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Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the public. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions African socialism is a belief in sharing economic resources in a "traditional" African way as distinct from classical Socialism. Arab Socialism (الاشتراكية العربية al-ishtirākīya al-‘arabīya) is a political ideology based on an amalgamation of Pan-Arabism and Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based De Leonism, occasionally known as Marxism-Deleonism, is a form of Marxism developed by Daniel De Leon. Democratic socialism is a description used by various socialist movements tendencies and organizations to emphasize the democratic character of their political orientation Eco-socialism, Green socialism or Socialist ecology is an Ideology merging aspects of Marxism, Socialism, Green politics Economic Democracy is a socioeconomic Philosophy that suggests transfer of decision-making authority from a small minority of corporate shareholders to Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers' control of industry through the medium of trade-related Guilds. Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political economic or social hierarchies – a society in which all violent The concept of Melanesian socialism was first advocated by Father Walter Lini of the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu) who became the country's first Market socialism is a term used to denote two different Economic system (s based in Socialism which operate according to Market principles The term revolutionary socialism refers to Socialist tendencies that advocate the need for fundamental social change through Revolution, as a strategy to achieve a Social anarchism, socialist anarchism, anarcho-socialism, anarchist socialism or Communitarian anarchism,(sometimes used interchangeably with Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left A socialist market economy is an economic form that is practiced in the People's Republic of China, where it is called Socialism with Chinese characteristics Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought Third World Socialism was a variant of Socialism preached by Nyerere, al-Bitar, Aflaq, Nasser, Nehru, Ben-Gurion Religious socialism is a Term used to describe forms of Socialism that are based on Religious values. Buddhist socialism is a Political ideology which advocates Socialism based on the principles of Buddhism. Christian socialism generally refers to those on the Christian left whose politics are both Christian and Socialist and who see these two philosophies as Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to meet the demand for a more spiritual form of Socialism. Criticisms of Socialism range from disagreements over the efficiency of socialist economic and political models to condemnation of states described by themselves The history of socialism, sometimes termed 'modern socialism' finds its origins in the French Revolution of 1789 and the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution Socialist economics is a broad and sometimes controversial term The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers' state) can carry one of several different (but related meanings In strictly speaking any Since the 18th century Socialist ideas have developed and separated into many different types of socialism. The following is a list of self-identified Socialists divided by geographical location The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety The Second International (1889-1916 was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow The Fourth International ( FI) is a communist international organisation working in opposition to both Capitalism and Stalinism. Socialist International is a worldwide organization of socialist ( social democratic and labour) political parties The World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY is a left-wing youth organization recognized by the United Nations as an international youth Non-governmental organization The International Union of Socialist Youth (IUSY encompasses socialist, Social democratic and Labour Party youth organizations from more than 100 states Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the workers themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care general production Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system The " dictatorship of the proletariat " or workers' state is a term employed by Marxists that refers to what they see as a temporary state between the Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have Equality of outcome or equality of condition is a form of Egalitarianism which seeks to reduce or eliminate differences in material condition between individuals or Impossibilism is an interpretation of Marxism. It emphasizes the limited value of reforms in overturning capitalism and insists on revolutionary political action as the only For the Marxist concept of internationalism see Proletarian internationalism. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. A proletarian revolution is a social and/or political Revolution in which the Working class attempts to overthrow the Bourgeoisie. Socialism in One Country was a thesis developed by Nikolai Bukharin in 1925 and adopted as state policy by Joseph Stalin. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall Utility, that is its contribution to happiness An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics A political movement is a Social movement working in the area of Politics. Socioeconomics or socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and Social life.  This control may be either exercised through popular collectives such as workers' councils in a voluntary arrangement or on behalf of the people through state policies. A workers' council is a Deliberative assembly, composed of Working class members intended to institute Workers' self-management or Workers' control As an economic system, socialism is often characterized by state, worker, or community ownership of the means of production, goals which have been attributed to, and claimed by, a number of political parties and governments throughout history. An economic system is a System that involves the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services between A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Means Of Production is a compilation of Aim 's early 12" and EP releases recorded between 1995 and 1998 A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral
