The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu, S. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. J. and S. I. or SJ, SI ) is a Roman Catholic Church religious order of clerks regular whose members are called Jesuits, Soldiers of Christ, and Foot soldiers of the Pope, because the founder, Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a knight before becoming a priest. The term Clerks Regular (singular Clerk Regular designates a number of Catholic priests (clerics who are members of a Religious order (regular of priests Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity Saint Ignatius redirects here for other Saints see Ignatius. Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Íñigo Oñaz López de Loyola Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. In a general sense the term Holy Orders refers to those in the Christian religion who have been ordained in Apostolic Succession.
Jesuits are the largest male religious order of the Roman Catholic Church, with 18,815 members — 13,305 priests, 2,295 scholastic students, 1,758 brothers and 827 novices — as of January 2008. The Franciscan family of first orders OFMs, Capuchins, and Conventuals has some 30,899 members [20,786 priests]. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin ( OFM Cap; in England and Ireland, O The Order of Friars Minor Conventual (OFM Conv commonly known as the Conventual Franciscans, is a branch of the order of Roman Catholic Friars founded The average age of the Jesuits in 2008 is 57. 53: 63. 01 for priests, 30. 01 for scholastics, and 65. 06 for Brothers.
Jesuit priests and brothers are engaged in ministries in 112 nations on six continents. A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities In Christian churches, a minister is someone who is authorized by a church or religious organization to perform clergy functions such as teaching of beliefs No work, if it has an evangelical perspective, is closed to them, but they are best known in the fields of education (schools, colleges, universities, seminaries, theological faculties), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency An intellectual (from the adjective meaning "involving thought and reason" is a person who tries to use his or her Intelligence and analytical thinking, They are also known in missionary work and direct evangelization, social justice and human rights activities, interreligious dialogue, and other 'frontier' ministry. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. Social justice, sometimes called civil justice, refers to the concept of a Society in which Justice is achieved in every aspect of society rather than Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled
The Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it is led by a Superior General, currently Adolfo Nicolás. Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service usually religious The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members Madonna Della Strada or Santa Maria Della Strada &mdash Italian meaning Our Lady of the Way ( The Way was what the earliest Christians This ecumenical article is about general Christian views on and veneration of the Virgin Mary The Superior General of the Society of Jesus is the official title of the leader of the Society of Jesus &mdashthe Roman Catholic religious order also known Reverend Father Adolfo Nicolás Pachón, SJ, STD (born April 29, 1936) is a Spanish priest  The headquarters of the Society, called General Curia, is in Rome. A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people i Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The history curia of St Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit Mother Church. For the school see Gesu School. The Church of the Gesù (dʒeˈzu in Italian, Chiesa del Sacro Nome di Gesù, or In Christianity, the term mother church or Mother Church may have one of five meanings The first Mission church in an area or a Pioneer
|Society of Jesus|
History of the Jesuits
On August 15, 1534, Ignatius of Loyola (born Íñigo López de Loyola), a Spaniard of Basque origin, and six other students at the University of Paris (Francisco Xavier, Alfonso Salmeron, Diego Laínez, and Nicolás Bobadilla all from Spain, Peter Faber from Savoy in France, and Simão Rodrigues from Portugal) met in Montmartre outside Paris, in the crypt of the Chapel of St Denis, Rue Yvonne le Tac. Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Saint Ignatius redirects here for other Saints see Ignatius. Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Íñigo Oñaz López de Loyola The Basques (Euskaldunak are a people who inhabit a region spanning over parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century Saint Francis Xavier ( Konkani / Konknni: Sam Fransisku Xavier/ Sanv Fransisk Xavier Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa Spanish: San Francisco Alfonso ( Alphonsus) Salmeron ( September 8, 1515 - February 13, 1585) was a biblical scholar and one of the first Jesuits Several spellings of his names (James Jacob Laines Laynez Lainez are in use and some of them can be found in other Wikipedia articles Diego Laynez (or Lainez Nicolas Bobadilla (1511 - 1590 was one of the first Jesuits. He was born in Valencia, Spain, and was educated in his own country and in France For the two French départements of the region of Savoy see Savoie and Haute-Savoie Savoy ( French This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Simão Rodrigues de Azevedo (1510 Viseu, Portugal - 15 June 1579 Lisbon) was a Portuguese Jesuit priest,, one of the co-founders of the Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Montmartre is a hill (the butte Montmartre) which is 130 metres high giving its name to the surrounding district in the north of Paris in the 18th Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
This group bound themselves by a vow of poverty and chastity, to "enter upon hospital and missionary work in Jerusalem, or to go without questioning wherever the pope might direct". A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the
They called themselves the Company of Jesus, because they felt they were placed together by Christ. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) The name had echoes of the military (as in an infantry "company"), as well as of discipleship (the "companions" of Jesus). A company is a Military unit, typically consisting of 75-200 Soldiers Most companies are formed of three to five Platoons although the exact number may vary The word "company" comes ultimately from Latin, cum + pane = "bread with," or a group that shares meals.
These initial steps led to the founding of what would be called the Society of Jesus later in 1540. The term societas in Latin is derived from socius, a partner or comrade.
Much is sometimes made of Ignatius' military background; in fact nowhere in the Constitutions of the order is the Society of Jesus compared to an army.
In 1537, they travelled to Italy to seek papal approval for their order. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion usually Pope Paul III gave them a commendation, and permitted them to be ordained priests. Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities
They were ordained at Venice by the bishop of Arbe (June 24). Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Rab ( Italian Arbe, German: Arbey) is an island and a town of the same name located just off the northern Croatian coast in Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place They devoted themselves to preaching and charitable work in Italy, as the renewed Italian War of 1535-1538 between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Venice, the pope and the Ottoman Empire rendered any journey to Jerusalem impossible. The Italian War of 1535 between Charles V and Francis I of France began with the death of Francesco Maria Sforza, the Duke of Milan. Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish
They presented the project to the Pope. After months of dispute, a congregation of cardinals reported favorably upon the Constitution presented, and Paul III confirmed the order through the bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae ("To the Government of the Church Militant"), on September 27, 1540, but limited the number of its members to sixty. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. Regimini militantis Ecclesiae (Latin for To the Government of the Church Militant) was the Papal bull promulgated by Pope Paul III on September Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again This is the founding document of the Jesuits as an official Catholic religious order.
This limitation was removed through the bull Injunctum nobis (March 14, 1543). Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Ignatius was chosen as the first superior-general. He sent his companions as missionaries around Europe to create schools, colleges, and seminaries. 
When developed, Jesuits concentrated on three activities. First, they founded schools throughout Europe. Jesuit teachers were rigorously trained in both classical studies and theology. The Jesuits' second mission was to convert non-Christians to Catholicism, so they developed and sent out missionaries. Their third goal was to stop Protestantism from spreading. The zeal of the Jesuits overcame the drift toward Protestantism in Poland-Lithuania and southern Germany. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
Ignatius wrote the Jesuit Constitutions, adopted in 1554, which created a tightly centralized organization and stressed absolute self-abnegation and obedience to Pope and superiors (perinde ac cadaver, "[well-disciplined] like a corpse" as Ignatius put it).
His main principle became the unofficial Jesuit motto: Ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam ("For the greater glory of God"). Ad maiorem Dei gloriam or ad majorem Dei gloriam (when an "i" functions as a consonant This phrase is designed to reflect the idea that any work that is not evil can be meritorious for the spiritual life if it is performed with this intention, even things considered normally indifferent. 
