). "Soyez Heureux" was longer than all other versions, featuring an additional refrain. The second part, is a dialogue-heavy song, sung by Marius and the Thénardiers. This part is sometimes called The Waltz of Treachery (Reprise) as it is sung to a similar melody. The second part is known as "Marchandage et Revelation" (Bargaining and Revelation) on the Original French Version, where it is more than only slightly longer.
Thénardier comes to Marius, wanting to sell him information about his father-in-law. He saw Valjean in the sewer, the night after the barricades fell. There, he was carrying a corpse. Thénardier believes that Valjean killed that man to rob him. He shows Marius a ring as proof, which Marius recognises as his own. He realises that Valjean saved his life and how ungrateful he behaved towards him. He takes Cosette and they rush off to see Valjean.
The Original French Recording included another subplot from the book. Here, Thénardier first tries to shock Marius with the revelation that Valjean is an ex-convict, which Marius already knows. When Thénardier says that Valjean is also a murderer, Marius claims to know that as well. He believes Valjean to have killed both Javert (on the barricade) and a certain M. Madeleine, a rich factory owner. Thénardier proves to him (with the help of newspaper clippings), that Javert committed suicide and that Madeleine and Valjean are the same person - Marius's false source of information is unknown - and then tells him about the sewers.
Beggars at the Feast is the second big musical number sung by the Thénardiers. It is no part of the Original French Version. In the 1990 Parisian Version, it is called "Mendiants à la fête".
Singing to exactly the same melody and background music as in "Master of the House", the Thénardiers, now rich from all of their ill-gotten gains, make fun of the upper classes, saying that they are in the end no better than them. Although the song is upbeat and comical, there is a somewhat sinister undertone as the Thenardiers boast of their evil ways and depart the wedding by telling the guests "won't we see you all in hell".
Valjean's Death is the second-last (or last, depending on the song organization) musical number in "Les Mis". This and the "Finale", which it flows into without pause are sometimes counted as one song. The combination is often known as "The Epilogue" (as the musical also has a Prologue). The Original French Version calls the song "Epilogue: La Lumière" (The Light).
Valjean, now an old man, waits for his death. He writes his last confession for Cosette, finally revealing all from his past,and asks God to look after Cosette and Marius. Fantine's ghost appears, telling him that he will soon "be with God". Marius and Cosette arrive just in time before he dies. Marius apologises for his behaviour and thanks Valjean for saving his life. Valjean gives his confession to Cosette and dies. Fantine's ghost is then joined by that of Éponine and together they beckon him to come with them into the light, or beg God to lead them to freedom, depending on the interpretation of "Take my hand and lead me to salvation". In the 1980 French version, Valjean tells Cosette and Marius about the light that they must keep alive by loving one another; the song concludes with the same theme from Fantine's Arrest ("I never did no wrong. My daughter's close to dying. If there's a god above, he'd let me die instead. "), followed by the same theme as is featured in the beginning of "At the End of the Day", which also are the first notes of this recording.
The music begins as Valjean writes his confession to the tune "Bring Him Home", before Fantine's ghost beckons him with a reprise of "Come to Me". A new melody then plays when a worried Cosette and Marius rush to his side. Finally, the ghosts of Fantine and Eponine beckon Valjean to the tune of "Come to Me" once again. This song then leads into the Finale.
A few small productions (e. g. the one in Lübeck) have left out Éponine's ghost (who after all had nothing to do with Valjean), but included Javert. Lübeck ( is the second largest City in Schleswig-Holstein, in Northern Germany, and one of the major
The Finale, also known as Do You Hear the People Sing? (Reprise) is the last song in the musical. It was not included in the Original French Version, which ended with Valjean's death.
After Valjean dies and is joined the spirits of Éponine and Fantine, the ghosts of all of the other people who have also fallen in the struggle appear in the darkness behind them. The ghosts of the Bishop and Javert are usually not present, but have been included in some school productions of the musical so the entire cast can participate in the finale. Together, the cast sing a reprise of "Do You Hear the People Sing?", which starts very softly but gets progressively louder with each stanza. The song's lyrics have been changed, so that it is no more a battle cry, but rather a cry for peace and a hopeful outlook towards the future.
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