The modern socialist movement largely originated in the late–19th century working class movement. Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types During this period, the term "socialism" was first used by European social critics, who spoke against capitalism and private property. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual Karl Marx, who helped establish and define the modern socialist movement, wrote that socialism would be achieved through class struggle and a proletarian revolution. Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective A proletarian revolution is a social and/or political Revolution in which the Working class attempts to overthrow the Bourgeoisie.  Marxism has had a lasting influence on most branches of socialism. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Since the 19th century, socialists have not agreed on a common doctrine or program. Various adherents of socialist movements are split into differing and sometimes opposing branches, particularly between reformists and revolutionaries. Socialist Reformism is the belief that gradual democratic changes in a Society can ultimately change a society's fundamental economic relations and political structures The term revolutionary socialism refers to Socialist tendencies that advocate the need for fundamental social change through Revolution, as a strategy to achieve a Some socialists have championed the complete nationalization of the means of production, while social democrats have proposed selective nationalization of key industries within the framework of mixed economies. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left A mixed economy is an Economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system Some Marxists, including those inspired by the Soviet model of economic development, have advocated the creation of centrally planned economies directed by a state that owns all the means of production. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of State ownership, administrative planning Socialist competition and free labour A planned economy or directed economy is an Economic system in which the Government or Workers' councils manages the Economy. Others, including Communists in Yugoslavia and Hungary in the 1970s and 1980s, Chinese Communists since the reform era, and some Western economists, have proposed various forms of market socialism, attempting to reconcile the presumed advantages of cooperative or state ownership of the means of production with letting market forces, rather than central planners, guide production and exchange. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: The People's Republic of Hungary or Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság was the official state name of Hungary from 1949 to 1989 during its The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the The Chinese economic reform ( refers to the program of economic reforms called " Socialism with Chinese characteristics " in the People's Republic of Market socialism is a term used to denote two different Economic system (s based in Socialism which operate according to Market principles Sao Paulo Stock Exchangejpg|thumb| Virtual market arena where buyer and seller are not present and trade via intemediates and electronical information In Microeconomics, Production is simply the conversion of Inputs into Outputs It is an economic process that uses Resources to create a Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce.  Anarcho-syndicalists, Luxemburgists (such as those in the Socialist Party USA) and some elements of the United States New Left favor decentralized collective ownership in the form of cooperatives or workers' councils. Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of Anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within Communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. The Socialist Party USA (SP USA is one of the heirs to the Socialist Party of America of Eugene V The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The New Left were the Left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism instead adopted a
Certain elements of socialist thought long predate the socialist ideology that emerged in the first half of the 19th century. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics Thomas More's Utopia has been cited as including socialist ideas. Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535 from 1935 Saint Thomas More, was an English Lawyer, author and statesman who in his lifetime gained De Optimo Republicae Statu deque Nova Insula Utopia (translated On the Best State of a Republic and on the New Island of Utopia) or more simply  The fifth century Mazdak movement in what is now Iran has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, criticizing the institution of private property and for striving for an egalitarian society. Mazdak (in Persian مزدک (died c 524 or 528 was a proto- socialist Persian reformer who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics.  William Morris argued that John Ball, one of the leaders of the 1381 Peasants' Revolt in England, was the first socialist. William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896 was an English Architect, Furniture and Textile designer artist writer and socialist associated John Ball may refer to John Ball (priest (d 1381 active in Peasants' Revolt John Ball (Puritan (1585–1640 British  John Ball is credited with saying: "When Adam delved and Eve span, Who was then the gentleman?" During the English Civil War in the mid 17th century, movements identified with the socialist tradition include the Levellers and the Diggers; the latter believing that land should be held in common. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. See Levellers (disambiguation for alternative meanings. The Levellers were members of a mid 17th century English Political movement The Diggers were an English group begun by Gerrard Winstanley as True Levellers in 1649, who became known as "Diggers"
During the 18th-century Enlightenment, criticism of inequality appeared in the work of political theorists such as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France, whose Social Contract began, "Man is born free, and he is everywhere in chains. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Social Contract Or Principles of Political Right (1762 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is the book in which Rousseau theorized about Social contracts " Following the French Revolution of 1789, François Noël Babeuf espoused the goals of common ownership of land and total economic and political equality among citizens. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an François-Noël Babeuf ( November 23, 1760 - May 27, 1797) known as Gracchus Babeuf (in tribute to the Roman reformers