The Society of Jesus is classified among institutes as a mendicant order of clerks regular, that is, a body of priests organized for apostolic work, following a religious rule, and relying on alms, or donations, for support. The term mendicant (Latin mendicans, begging refers to Begging or relying on charitable donations and is most widely used for religious followers or The term Clerks Regular (singular Clerk Regular designates a number of Catholic priests (clerics who are members of a Religious order (regular of priests A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion usually Governance relates to decisions that define expectations, grant power, or verify performance. Alms or almsgiving exists in a number of religions In general it involves giving materially to another as an act of religious virtue
The term "Jesuit" (of fifteenth-century origin, meaning one who used too frequently or appropriated the name of Jesus), was first applied to the Society in reproach (1544-52), and was never employed by its founder, though members and friends of the Society in time appropriated the name in its positive meaning. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE)
The Jesuits were founded just before the Counter-Reformation (or at least before the date those historians with a classical view of the counter reformation hold to be the beginning of the Counter-Reformation), a movement whose purpose was to reform the Catholic Church from within and to counter the Protestant Reformers, whose teachings were spreading throughout Catholic Europe. The Ratio Studiorum ( Latin: "Plan of Studies" often designates the document that formally established the globally influential system of Jesuit The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described
As part of their service to the Roman Church, the Jesuits encouraged people to continue their obedience to scripture as interpreted by Catholic doctrine. Doctrine (Latin doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or "a body of teachings quot or "instructions" taught principles or positions as the Ignatius is known to have written:
I will believe that the white that I see is black if the hierarchical Church so defines it.—
But his hyperbole relativizes propositional claims defined by the hierarchical Church. For him, the important things in life are not propositional definitions, but the spiritual movements within oneself.
Ignatius and the early Jesuits did recognize, though, that the hierarchical Church was in dire need of reform, and some of their greatest struggles were against corruption, venality, and spiritual lassitude within the Roman Catholic Church. Venality is a Vice associated with being for sale especially when one should act justly instead
Ignatius's insistence on an extremely high level of academic preparation for ministry, for instance, was a deliberate response to the relatively poor education of much of the clergy of his time, and the Jesuit vow against "ambitioning prelacies" was a deliberate effort to prevent greed for money or power invading Jesuit circles.
As a result, in spite of their loyalty, Ignatius and his successors often tangled with the pope and the Roman Curia. The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Roman Catholic Church, together with the Pope Over the 450 years since its founding, the Society has both been called the papal "elite troops" and been forced into suppression. The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a result
St. Ignatius and the Jesuits who followed him believed that the reform of the Church had to begin with the conversion of an individual’s heart. One of the main tools the Jesuits have used to bring about this conversion has been the Ignatian retreat, called the Spiritual Exercises. The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola, (written within 1522-1524 are a brief set of Meditations Prayers and mental exercises available in various
During a four-week period of silence, individuals undergo a series of directed meditations on the life of Christ. During this period, they meet regularly with a spiritual director, who helps them understand whatever call or message God has offered in their meditations.
The retreat follows a Purgative-Illuminative-Unitive pattern in the tradition of the mysticism of John Cassian and the Desert Fathers. Saint John Cassian (ca 360 – 435 ( Latin: Jo(hannes Eremita Cassianus, Joannus Cassianus, or Joannes Massiliensis) John the Desert Fathers were Christian Hermits, Ascetics and Monks who lived mainly in the Scetes desert of Egypt, beginning around Ignatius' innovation was to make this style of contemplative mysticism available to all people in active life, and to use it as a means of rebuilding the spiritual life of the Church. The Exercises became both the basis for the training of Jesuits themselves and one of the essential ministries of the order: giving the exercises to others in what became known as retreats.
The Jesuits’ contributions to the late Renaissance were significant in their roles both as a missionary order and as the first religious order to operate colleges and universities as a principal and distinct ministry. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects
By the time of Ignatius' death in 1556, the Jesuits were already operating a network of 74 colleges on three continents. A precursor to liberal education, the Jesuit plan of studies incorporated the Classical teachings of Renaissance humanism into the Scholastic structure of Catholic thought. The term liberal arts refers to a particular type of educational Curriculum broadly defined as a Classical education. Renaissance Humanism was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries
In addition to teaching faith, the Ratio Studiorum emphasized the study of Latin, Greek, classical literature, poetry, and philosophy as well as non-European languages, sciences and the arts. Faith is a Belief in the trustworthiness of an Idea. Formal usage of the word "faith" is usually reserved for concepts of Religion, as in The Ratio Studiorum ( Latin: "Plan of Studies" often designates the document that formally established the globally influential system of Jesuit Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Furthermore, Jesuit schools encouraged the study of vernacular literature and rhetoric, and thereby became important centers for the training of lawyers and public officials. Vernacular literature is Literature written in the Vernacular - the speech of the "common people" Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice
The Jesuit schools played an important part in winning back to Catholicism a number of European countries which had for a time been predominantly Protestant, notably Poland and Lithuania. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Today, Jesuit colleges and universities are located in over one hundred nations around the world.
Under the notion that God can be encountered through created things and especially art, they encouraged the use of ceremony and decoration in Catholic ritual and devotion. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. Perhaps as a result of this appreciation for art, coupled with their spiritual practice of "finding God in all things", many early Jesuits distinguished themselves in the visual and performing arts as well as in music. The performing arts are those forms of Art which differ from the Plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own Body, Face and presence Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time.
The Jesuits were able to obtain significant influence in the Early Modern Period because Jesuit priests often acted as confessors to the Kings of the time. The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western '''Europe''' and its first colonies which spans the three centuries between The confession of one's Sins is a religious practice important to many faiths e They were an important force in the Counter-Reformation and in the Catholic missions, in part because their relatively loose structure (without the requirements of living in community, saying the divine office together, etc. This article refers to the Liturgy of the Hours as a specific manifestation of public prayer in the Roman Catholic Church. ) allowed them to be flexible to meet the needs of the people at the time.
Early missions in Japan resulted in the government granting the Jesuits the feudal fiefdom of Nagasaki in 1580. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. ( is the Capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. However, this was removed in 1587 due to fears over their growing influence.
Francis Xavier arrived in Goa, in Western India, in 1541 to consider evangelical service in the Indies. Saint Francis Xavier ( Konkani / Konknni: Sam Fransisku Xavier/ Sanv Fransisk Xavier Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa Spanish: San Francisco Goa ( Konkani: गोंय /ɡɔ̃j/ is India 's smallest state in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country He died in China after a decade of evangelism in Southern India. Two Jesuit missionaries, Johann Gruber and Albert D'Orville, reached Lhasa in Tibet in 1661. Lhasa, ( in English l̥ʰásə or in Tibetan; Chinese: 拉萨 Pinyin: Lāsà sometimes spelled Lasa, is the administrative capital of the Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European
Jesuit missions in Latin America were very controversial in Europe, especially in Spain and Portugal, where they were seen as interfering with the proper colonial enterprises of the royal governments. La Santisima Trinidad de Paraná, or the Holy Trinity of Paraná is the name of a former Jesuit mission in Paraguay. Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only See also Evangelism, Christianization A Christian mission has been widely defined since the Lausanne Congress of 1974 as that which Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Jesuits were often the only force standing between the Native Americans and slavery. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Together throughout South America but especially in present-day Brazil and Paraguay they formed Christian Native American city-states, called "reductions" (Spanish Reducciones, Portuguese Reduções). South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only Related article Indian Reductions The Jesuit Reductions were a particular version of the general Catholic strategy used in the 17th These were societies set up according to an idealized theocratic model. Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler It is partly because the Jesuits protected the natives whom certain Spanish and Portuguese colonizers wanted to enslave that the Society of Jesus was suppressed.
Jesuit priests such as Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta founded several towns in Brazil in the 16th century, including São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and were very influential in the pacification, religious conversion and education of Indian nations
Jesuit scholars working in these foreign missions were very important in understanding their unknown languages and strived to produce Latinicized grammars and dictionaries. Manuel da Nóbrega (old spelling Manoel da Nóbrega) (1517 Sanfins do Douro Trás-os-Montes, Portugal - 1570 was a Portuguese Jesuit priest José de Anchieta ( March 19 1534 &ndash June 9 1597) was a Canarian Jesuit Missionary to Brazil in São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world Rio de Janeiro ("River of January" ˈhiw dʒi ʒʌˈnejɾu in Brazilian Portuguese, /ˈriːoʊ di ʒəˈnɛroʊ/ in English is the second largest city of Brazil Peace, in the modern usage is a concept defined by the ideal state of relationship as absence of hostility at the international level that of a War. Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity or a change from one religious identity to another Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language. A dictionary is a book of alphabetically listed Words in a specific language with definitions etymologies pronunciations and other information or a book of alphabetically This was done, for instance, for Japanese (see Nippo jisho also known as Vocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapam,(Vocabulary of the Japanese Language) a Japanese-Portuguese dictionary written 1603) and Tupi-Guarani (a language group of South American aborigines). is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities The Nippo Jisho (日葡辞書 literally the “Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary” or Vocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapam ( Vocabulário da Língua do Japão Tupi-Guarani ( is the name of the most important subfamily of the Tupi languages of South America. Jean François Pons in the 1740s pioneered the study of Sanskrit in the West. Jean François Pons (1688-1752 was a French Jesuit who pioneered the study of Sanskrit in the West Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical
Under Portuguese royal patronage, the order thrived in Goa and until 1759 successfully expanded its activities to education and healthcare. On 17 December 1759, the Marquis of Pombal, Secretary of State in Portugal, expelled the Jesuits from Portugal and Portuguese possessions overseas. Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Year 1759 ( MDCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo 1st Count of Oeiras 1st Marquis of Pombal (in Portuguese, Marquês de Pombal, pron Secretary of State is a commonly used title for a Government Official.
The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China. The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China in the early modern era stands as one of the notable events in the early history of relations between China and The Society of Jesus introduced, according to Thomas Woods, "a substantial body of scientific knowledge and a vast array of mental tools for understanding the physical universe, including the Euclidean geometry that made planetary motion comprehensible. For the California legislator see Tom Woods (politician. Thomas E "  Another expert quoted by Woods said the scientific revolution brought by the Jesuits coincided with a time when science was at a very low level in China:
[The Jesuits] made efforts to translate western mathematical and astronomical works into Chinese and aroused the interest of Chinese scholars in these sciences. They made very extensive astronomical observation and carried out the first modern cartographic work in China. They also learned to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient culture and made them known in Europe. Through their correspondence European scientists first learned about the Chinese science and culture.—
Conversely, the Jesuits were very active in transmitting Chinese knowledge to Europe. Confucius's works were translated into European languages through the agency of Jesuit scholars stationed in China. Confucius ( lit " Master Kung " September 28, 551 BC - 479 BC) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher Matteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and father Prospero Intorcetta published the life and works of Confucius into Latin in 1687. Matteo Ricci SJ ( October 6 1552 &ndash May 11 1610;; Courtesy name: 西泰 Xītài was an Italian Jesuit priest Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It is thought that such works had considerable importance on European thinkers of the period, particularly among the Deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system of morality of Confucius into Christianity. Deism is the belief that a supreme God exists and created the physical universe and that religious truths can be arrived at by the application of reason alone without dependence on revelation The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Here are two well-known examples:
The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was troubling to the Society's defender, Pope Clement XIII. For similarly-named academic institutions see Education in Boston MA. The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a result Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe. The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul III 's illegitimate son The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Pope Clement XIII ( Venice, March 7, 1693 &ndash February 2, 1769 in Rome) born Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico A decree signed under secular pressure by Pope Clement XIV in July 1773 suppressed the Order. Pope Clement XIV ( 31 October 1705 &ndash 22 September 1774) born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, was Pope from The suppression was carried out in all countries except Prussia and Russia, where Catherine the Great had forbidden the papal decree to be executed. Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Catherine II, called Catherine the Great (Екатерина II Великая Yekaterina II Velikaya;) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Because millions of Catholics (including many Jesuits) lived in the Polish western provinces of the Russian Empire, the Society was able to maintain its existence and carry on its work all through the period of suppression. Subsequently, Pope Pius VI would grant formal permission for the continuation of the Society in Russia and Poland. Pope Pius VI (December 27 1717 &ndash August 29 1799 born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, Pope from 1775 to 1799 was born at Cesena. Based on that permission, Stanislaus Czerniewicz was elected superior of the Society in 1782. Stanislaus Czerniewicz (15 August 1728 Kaunas, Lithuania - 7 July 1785 Staiki Belarus) was temporary Vicar General of the Society of Pius VII during his captivity in France, had resolved to restore the Jesuits universally; and after his return to Rome he did so with little delay: on 7 August 1814, by the bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum, he reversed the suppression of the Order and therewith, the then Superior in Russia, Thaddeus Brzozowski, who had been elected in 1805, acquired universal jurisdiction. Pope Pius VII, OSB (August 14 1740&mdashAugust 20 1823 born Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was Pope from March 14 1800 to August Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great. Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Papal bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum ( The care of all Churches) issued in 1814 by Pope Pius VII reestablished the Society of Jesus Tadeusz Brzozowski ( October 21, 1749 &ndash February 5, 1820) was a Polish Jesuit, elected 19th Superior General
The period following the Restoration of the Jesuits in 1814 was marked by tremendous growth, as evidenced by the large number of Jesuit colleges and universities established in the 19th century. In the United States, 22 of the Society's 28 universities were founded or taken over by the Jesuits during this time. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Some claim that the experience of suppression served to heighten orthodoxy among the Jesuits upon restoration. The word orthodox, from Greek orthodoxos "having the right opinion" from orthos ("right true straight" + doxa ("opinion While this claim is debatable, Jesuits were generally supportive of Papal authority within the Church, and some members were associated with the Ultramontanist movement and the declaration of Papal Infallibility in 1870. Ultramontanism is a religious philosophy within the Catholic Church that places strong emphasis on the prerogatives and powers of the Pope. Papal infallibility is the Dogma in Catholic theology that by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of
In Switzerland, following the defeat of the Ultramontanist Sonderbund by the other cantons, the constitution was modified and Jesuits were banished in 1848. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Ultramontanism is a religious philosophy within the Catholic Church that places strong emphasis on the prerogatives and powers of the Pope. The Sonderbund Swiss civil war of November 1847 ensued after the Sonderbund (meaning "separate alliance" in German) was created in 1845 The Federal Constitution of 18 April 1999 (Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft Constitution fédérale de la Confédération suisse Constituzione federale della Confederazione The ban was lifted on 20 May 1973, when 54. Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. 9% of voters accepted a referendum modifying the Constitution. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita 
The 20th century witnessed both aspects of growth and decline. Following a trend within the Catholic priesthood at large, Jesuit numbers peaked in the 1950s and have declined steadily since. Meanwhile the number of Jesuit institutions has grown considerably, due in large part to a late 20th century focus on the establishment of Jesuit secondary schools in inner-city areas and an increase in lay association with the order. The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis Among the notable Jesuits of the 20th century, John Courtney Murray, SJ, was called one of the "architects of the Second Vatican Council" and drafted what eventually became the council's endorsement of religious freedom, Dignitatis Humanae Personae in apparent contradiction of Pope Eugene IV's Domini Cantate. The Reverend John Courtney Murray, SJ ( September 12, 1904 &mdash August 16, 1967) was a Jesuit priest, The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Jesuits today form the largest religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church, with 19,216 serving in 112 nations on six continents, the largest number being in India followed by those in the United States. Jesuit priests at the time of their solemn and final profession in the Society of Jesus promise I will never strive or ambition not even indirectly to be chosen or promoted to any A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion usually The current Superior General of the Jesuits is the Spanish Adolfo Nicolás. The Superior General of the Society of Jesus is the official title of the leader of the Society of Jesus &mdashthe Roman Catholic religious order also known Reverend Father Adolfo Nicolás Pachón, SJ, STD (born April 29, 1936) is a Spanish priest The Society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Social justice, sometimes called civil justice, refers to the concept of a Society in which Justice is achieved in every aspect of society rather than Higher education is Education that is provided by universities, vocational universities, Community colleges Liberal arts colleges It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is particularly active in the Philippines and India. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country In the United States alone, it maintains over 50 colleges, universities and high schools. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will often contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning and life-long spiritual and intellectual growth.  In Latin America, Liberal Jesuits have had significant influence in the development of liberation theology, a movement which has been highly controversial in the Catholic theological community and condemned by Pope John Paul II on several fundamental aspects. Liberation theology is a school of Theology within Christianity, particularly in the Roman Catholic Pope
Under Superior General Pedro Arrupe, social justice and the preferential option for the poor emerged as dominant themes of the work of the Jesuits. Fr Pedro Arrupe SJ ( November 14, 1907 &ndash February 5, 1991) (full name Pedro de Arrupe y Gondra) was the twenty-eighth Social justice, sometimes called civil justice, refers to the concept of a Society in which Justice is achieved in every aspect of society rather than On November 16, 1989, six Jesuit priests (Ignacio Ellacuria, Segundo Montes, Ignacio Martin-Baro, Joaquin López y López, Juan Ramon Moreno, and Amado López); their housekeeper, Elba Ramos; and her daughter, Celia Marisela Ramos, were murdered by the Salvadoran military on the campus of the University of Central America in San Salvador, El Salvador, because they had been labeled as subversives by the government. Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Ignacio Ellacuría SJ ( Portugalete, Biscay, Spain, November 9, 1930 &ndash San Salvador, November 16, This article is about the priest and scholar For the town named in his honor see Segundo Montes Morazán. Ignacio Martín-Baró SJ ( Valladolid, Castilla y Leon, Spain, El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America. San Salvador is the Capital and largest city of the nation of El Salvador. El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America. The assassinations galvanized the Society's peace and justice movements, including annual protests at the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation at Fort Benning, Georgia, United States, where the assassins were trained under US government sponsorship. The Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation ( WHISC or WHINSEC) formerly the School of the Americas ( SOA; Spanish: Fort Benning is a United States Army post located southwest The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
In 2002, Boston College president William P. Leahy, SJ, initiated the Church in the 21st Century program as a means of moving the Church "from crisis to renewal. For similarly-named academic institutions see Education in Boston MA. William P Leahy, SJ (born 1948 is the 25th President of Boston College, a post he has held since 1996 Initiated by Boston College President William P Leahy SJ, and begun in September 2002 The " Church in the 21st Century Initiative " was originally conceived " The initiative has provided the Society with a platform for examining issues brought about by the worldwide Roman Catholic sex abuse cases, including the priesthood, celibacy, sexuality, women's roles, and the role of the laity. Allegations of sexual abuse of children have been made against a variety of religious groups including but not exclusively Roman Catholic priests monks and nuns Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. Celibacy refers to the lack of participation in Sexual intercourse. Generally speaking human sexuality is how people experience and express themselves as sexual beings In religious organizations the laity comprises all persons who are not Clergy.