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The appearance of the term "socialism" is variously attributed to Pierre Leroux in 1834, or to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud in France, or else in Britain to Robert Owen, who is considered the father of the cooperative movement. The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better New Unionism is a term which has been used twice in the history of the labour movement both times involving moves to broaden the union agenda The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian Social Movement Unionism is a trend of theory and practice in contemporary trade unionism Syndicalism is a type of movement which aims to degrade capitalist societies through action by the Working class on the industrial front Timeline of Organized labor history 1790s - 1800s - 1810s - 1820s - 1830s - 1840s - 1850s Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of Legal rights and claimed Human rights having to do with Labor relations between Workers Child labor is the employment of Children at regular and sustained labour The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (aka the Short-time movement) had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where Occupational safety and health is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the Safety, Health and welfare of people engaged in Collective bargaining is the process whereby workers organize together to meet converse and compromise upon the work environment with their employers A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming This is a list of Trade unions and Union federations by country This is a list of federations of Trade unions. Those federations listed under each country are also known as National trade union centres and are organisations formed Unions have been compared across countries by growth and decline patterns by violence levels and by kinds of political activity Inaugural Congress The founding and first congress of the ITUC was held November 1 - 3 2006 in Vienna TemplateInfobox Union for usage -->The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU was established in the wake of the Second Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The International Workers' Association ( IWA) ( Spanish: Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. The following is a list of deliberate absence from work related to specific working conditions ( strikes) or due to general unhappiness with the political order ( General strikes A general strike is a Strike action by a critical mass of the labour force in a city region or country A sympathy strike is a Strike action that is initiated by workers in one industry and supported by workers in a separate but related industry or profession A sit-down strike is a form of Civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers usually employed at a factory or other centralized location take possession of Work-to-rule is an Industrial action in which Employees do no more than the minimum required by the rules of a workplace and follow safety or other regulations to Sidney Hillman ( March 23, 1887 - July 10, 1946) was an American labor leader Ion Costache Frimu ( &mdash) was a Romanian socialist militant and politician a leading member of the Romanian Social Democratic Party (PSDR and Tanong Po-arn was a Thai labor union leader who disappeared following the National Peace Keeping Council's 1991 military Coup against the elected government Sarah George Bagley (April 19 1806-1883? was a nineteenth century labor activist in the United States Labor history (or labour history) is a broad field of study concerned with the development of the Labor movement and the Working class. The field of industrial relations (also called labor relations) looks at the relationship between Management and workers particularly groups of workers represented Labour law (also known as employment or labor law is the body of Laws administrative rulings and precedents which address the legal rights of and restrictions Pierre Leroux ( April 7, 1797 - April 1871 French Philosopher and political economist, was born at Bercy near Paris Marie Roch Louis Reybaud ( August 15, 1799 - October 28, 1879) French Writer, political economist and Politician Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 Nov 1858 born in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales was a social reformer and one of the founders of Socialism The history of the cooperative movement concerns the origins and history of Cooperatives Although cooperative arrangements such as Mutual insurance, and principles 
The first modern socialists were early 19th century Western European social critics. In this period, socialism emerged from a diverse array of doctrines and social experiments associated primarily with British and French thinkers—especially Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Louis Blanc, and Saint-Simon. Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 Nov 1858 born in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales was a social reformer and one of the founders of Socialism François Marie Charles Fourier ( April 7, 1772 - October 10, 1837) was a French Utopian Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (ˈpruːd ɒn in British English, dɔ̃ in French) ( 15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was Louis Jean Joseph Charles Blanc ( October 29, 1811 &ndash December 6, 1882) was a French Politician and Historian Claude Henri de Rouvroy comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon ( October 17, 1760 &ndash May 19, 1825) was These social critics criticised the excesses of poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution, and advocated reforms such as the egalitarian distribution of wealth and the transformation of society into small communities in which private property was to be abolished. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Outlining principles for the reorganization of society along collectivist lines, Saint-Simon and Owen sought to build socialism on the foundations of planned, utopian communities. Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the
According to some accounts, the use of the words "socialism" or "communism" was related to the perceived attitude toward religion in a given culture. In Europe, "communism" was considered to be the more atheistic of the two. Atheism In England, however, that sounded too close to communion with Catholic overtones; hence atheists preferred to call themselves socialists. The Mass is the Eucharistic celebration in the Latin liturgical rites of the Roman Catholic Church. 
By 1847, according to Frederick Engels, "Socialism" was "respectable" on the continent of Europe, while "Communism" was the opposite; the Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered Socialists, while working class movements which "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" termed themselves "Communists". Claude Henri de Rouvroy comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon ( October 17, 1760 &ndash May 19, 1825) was Owenism is a term used to represent the Utopian socialist Philosophy of Robert Owen, and derivations thereof François Marie Charles Fourier ( April 7, 1772 - October 10, 1837) was a French Utopian This latter was "powerful enough" to produce the communism of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany. Étienne Cabet ( January 1, 1788 &ndash November 9, 1856) was a French philosopher and Utopian socialist. Wilhelm Weitling ( October 5, 1808 – January 24 1871) was important early German anarchist, communist or 
In 1864, the International Workingmen's Association (IWA) or First International, was founded in London. The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety Victor Le Lubez, a French radical republican living in London, invited Marx to come, "as a representative of German workers", according to Saul Padover.  The IWA held a preliminary conference in 1865 and its first congress at Geneva in 1866. Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking Marx was appointed a member of the committee and, according to Padover, Marx and Johann Georg Eccarius, a tailor living in London, were to become, "the two mainstays of the International from its inception to its end". The First International became the first major international forum for the promulgation of socialist ideas.
The Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany was founded in 1869 under the influence of Marx and Engels. The Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany, in German Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SDAP was a German left-wing political In 1875, it merged with the General German Workers' Association of Ferdinand Lassalle to become what is known today as the German Social Democratic Party (SPD). The General German Workers' Association, in German Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein, ADAV was founded on 23 May 1863 by Ferdinand Lassalle Ferdinand Lassalle (11 April 1825 &mdash 31 August 1864 was a German Jurist and socialist political Activist. Socialism became increasingly associated with newly formed trade unions. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming In Germany, the SPD built trade unions and in Austria, France and other European countries, socialist parties and anarchists played a prominent role in forming and building up trade unions, especially from the 1870s onwards. This stood in contrast to the British experience, where moderate New Model Unions dominated the union movement from the mid–nineteenth century and where trade unionism was stronger than the political labour movement until the formation and growth of the Labour Party in the early years of the twentieth century. New Model Trade Unions (NMTU were a variety of Trade Unions prominent in the 1850s and 1860s in the UK. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the In the United States, the first socialist party was founded in 1876 and was organized as a Marxist party in 1890; the Socialist Labor Party exists to the present day. Origins The party was founded in Newark New Jersey, in 1876 as the Workingmen's Party of America. An early leader of the Socialist Labor Party was Daniel De Leon who had considerable influence beyond the United States as well. Daniel De Leon ( December 14, 1852 &ndash May 11, 1914) was a Curaçao -born American socialist and Syndicalism
Socialist groups supported diverse views of socialism, from the gradualism of many trade unionists to the radical, revolutionary theory of Marx and Engels. Anarchists and proponents of other alternative visions of socialism, who emphasized the potential of small-scale communities and agrarianism, coexisted with the more influential currents of Marxism and social democracy. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Agrarianism is a social and Political philosophy which stresses the viewpoint that the cultivation of plants or Farming leads to a fuller and happier life The anarchists, led by the Russian Mikhail Bakunin, believed that capitalism and the state were inseparable and that one could not be abolished without the other. Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin ( - July 1 1876) was a well-known Russian Revolutionary and theorist of Collectivist anarchism.