On January 6, 2005, Fr. Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Peter Hans Kolvenbach, on the occasion of the Jubilee Year, wrote that the Jesuits "should truly profit from the jubilee year to examine our way of life and taking the means to live more profoundly the charisms received from our Founders. Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, SJ, STD (born in Druten, 30 November, 1928) was the 29th Superior "
In April 2005, Thomas J. Reese, SJ, editor of the American Jesuit weekly magazine America, resigned at the request of the Society. Thomas J Reese, SJ is a Jesuit author and the former editor in chief of ''America'', a weekly Catholic magazine The United States of America —commonly referred to as the America is a national weekly Magazine published by the American Jesuits that contains news and opinion about the Roman Catholic Church The move was widely published in the media as the result of pressure from the Vatican, following years of criticism by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on articles touching subjects such as HIV/AIDS, religious pluralism, homosexuality and the right of life for the unborn. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF ( Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, Religious pluralism (rel Comparative religion) is a loosely defined expression concerning acceptance of different Religions and is used in a number of related Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Reese is currently on a year-long sabbatical at Santa Clara University. Santa Clara University is a private co-educational Jesuit -affiliated University located in Santa Clara, California.
On February 2, 2006, Fr. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Peter Hans Kolvenbach, informed members of the Society of Jesus, that with the consent of Pope Benedict XVI, he intended to step down as Superior General in 2008, the year he will turn 80. Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, SJ, STD (born in Druten, 30 November, 1928) was the 29th Superior Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger The 35th General Congregation of the Society of Jesus convened on 5 January 2008 and elected Fr. Events 1477 - Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Adolfo Nicolás, a Spanish Jesuit missionary in Japan, as the new Superior General on 19 January 2008. Reverend Father Adolfo Nicolás Pachón, SJ, STD (born April 29, 1936) is a Spanish priest Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The deliberations of the General Congregation on other important policies for the Jesuit order are expected to continue until March 2008. While the Jesuit superior general is elected for life, the order's constitutions allow him to step down.
On April 22, 2006, Feast of Our Lady, Mother of the Society of Jesus, Pope Benedict XVI greeted thousands of Jesuits on pilgrimage to Rome, and took the opportunity to thank God "for having granted to your Company the gift of men of extraordinary sanctity and of exceptional apostolic zeal such as St Ignatius of Loyola, St Francis Xavier and Bl Peter Faber. Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. " He said "St Ignatius of Loyola was above all a man of God, who gave the first place of his life to God, to his greater glory and his greater service. He was a man of profound prayer, which found its center and its culmination in the daily Eucharistic Celebration. " 
In May 2006, Benedict XVI also wrote a letter to Superior General Peter Hans Kolvenbach on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Pope Pius XII's encyclical Haurietis aquas, on devotion to the Sacred Heart, because the Jesuits have always been "extremely active in the promotion of this essential devotion " . Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, SJ, STD (born in Druten, 30 November, 1928) was the 29th Superior ' See also Theology of Pope Pius XII Haurietis aquas ("You will draw waters" is a landmark Encyclical of Pope Pius XII. In his November 3, 2006 visit to the Pontifical Gregorian University, Benedict XVI cited the university as "one of the greatest services that the Society of Jesus carries out for the universal Church" . Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Pontifical Gregorian University (Pontificia Università Gregoriana (also known as the Gregorianum) is a Pontifical university located in Rome, Italy
On January 19, 2008, Adolfo Nicolas was elected by General Congregation (GC XXXV) as the Order’s thirtieth Superior General and was promptly confirmed by Benedict XVI. Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Reverend Father Adolfo Nicolás Pachón, SJ, STD (born April 29, 1936) is a Spanish priest highest authority in the Society of Jesus is the General Congregation, an assembly of the Jesuit representatives from all parts of the world A month after, the Pope received members of the General Congregation and urged them to "to continue on the path of this mission in full fidelity to your original charism" and asked them to reflect so as "to rediscover the fullest meaning of your characteristic 'fourth vow' of obedience to the Successor of Peter. " For this, he told them to "adhere totally to the Word of God and to the Magisterium's task of preserving the integral truth and unity of Catholic doctrine. " This clear identity, according to the Pope, is important so that "many others may share in your ideals and join you effectively and enthusiastically. ". The Congregation responded with a formal declaration titled "With New Fervor and Dynamism, the Society of Jesus Responds to the Call of Benedict XVI," whereby they confirmed the Society's fidelity to the Pope. 
|South Asia Assistancy||4,018||20. 9%|
|United States of America||2,952||15. 4%|
|South Europe||2,448||12. 7%|
|West Europe||1,958||10. 2%|
|East Asia-Oceania||1,672||8. 7%|
|South Latin America||1,513||7. 9%|
|North Latin America||1,374||7. 2%|
|East Europe||1,119||5. 8%|
|Central Europe||732||3. 8%|
Like all Catholic spirituality, the spirituality practiced by the Jesuits, called Ignatian spirituality, is based on the Catholic faith and the gospels. Aside from the "Constitutions," "The Letters," and "Autobiography," Ignatian spirituality draws most specially from St. Ignatius' "Spiritual Exercises," whose purpose is "to conquer oneself and to regulate one's life in such a way that no decision is made under the influence of any inordinate attachment. The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola, (written within 1522-1524 are a brief set of Meditations Prayers and mental exercises available in various " In other words, the Exercises are intended, in Ignatius' view, to give the exercitant (the person undertaking them) a greater degree of freedom from his or her own likes, dislikes, comforts, wants, needs, drives, appetites and passions that they may choose based solely on what they discern God's will is for them.
In the words of Kolvenbach, the Exercises try to "unite two apparently incompatible realities: exercises and spiritual. " It invites to "unlimited generosity" in contemplating God, yet going down to the level of many details. 