As the ideas of Marx and Engels took on flesh, particularly in central Europe, socialists sought to unite in an international organization. In 1889, on the centennial of the French Revolution of 1789, the Second International was founded, with 384 delegates from 20 countries representing about 300 labour and socialist organizations. The Second International (1889-1916 was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889.  It was termed the "Socialist International" and Engels was elected honorary president at the third congress in 1893.
Just before his death in 1895, Engels argued that there was now a "single generally recognized, crystal clear theory of Marx" and a "single great international army of socialists". A system of government is a term that refers to the set of political Institutions by which a Government of a State is organized in order to exert its powers Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions See also Form of government This article lists forms of government and Political systems according to a series of different ways of categorising them Anarchy (from αναρχία anarchía, "without ruler " may refer to any of the following "Absence of government a state of lawlessness Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler A band society is the simplest form of human Society. A band generally consists of a small kin group no larger than an Extended family or Clan. A chiefdom is a type of complex society of varying degrees of centralization that is led by an individual known as a chief. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system Corporatocracy is a Neologism that describes a Government dominated by corporate influence banks and governments Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives Despotism is a Form of government by a single authority either an individual or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute political power A dictatorship is usually defined as an autocratic Form of government in which the Government is ruled by a Dictator. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed A kleptocracy (sometimes cleptocracy, occasionally kleptarchy) ( root klepto+kratein = rule by thieves) is a term applied to a Kritarchy is a form of government ruled by judges It may have existed in Israel during the period of time described in the Book of Judges and exist in Somalia under the Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein Appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and Ability A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that Ochlocracy ( Greek: οχλοκρατία or okhlokratía; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Plutocracy is rule by the wealthy or power provided by wealth A puppet state is a State that is nominally independent but in reality under the control of another power A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Mixed government, also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of government that integrated facets of government by Democracy, Oligarchy, and Monarchy A constitutional Republic is a State where the Head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers' state) can carry one of several different (but related meanings In strictly speaking any A capitalist republic is a concept of government completely the reverse of Marxist thought Cybernetic revolt|Artificial intelligence in fiction The concept of Machine Rule is a common theme in Science fiction stories and film, in which an artificially A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party Technocracy: A form of government in which scientists and technical experts are in control "technocracy is described as that society in which those who govern justify themselves Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith Jr Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either a State where only property owners may participate in Government; or a government Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use Despite its illegality due to the Anti-Socialist Laws of 1878, the Social Democratic Party of Germany's use of the limited universal male suffrage were "potent" new methods of struggle which demonstrated their growing strength and forced the dropping of the Anti-Socialist legislation in 1890, Engels argued. The Anti-Socialist Laws or Socialist Laws ( German: Sozialistengesetze; officially Gesetz gegen die gemeingefährlichen Bestrebungen der Sozialdemokratie  In 1893, the German SPD obtained 1,787,000 votes, a quarter of votes cast. However, before the leadership of the SPD published Engels' 1895 Introduction to Marx's Class Struggles in France 1848–1850, they removed certain phrases they felt were too revolutionary. 
Marx believed that it was possible to have a peaceful socialist transformation in England, although the British ruling class would then revolt against such a victory.  America and Holland might also have a peaceful transformation, but not in France, where Marx believed there had been "perfected. . . an enormous bureaucratic and military organization, with its ingenious state machinery" which must be forcibly overthrown. However, eight years after Marx's death, Engels argued that it was possible to achieve a peaceful socialist revolution in France, too. 