Ignatian spirituality can be described as an active attentiveness to God joined with a prompt responsiveness to God, who is ever active in people's lives. Though it includes many forms of prayer, discernment, and apostolic service, it is the interior dispositions of attentiveness and responsiveness that are ultimately crucial. The result is that Ignatian spirituality has a remarkable 'nowness,' both in its attentiveness to God and in its desire to respond to what God is asking of the person now. 
The Ignatian ideal has the following characteristics:
St Ignatius of Loyola —"a man who gave the first place of his life to God" says Benedict XVI— stressed that "Man is created to praise, reverence, and serve God Our Lord and by this means to save his soul. Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger " This is the "First Principle and Foundation" of the Exercises. Ignatius declares: "The goal of our life is to live with God forever. God who loves us, gave us life. Our own response of love allows God's life to flow into us without limit. . . Our only desire and our one choice should be this: I want and I choose what better leads to the deepening of God's life in me. "
Ignatius emphasized an ardent love for the Saviour. In his Exercises, he devoted the last weeks to the contemplation of Jesus: from infancy and public ministry, to his passion and lastly his risen life. The Spiritual Exercises, in 104, sum this up in a prayer: "Lord, grant that I may see thee more clearly, love thee more dearly, follow thee more nearly. " There is a great emphasis on the emotions in Ignatius' methods, and a call for the person to be very sensitive to the emotional movements that shape them.
Ignatius recommends the twice daily examen. This is a guided method of prayerfully reviewing the events of a day to awaken an inner sensitivity to one's own actions, desires, and spiritual state through each moment reviewed. The goals are to see where God is challenging the person to change and growth, where God is calling the person to deeper reflection (this is particularly apt when discerning whether one has a jesuit vocation in life), and where sinful or imperfect attitudes or blind spots are. The general examen, often at the end of the day, is, as the name implies, a general review. The particular examen, often in the middle of the day, focuses on a particular fault identified by the person to be worked on over some days or weeks.
Meditation and contemplation, and for instance the aforementioned examen, are best guided, Ignatius says, by an experienced person. Jesuits, and those following Ignatian spirituality, meet with their spiritual director (traditionally a priest, though in recent years many laypersons have undertaken this role) on a regular basis (weekly or monthly) to discuss the fruits of their prayer life and be offered guidance. Ignatius sees the director as someone who can rein in impulsiveness or excesses, goad the complacent, and keep people honest with themselves. If the director is a priest, spiritual direction may or may not be connected with the Sacrament of Penance. Ignatius counseled frequent use of sacrament and while some directors see them as integrally linked, others hold them to be two separate relationships.
The founder of the Society of Jesus put effective love (love shown in deeds) above affective love (love based on nice feelings). He usually ended his most important letters with "I implore God to grant us all the grace to know His holy will and to accomplish it perfectly. " True and perfect love demands sacrifice, the abandonment of tastes and personal preferences, and the perfect renunciation of self. This can be taken together with the prayer for generosity, which asks for teaching to be generous, to serve God as God deserves without counting any cost or seeking any reward except knowing that one is doing God's will.
Where Francis of Assisi's concept of poverty emphasized the spiritual benefits of simplicity and dependency, Ignatius emphasized detachment, or "indifference. For the opera by Olivier Messiaen see Saint-François d'Assise. " For Ignatius, whether one was rich or poor, healthy or sick, in an assignment one enjoyed or one didn't, was comfortable in a culture or not, etc. , should be a matter of spiritual indifference—a modern phrasing might put it as serene acceptance. Hence, a Jesuit (or one following Ignatian spirituality), placed in a comfortable, wealthy neighborhood should continue to live the Gospel life without anxiety or possessiveness, and if plucked instantly from that situation to be placed in a poor area and subjected to hardships should simply cheerfully accept that as well, without a sense of loss or being deprived.
Ignatius's little book, the Spiritual Exercises is a fruit of months of prayer, and it is through prayer that one gets to understand Ignatian Spirituality. The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola, (written within 1522-1524 are a brief set of Meditations Prayers and mental exercises available in various Prayer is the act of attempting to communicate with a Deity or spirit Jesuits stress the need to take time to reflect and to pray because prayer is at the foundation of Jesus's life. Prayer, in Ignatian spirituality, does not dispense from "helping oneself," a phrase frequently used by Ignatius. Thus, he also speaks of mortification and of amendment. For the Christian metal band see Mortification (band. For the record label see Mortification Records.
The Society of Jesus has a relationship with the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary in a commitment to spread the devotion to the Sacred Heart (though the concept of devotion to Christ's mercy, as symbolized in the image of the Sacred Heart, is more ancient, its modern origins can be traced to St. The Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary or the Visitation Order is a Roman Catholic Religious order for women. Marie Alacoque, a Visitation nun, whose spiritual director was St. Saint Marguerite Marie Alacoque or Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque ( 22 July 1647 – 17 October 1690) was a French Claude de la Colombière). Saint Claude de la Colombière ( Grenoble, 2 February 1641 – Paray-le-Monial, 15 February 1682) was the Confessor The Jesuits particularly promoted this devotion to emphasize the compassion and overwhelming love of Christ for people, and to counteract the rigorism and spiritual pessimism of the Jansenists. Jansenism was a branch of Catholic Gallican thought which arose in the frame of the Counter-Reformation and the aftermath of the Council of Trent
St. Ignatius counseled souls to receive the Eucharist more often, and from the order's earliest days the Jesuits were promoters of "frequent communion". It should be noted that it was the custom for many Catholics before this time to receive communion perhaps once or twice a year, out of what Catholic theologians considered an exaggerated respect for the sacrament; Ignatius and others advocated communion at least monthly, emphasizing communion not as reward but as spiritual food; by the time of Pope St. Pius X, "frequent communion" had come to mean weekly and even daily reception of the Eucharist. Saint Pius X ( Latin: Pius PP X) ( June 2, 1835 &mdash August 20, 1914) born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, was the
Ignatius made his initial commitment to a new way of life by leaving his soldier's weapons (and symbolically, his old values) on an altar before an image of the Christ child seated on the lap of Our Lady of Montserrat. The Jesuits were long promoters of the Sodality of Our Lady, their primary organization for their students until the 1960s, which they used to encourage frequent attendance at Mass, reception of communion, daily recitation of the Rosary, and attendance at retreats in the Ignatian tradition of the Spiritual Exercises.
The purpose of the Order, says the Summary of the Constitutions, is "not only to apply one's self to one's own salvation and to perfection with the help of divine grace but to employ all one's strength, for the salvation and perfection of one's neighbor. "
The vision that Ignatius places at the beginning of the Exercises keeps sight of both the Creator and the creature, the One and the other swept along in the same movement of love. In it, God offers himself to humankind in an absolute way through the Son, and humankind responds in an absolute way by a total self-donation. There is no longer sacred or profane, natural or supernatural, mortification or prayer - because it is one and the same Spirit who brings it about that the Christian will "love God in all things - and all things in God. " Hence, Jesuits have always been active in the graphic and dramatic arts, literature and the sciences.
The Examen of Consciousness is a simple prayer directed toward developing a spiritual sensitivity to the special ways God approaches, invites, and calls. Ignatius recommends that the examen be done at least twice, and suggests five points of prayer:
It is important, however, that the person feels free to structure the Examen in a way that is most helpful to him. There is no right way to do it; nor is there a need to go through all of the five points each time. A person might, for instance, find himself spending the entire time on only one or two points. The basic rule is: Go wherever God draws you. And this touches upon an important point: the Examen of Consciousness is primarily a time of prayer; it is a "being with God. " It focuses on one's consciousness of God, not necessarily one's conscience regarding sins and mistakes.
Discernment is rooted in the understanding that God is ever at work in one's life, "inviting, directing, guiding and drawing" one "into the fullness of life. " Its central action is reflection on the ordinary events of one's life. It presupposes an ability to reflect on the ordinary events of one's life, a habit of personal prayer, self-knowledge, knowledge of one's deepest desires and openness to God's direction and guidance. Discernment is a prayerful 'pondering' or 'mulling over' the choices a person wishes to consider. In his discernment, the person's focus should be on a quiet attentiveness to God and sensing rather than thinking. His goal is to understand the choices in his heart: to see them, as it were, as God might see them. In one sense, there is no limit to how long he might wish to continue in this. Discernment is a repetitive process, yet as the person continues, some choices should of their own accord fall by the wayside while others should gain clarity and focus. It is a process that should move inexorably toward a decision.
Ignatius emphasized the active expression of God's love in life and the need to be self-forgetful in humility. Part of Jesuit formation is the undertaking of service specifically to the poor and sick in the most humble ways: Ignatius wanted Jesuits in training to serve part of their time as novices and in tertianship (see Formation below) as the equivalent of orderlies in hospitals, for instance, emptying bed pans and washing patients, to learn humility and loving service. Jesuit educational institutions often adopt mottoes and mission statements that include the idea of making students "men for others," and the like. Jesuit missions have generally included medical clinics, schools and agricultural development projects as ways to serve the poor or needy while preaching the Gospel.
See Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam for more information
The training of Jesuits seeks to prepare men spiritually, academically and practically for the ministries they will be called to offer the Church and world. Ad maiorem Dei gloriam or ad majorem Dei gloriam (when an "i" functions as a consonant St. Ignatius was strongly influenced by the Renaissance and wanted Jesuits to be able to offer whatever ministries were most needed at any given moment, and especially, to be ready to respond to missions (assignments) from the Pope. Saint Ignatius redirects here for other Saints see Ignatius. Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Íñigo Oñaz López de Loyola The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Formation for Priesthood normally takes up to 14 years, depending on the man's background and previous education, and final vows are taken several years after that, making Jesuit training among the longest of any of the religious orders. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion.
At this point, the novice pronounces his First Vows (perpetual Simple vows of poverty, chastity and obedience and a vow to persevere to final profession and ordination) and becomes either a Scholastic (entering onto the path of priesthood) or a Jesuit brother (technically known as a "temporal coadjutor", but officially styled "brother" today). In the Canon law of the Roman Catholic Church, public Vows are either simple vows or solemn vows. The scholastics (who are addressed by the title "Mister") and the Brothers (addressed by the title "Brother") of the Society of Jesus have different courses of study, although they often overlap.
For scholastics, the usual course of studies is as follows:
The formation of Jesuit brothers has a much less structured form. Prior to the Second Vatican Council, Jesuit brothers worked almost exclusively within Jesuit communities as cooks, tailors, farmers, secretaries, accountants, librarians and maintenance support - they were thus technically known as "temporal coadjutors", as they assisted the professed priests by undertaking the more "worldly" jobs, freeing the professed of the four vows and the "spiritual coadjutors" to undertake the sacramental and spiritual missions of the Society. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. Following the Second Vatican Council, which recognized the mission of all the Christian faithful, not just those who are ordained, to share in the ministries of the Church, Jesuit brothers began to engage in ministries outside of their communities. Today, the formation of a Jesuit brother may take many forms, depending on his aptitude for ministry. He may pursue a highly academic formation which mirrors that of the scholastics (there are, for instance, some Jesuit brothers who serve as university professors), or he may pursue more practical training in areas such as pastoral counseling or spiritual direction (some assist in giving retreats, for instance), or he may continue in the traditional “supporting” roles in which so many Jesuit brothers have attained notable levels of holiness (as administrative aides, for example). Since Vatican II the Society has officially adopted the term "brother," which was always the unofficial form of address for the temporal coadjutors.
Regardless of the practical details, Jesuit formation is meant to form men who are open and ready to serve whatever is the Church’s current need. Today, all Jesuits are expected to learn English, and those who speak English as a first language are expected to learn Spanish. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
The Society is headed by a Superior General. In the Jesuit Order, the formal title of the Superior General is "Praepositus Generalis," Latin for General President, more commonly called Father General or General, who is elected by the General Congregation for life or until he resigns, is confirmed by the Pope, and has absolute authority in running the Society. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is the Spanish Jesuit, Fr. Adolfo Nicolás Pachón who was elected on January 19, 2008. Reverend Father Adolfo Nicolás Pachón, SJ, STD (born April 29, 1936) is a Spanish priest Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
He is assisted by "assistants," each of whom heads an "assistancy," which is either a geographic area (for instance, the North American Assistancy) or an area of ministry (for instance, higher education). The assistants normally reside with the General Superior in Rome. The assistants, together with a number of other advisors, form an advisory council to the General. A vicar general and secretary of the Society run day-to-day administration. The General is also required to have an "admonitor," a confidential advisor whose specific job is to warn the General honestly and confidentially when he is acting imprudently or is straying toward disobedience to the Pope or heresy. The central staff of the General is known as the Curia.
The order is divided into geographic provinces, each of which is headed by a Provincial Superior, generally called Father Provincial, chosen by the General. He has authority over all Jesuits and ministries in his area, and is assisted by a socius, who acts as a sort of secretary and chief of staff. With the approval of the General, he appoints a novice master and a master of tertians to oversee formation, and rectors of local houses of Jesuits.
Each individual Jesuit community within a province is normally headed by a rector who is assisted by a "minister," from the Latin for "servant," a priest who helps oversee the community's day-to-day needs.
The General Congregation is a meeting of all of the assistants, provincials and additional representatives who are elected by the professed Jesuits of each province. It meets irregularly and rarely, normally to elect a new superior general and/or to take up some major policy issues for the order. The General meets more regularly with smaller councils composed of just the provincials.
Jesuits do not have an official habit. St. Ignatius's intent was their adoption of diocesan clergy dress in whatever country or region they found themselves. In time, a "Jesuit-style cassock" became standard issue: it wrapped around the body and was tied with a cincture, rather than the customary buttoned front, a tuftless biretta (only diocesan clergy wore tufts), and a simple cape (ferraiuolo) completed the full, formal Jesuit garb, but this too was part of diocesan priestly dress. As such, though their garb appeared distinctive, and became identifiable over time, it was the common priestly dress of Ignatius's day. Missionaries of all religious orders, at their commissioning ceremony, received a large crucifix worn on a cord around the neck that is often tucked, for convenience, to the cassock's cincture: historical depictions of Jesuit saints show the buttonless cassock, cape, biretta, and cervical crucifix.
During the Missionary periods of the Continental Americas, the various Amerindian tribes referred to the Jesuits as the "Blackrobes" because of the black cassocks they wore.
Today, most Jesuits wear the simple Roman collar tab shirts in non-liturgical, ministerial settings. Some, since the 1960s, have opted for secular garb.
The Jesuits have frequently been described by their detractors (of both Catholic and Protestant faith) as engaged in various conspiracies. A conspiracy theory attributes the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually Political, Social or Historical events or the concealment The Monita Secreta, also known as the "Secret Instructions of the Jesuits" was published 1612 & 1614 in Kraków, and is alternately alleged to have been written by either Claudio Acquaviva, the fifth general of the society, or by Jerome Zahorowski. The Monita Secreta was a code of instructions alleged to be addressed by Claudio Acquaviva, the fifth general of the Society of Jesus, to its various superiors Kraków, in English also spelled Krakow or Cracow (ˈkrækaʊ M-W: krăk'ou krāk'ō is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland Claudio Acquaviva ( September 14, 1543 - January 31, 1615) was an Italian Jesuit priest elected the 5th Superior General of the The document appears to lay down the methods to be adopted for the acquisition of greater power and influence for the order and for the Catholic Church. Sympathizers for the Society of Jesus argue that the Secreta were merely fabricated to give the Jesuits a sinister reputation.  It has become widely considered a forgery by Zahorowski.
Henry Garnet, one of the leading English Jesuits, was hanged for misprision of treason because of his involvement in Gunpowder Plot. Henry Garnet or Garnett (1555 &ndash May 3, 1606) was an English Jesuit, executed due to his involvement in the Gunpowder Misprision of treason is an offence found in many Common law jurisdictions around the world having been inherited from English law The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 or the Powder Treason, as it was known at the time was a failed Assassination attempt by a group of provincial English The plan had been an attempt to kill King James I of England and VI of Scotland, his family and most of the Protestant aristocracy in a single attack by blowing up the Houses of Parliament in 1605. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Another Jesuit, Oswald Tesimond, managed to escape arrest for involvement in the same plot. Oswald Tesimond (1563 &ndash 23 August 1636) a Jesuit born in either Northumberland or York who while not a direct conspirator
Robert Southwell, another Jesuit was arrested while visiting the house of Richard Bellamy, who lived near Harrow and was under suspicion on account of his connection with Jerome Bellamy, who had been executed for sharing in Anthony Babington's plot. For the diplomat see Robert Southwell (diplomat Saint Robert Southwell (c Harrow is a town in the London Borough of Harrow, North West London. Jerome Bellamy (died 1586 of Uxenden Hall, near London, England was a member of an old Catholic family noted for its hospitality to missionaries The Babington Plot was the event which most directly led to the execution of Mary I of Scotland (Mary Queen of Scots He was hanged for treason.
John Ballard (also Jesuit) was executed for being involved in an attempt to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England. John Ballard (died 20 September 1586) was an English Jesuit priest executed for being involved in an attempt to Assassinate Queen AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. The same fate struck Edmund Campion, a Jesuit priest unjustly sentenced to death as a traitor. Saint Edmund Campion SJ ( January 24 1540 &ndash December 1 1581) was an English Jesuit priest
They have also been accused of using casuistry to obtain justifications for the unjustifiable (see formulary controversy and Lettres Provinciales) . Casuistry (ˈkæʒuːɨstri is an Applied ethics term referring to case-based Reasoning. The Formulary Controversy, in 17th century France, pitted the Jansenists against the Jesuits. The Lettres provinciales ( Provincial letters) are a series of eighteen letters written by French Philosopher and Theologian Blaise In English, according to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, "Jesuitical" has acquired a secondary meaning of "equivocating". Concise Oxford English Dictionary (until 2002 officially entitled The Concise Oxford Dictionary, and widely known by the abbreviation COD The Jesuits have also been targeted by many anti-Catholics like Jack Chick, Avro Manhattan, Alberto Rivera (who claimed to be a former Jesuit himself), and the late former Jesuit priest, Fr. Anti-Catholicism is a generic term for Discrimination, hostility or Prejudice directed at the Roman Catholic Church or its followers Jack Thomas Chick (born April 13, 1924) is an American Publisher, writer and comic book artist, and has been called the most published Avro Manhattan (1914-1990 was an author whose works were very critical of the Roman Catholic Church (see Anti-Catholicism) (though he also wrote on other things Alberto Magno Romero Rivera (1935 in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain – June 20, 1997 in Broken Arrow Oklahoma Malachi Martin. 
Within the Catholic Church, some Jesuits are criticized by some parties for allegedly being overly liberal and allegedly deviating substantially from official Church teaching and papal directives, especially on such issues as abortion, priestly celibacy, homosexuality, and liberation theology. Liberation theology is a school of Theology within Christianity, particularly in the Roman Catholic  John Paul II appointed Jesuit priest Roberto Cardinal Tucci, S. Roberto Cardinal Tucci, SJ ( 19 April 1921 - is a Roman Catholic Cardinal and theologian. J. , to the College of Cardinals after serving for many years as the chief organizer of papal trips and public events. In total, John Paul II and Benedict XVI have appointed 10 Jesuit cardinals.
Nine Jesuit priests have been formally recognized by Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem, for risking their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust of World War II. Yad Vashem (יד ושם also spelled Yad VaShem; "Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority" is Israel 's official memorial to the Jewish The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Several other Jesuits are known to have rescued or given refuge to Jews during that period. 
A plaque commemorating the 152 Jesuit priests who gave of their lives during the Holocaust was installed at Rockhurst University, a Jesuit university, in Kansas City, Missouri, United States, in April 2007, the first such plaque in the world. Rockhurst University is a private, Coeducational Jesuit University located in Kansas City, Missouri, founded in 1910 Kansas City Missouri only Items for the metro area Kansas City Kansas or North Kansas City MO should go on their respective pages The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Notable Jesuits include missionaries, educators, scientists, artists and philosophers. This is an incomplete list of famous members of the Society of Jesus. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of Activities to do with creating Art, practicing the Arts and/or demonstrating Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Among many distinguished early Jesuits was St. Francis Xavier, a missionary to Asia who converted more people to Catholicism than anyone before. Saint Francis Xavier ( Konkani / Konknni: Sam Fransisku Xavier/ Sanv Fransisk Xavier Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa Spanish: San Francisco José de Anchieta and Manuel da Nobrega, founders of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were also Jesuit priests. José de Anchieta ( March 19 1534 &ndash June 9 1597) was a Canarian Jesuit Missionary to Brazil in Manuel da Nóbrega (old spelling Manoel da Nóbrega) (1517 Sanfins do Douro Trás-os-Montes, Portugal - 1570 was a Portuguese Jesuit priest São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Another famous Jesuit was St. Jean de Brebeuf, a French missionary who was martyred in North America during the 1600s. Saint Jean de Brébeuf ( 25 March 1593 &ndash 16 March 1649) was a Jesuit Missionary, Martyred in
Though there is almost no occupation in civil life, and no ministry within the Church, which a Jesuit has not held at one time or another, and though the work of the Jesuits today embraces a wide variety of apostolates and ministries, they are probably most well known for their educational work. See also Society of Jesus Jesuits have founded and managed a number of institutions notably universities, which have produced many well-known alumni.
Since the inception of the order, Jesuits have been teachers. Today, there are Jesuit-run universities, colleges, high schools and middle or elementary schools in dozens of countries. Jesuits also serve on the faculties of both Catholic and secular schools as well.
One of the most prominent of these universities is the Gregorian University in Rome, one of the Church's key seats of learning, associated in a consortium with the Pontifical Biblical Institute and Pontifical Oriental Institute. Pontifical Gregorian University (Pontificia Università Gregoriana (also known as the Gregorianum) is a Pontifical university located in Rome, Italy The Pontifical Biblical Institute ( it: Pontificio Istituto Biblico) in Rome, Italy is an institution of the Holy See run by the Jesuits The Pontifical Oriental Institute ("Pontificium Institutum Orientalium" in Latin "Pontificio Instituto Orientale" in Italian is the premier center for the study of
In the United States, 28 Jesuit schools are organized as the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities, the oldest one being Georgetown University, founded by Bishop John Carroll in 1789, and the largest Fordham University. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities ( AJCU) is a consortium of the 28 Jesuit colleges and universities and two theological centers in the United States Georgetown University is a Jesuit Private university located in Georgetown Washington D John Carroll may refer to John Carroll (actor (1906-1979 American actor John Carroll (author, Australian Reader in Sociology and author Fordham University is a private University in the United States, with three campuses located in and around New York City. The 46 Jesuit high schools are organized as the Jesuit Secondary Education Association. The Jesuit Secondary Education Association (JSEA was founded in 1970 to address the unique needs of the Jesuit secondary school Apostolate in the The Jesuits have recently opened a number of middle schools in poor neighborhoods in New York, Boston and Chicago. Middle school or Junior High School serves as a "bridge" between the Elementary School and the High School There are also Jesuits serving on the faculties of other Catholic colleges and universities; additionally they serve on many secular faculties, including those of Harvard, Yale and the University of Virginia. The University of Virginia (also called UVa, UVA, Mr Jefferson's University, or The University) is a highly selective public research
In Latin America Jesuit institutions are organized into the Asociación de Universidades Confiadas a la Compañía de Jesús en América Latina (Association of Universities Entrusted to the Jesuits in Latin America). Asociación de Universidades Confiadas a la Compañía de Jesús en América Latina is an association of Jesuit universities in Latin America.
In the Philippines, the Jesuit universities are all independent, although they maintain institutional ties. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The Ateneo de Manila University, Ateneo de Naga University, Xavier University-Ateneo de Cagayan, Ateneo de Zamboanga University,Marian College of Ipil and Ateneo de Davao University are all loosely federated. The Ateneo de Manila University (also called " Ateneo de Manila " or simply "the Ateneo " is a private University run The Ateneo de Naga University is a private university run by the Society of Jesus in Naga City in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. Xavier University is a private Catholic University run by the Society of Jesus in Cagayan de Oro, Philippines. The Ateneo de Zamboanga University is a Catholic and Jesuit university in Western Mindanao. The Ateneo de Davao University (AdDU is a private Catholic University founded administered by the Society of Jesus in the island of Mindanao in the An affiliated association, Mindanao Consortium of Ateneo Universities, groups all of the Jesuit universities located in Mindanao island with the purpose of promoting Muslim-Christian unity and dialogue as well as to exchange knowledge and expertise in various academic fields. Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost Island in the Philippines.
In Australia, the Jesuits run a number of schools including Xavier College, St Ignatius' College, Riverview, Loyola senior high school [Mt Druitt], Saint Ignatius' College, Athelstone and St Aloysius' College. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Xavier College is a Roman Catholic, day and Boarding school predominantly for boys with its main campus located in Kew, an eastern suburb Saint Ignatius' College Riverview is a Roman Catholic, day and Boarding school for boys located in Riverview, a small Suburb Saint Ignatius' College is an independent, Reception to Year 12 school in Adelaide, South Australia. St Aloysius' College is an independent, Roman Catholic, Day school for boys located in Milsons Point, a suburb on the lower North
In Ireland, the Jesuits run five schools: Belvedere College, Gonzaga College (both in Dublin), Clongowes Wood College in Clane, Co. Kildare, St Ignatius College, in Galway city, and Crescent College, which is in Limerick. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Belvedere College SJ is a private Secondary school for boys located on Great Denmark Street Dublin, Ireland. For the school in Washington DC see Gonzaga College High School. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Clongowes Wood College is a private secondary Boarding school for boys located near Clane in County Kildare, Ireland. Clane ( Claonadh in Irish) is a Village on the River Liffey and in the barony of Clane in County Kildare, Ireland. County Kildare (Contae Chill Dara is an Irish County located to the southwest of Dublin in the province of Leinster. St Ignatius' College is a Catholic Secondary school for boys aged 11-18 located in Enfield, Middlesex. Galway (Gaillimh is the only city in the province of Connacht in Ireland. Crescent College Comprehensive SJ is a Secondary school located on a section of 40 acres (162000 m² of parkland at Dooradoyle Limerick, Ireland
In Egypt, the Jesuits are running le College de la Sainte Famille, a private school for boys in Cairo. They are also involved in charity organisations in the South of Egypt.
In Belgium, the Jesuits run various secondary schools (high schools) such as "Sint-Jozefscollege" in Aalst (Dutch-speaking) and "Sint-Jan Berchmans College" in Antwerpen (Dutch-speaking). The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those "Universitair Centrum Sint-Ignatius" in Antwerpen (Dutch-speaking) and the 'Facultés Notre-Dame de la Paix' of Namur (French-speaking) are both Jesuit universities.
In India, the Jesuits run top colleges and schools in the country including Loyola College, Chennai, St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, St. Xavier's College, Calcutta, Xavier Labour Relations Institute, Jamshedpur, Loyola School, Thiruvananthapuram, St Xavier's College, Thiruananthapuram, St Xavier's College, Palayamkottai, Loyola College, Kunkuri, St Xavier's College, Balipara, Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneshwar, St Joseph's College, Tiruchirapalli, St Xavier's College, Goa, Andhra Loyola College, Vijaywada, Loyola Academy, Secunderabad, Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar (XIMB), Xavier Institute of Social Service (XISS) and Xavier Institute of Development and Service (XIDAS), St Vincent's High School, Pune and St Xavier's College, Ranchi, St Xavier's College, Ahmedabad. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Loyola College is a Jesuit college in Chennai, India. It is among the elite colleges in India presently ranked at no This article is about the college in Mumbai For other schools called St St Xavier's College is located in Kolkata, India, and is named after St Founded in 1961 Loyola School Thiruvananthapuram is a private Jesuit school for boys. Xavier Institute of Management Bhubaneswar (XIM Bhubaneswar, also known as XIMB) is a Business school in India, located in the eastern They also run some of the top theological colleges in India the famous ones being Jnana Deepa Vidyapeeth, Pune (De Nobili College) and Vidyajyoti College of Theology, Delhi. They also run 9 Regional Theology Centers (RTC) for contextual theologies in diverse regions of the country. Their educational institutions also have some of the country's best sportspersons producing centers, prominent among them being St Ignatius High School, Gumla, St Mary's High School, Samtoli, Loyola School Jakhama (Kohima). Some of the top bureaucrats and politicians (including those opposing Christianity) are Jesuit school alumni.
In Hong Kong S. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders A. R. , the Jesuits run two secondary schools including Wah Yan College, Kowloon and Wah Yan College, Hong Kong.
In Japan, the Jesuits founded Sophia University. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. is a private university in Japan with its main campus located in Yotsuya, an area of Tokyo 's Chiyoda Ward in Japan. It is considered to be one of the best private universities in the country, and is one of Tokyo's top ranked private universities. Various schools and universities serve Tokyo, Japan. Primary and secondary schools Publicly run kindergartens Elementary schools (years 1 through 6
In Korea, the Jesuits are running Sogang University. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Sogang University is one of the leading research and liberal arts universities in Seoul, South Korea. It is established in February, 1960. It is founded by Art Dethlefs, Basil Price, Jin Song Man(진성만), Theodor Geppert, Ken Killoren and Clancy Herbst. Nowadays Sogang University is considered to be one of the best private universities in Korea.
In Taiwan, Jesuits founded the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Management of the Catholic Fu-Jen University during the 1950s. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. In 2003 another new Faculty of Social Sciences was derived from the Faculty of Law. Thus until today, the Fu Jen Catholic University is still considered to be one of the best private universities in Taiwan. Fu Jen Catholic University ( is a Catholic University in Sinjhuang, Taipei County, Taiwan.
Jesuits also operate retreat houses, for the purpose of offering the Spiritual Exercises (above) and other types of days of prayer or spiritual programs extended over weekends or weeks. The oldest Jesuit retreat house in the United States is Mount Manresa in Staten Island, New York, and today there are 34 retreat houses or spirituality centers run by the order in the U. S. Jesuits also serve on the staffs of other retreat centers.
Jesuits are also known for their involvement in publications. La Civiltà Cattolica, a periodical produced in Rome by the Jesuits, has often been used as a semi-official platform for popes and Vatican officials to float ideas for discussion or hint at future statements or positions. La Civiltà Cattolica ( Italian for The Catholic Civilization) is an Italian biweekly Magazine (or periodical) In the United States, America magazine has long had a prominent place in intellectual Catholic circles, and the Jesuits produce Company, a periodical specifically about Jesuit activities. America is a national weekly Magazine published by the American Jesuits that contains news and opinion about the Roman Catholic Church Most Jesuit colleges and universities have their own presses which produce a variety of books, book series, textbooks and academic publications as well. Ignatius Press, staffed by Jesuits, is an independent publisher of Catholic books, most of which are of the popular academic or lay-intellectual variety. Ignatius Press was founded in 1978 by Father Joseph Fessio SJ a Jesuit priest and former pupil of Pope Benedict XVI.
In Australia, the Jesuits run a winery at Sevenhill, the Jesuit Mission Australia, and they produce a number of magazines, including Eureka Street, Madonna, Australian Catholics, and Province Express. Eureka Street is an Australian Magazine concerned with public affairs arts and theology started in 1989 by Michael Kelly SJ Morag Fraser
Many buildings and ruins give witness to the order's construction activity world-wide. The Ruins of St Paul's (Ruínas de São Paulo refer to the façade of what was originally the Cathedral of St For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Macau topics. For the school see Gesu School. The Church of the Gesù (dʒeˈzu in Italian, Chiesa del Sacro Nome di Gesù, or In Christianity, the term mother church or Mother Church may have one of five meanings The first Mission church in an area or a Pioneer Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Among these are:
The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order