When World War I began in 1914, many European socialist leaders supported their respective governments' war aims. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The social democratic parties in the UK, France, Belgium and Germany supported their respective state's wartime military and economic planning, discarding their commitment to internationalism and solidarity. International Socialism redirects here For the journal of the same name see International Socialism (journal Proletarian internationalism is a
Lenin, however, denounced the war as an imperialist conflict, and urged workers worldwide to use it as an occasion for proletarian revolution. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian The Second International dissolved during the war, while Lenin, Trotsky, Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, together with a small number of other Marxists opposed to the war, came together in the Zimmerwald Conference in September 1915. ( August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German Socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg 5 March 1870 or 1871 15 January 1919 was a Polish-born Jewish German Marxist theorist, socialist The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from September 5 through September 8, 1915.
By 1917, the atmosphere of enthusiastic patriotism which had greeted the start of the First World War had evaporated and was replaced by an upsurge of radicalism in most of Europe and as far afield as the United States (see Socialism in the United States) and Australia. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Socialism as an organized political movement in the United States began with utopian communities in the early 19th century and later became closely tied to the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. In February 1917, revolution broke out in Russia and the workers, soldiers and peasants set up workers', soldiers' and peasants' councils (in Russian, soviets), while power was placed into the hands of a Provisional government prior to the convocation of a Constituent Assembly. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting and in some cases adopting a Constitution. Lenin arrived in Russia in April 1917 and called for "All power to the Soviets". The Bolsheviks won a majority in the Soviets in October 1917 and at the same time the October Revolution was led by Lenin and Trotsky. The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution At the Petrograd Soviet on the 25 October 1917, Lenin declared, "Long live the world socialist revolution!"
On 26 October 1917, the day after seizing power, Lenin drew up a Draft Regulations on Workers' Control, granting workers' control in enterprises with not less than five workers and office employees, who were to be granted access to all books, documents and stocks, and whose decisions were to be "binding upon the owners of the enterprises. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year " The new Soviet government immediately nationalised the banks and major industry, and repudiated, or refused to acknowledge and pay, the former Romanov regime's national debts. The House of Romanov (Рома́нов rʌˈmanəf was the second and last imperial Dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country from 1613 to 1917 It implemented a system of government through the elected workers' councils or soviets. It sued for peace and withdrew from the First World War. The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in November 1917 and were won by the non-Marxist, peasant-based Socialist-Revolutionary (SR) party with almost twice as many votes as the Bolsheviks. A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting and in some cases adopting a Constitution. The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (the PSR the SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР эсеры was a Russian  The Constituent Assembly was convened for 13 hours between 4 p. m. and 4:40 a. m. , January 5–6, 1918. The SR leader Victor Chernov was elected President of the fledgling republic. Viktor Mikhailovich Chernov (Виктор Михайлович Чернов 1873 &ndash 1952 was a Russian revolutionary and one of the founders of the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary The following day the Bolsheviks dissolved the assembly. 
The Russian revolution of October 1917 gave rise to the formation of Communist Parties around the world, and the revolutions of 1917-23 which followed. The Revolutions of 1917–23 formed a Revolutionary wave precipitated by the end of World War I in general and the Russian Revolutions of 1917 in particular In this period, few Communists — least of all Lenin and Trotsky — doubted that the success of socialism in Soviet Russia depended on successful socialist revolutions carried out by the working classes of the most developed capitalist countries.  For this reason, in 1919, Lenin and Trotsky drew together the Communist Parties from around the world into a new 'International', the Communist International (also termed the Third International or Comintern). The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow
The German Revolution of 1918 overthrew the old absolutism and, as in Russia, Workers' and Soldiers' Councils almost entirely made up of SPD and Independent Social Democrats (USPD) members were set up. The Weimar republic was established and placed the SPD in power, under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert. The term Weimar Republic ( ˈvaɪmarɐ repuˈbliːk is used by historians to signify the democratic and Republican period of Germany from 1919 to 1933 Friedrich Ebert ( February 4, 1871 February 28, 1925) was a German Politician ( SPD) who served as The Workers' and Soldiers' Councils were put down by the army and the Freikorps. The designation of Freikorps ( German for "Free Corps " was originally applied to voluntary armies formed in German lands from the middle of 18th century In 1919 the Spartacist uprising challenged the power of the SPD government, but it was put down in blood and the German Communist leaders Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg were discovered and brutally murdered. The Spartacist uprising, also known as the January uprising, was a General strike (and the armed battles accompanying it in Germany from January 5 ( August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German Socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg 5 March 1870 or 1871 15 January 1919 was a Polish-born Jewish German Marxist theorist, socialist A Communist regime under Kurt Eisner in Bavaria in 1919 was also put down in blood. Kurt Eisner ( May 14 1867 in Berlin – February 21, 1919 in München)was a Bavarian Politician Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 A Communist regime briefly held power under Béla Kun in Hungary. Béla Kun ( February 20 1886 – August 29 1938) born Béla Kohn, was a Hungarian Communist Politician Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic There were revolutionary movements in Vienna, the industrial centres of northern Italy, and revolutionary movements in the Ruhr area in Germany in 1920 and in Saxony in 1923. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
However, these revolutionary movements failed to spread the socialist revolution into the advanced capitalist countries of Europe. In Soviet Russia things were desperate. In August 1918, Lenin was shot in the head and wounded by Fanya Kaplan. Fanya Yefimovna Kaplan (Фаниа Ефимовна Каплан February 10, 1890 – September 3, 1918) also known as Fanny Kaplan Under siege from a trade boycott and invasion by Germany, UK, USA, France and other forces, facing civil war and starvation, the Soviet regime implemented War Communism in June, 1918. War communism (or military communism) (Военный коммунизм 1918 - 1921 is the term created by western historians referring to the economic and political system All private enterprise was made illegal, strikers could be shot, "non-working classes" were forced to work and the Soviet regime could requisition grain from the peasants for the workers in the cities.
By 1920, the Red Army, led by Trotsky, had largely defeated the White Armies. In 1921, War Communism was ended, and under the New Economic Policy (NEP), private ownership was restored to small and medium enterprises, and especially to the peasants. For the Malaysian New Economic Policy see Malaysian New Economic Policy. The peasants had resented and hindered the requisitions of grain so that the situation in the cities remained desperate or was getting worse. Lenin declared that the "commanding heights" of industry would still be under state control, but that the NEP was a capitalist measure in a country that was still largely unripe for socialism. Businessmen and women, called 'NEPmen', began to flourish, and the rich peasant (or 'Kulak', meaning 'fist') gained more power. Kulaks ( Russian: кула́к kulak " Fist ", by extension "tight-fisted" were a category of rich Peasants in later
Lenin, now half-paralyzed from several strokes, castigated the powers the state had assumed in the Soviet Union by 1923. It had reverted to "a bourgeois czarist machine. . . barely varnished with socialism. " After Lenin's death in January 1924, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, falling steadily under the control of Stalin, rejected the theory that socialism could not be built in the Soviet Union on its own. Stalin declared a policy of "socialism in one country", namely the Soviet Union. Socialism in One Country was a thesis developed by Nikolai Bukharin in 1925 and adopted as state policy by Joseph Stalin. Despite demands by the increasingly marginalized Left Opposition for the restoration of soviet democracy, the Soviet Union continued to develop a bureaucratic and authoritarian model of social development, which was condemned by Democratic Socialists, Anarchists, Trotskyists and others for undermining the initial socialist ideals of the Russian Revolution. Left communism and the Left Opposition are distinct Left communism should not be confused with the Trotskyist tendency described below Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. 
The Russian Revolution of October 1917 brought about the definitive ideological division between Communists as denoted with a capital "C" on the one hand and other communist and socialist trends such as anarcho-communists and social democrats, on the other. The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution The Left Opposition in the Soviet Union gave rise to Trotskyism which was to remain isolated and insignificant for another fifty years, except in Sri Lanka where Trotskyism gained the majority and the pro-Moscow wing was expelled from the Communist Party. Left communism and the Left Opposition are distinct Left communism should not be confused with the Trotskyist tendency described below Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.
In 1922, the fourth congress of the Communist International took up the policy of the United Front, urging Communists to work with rank and file Social Democrats while remaining critical of their leaders, who they criticized for "betraying" the working class by supporting the war efforts of their respective capitalist classes. The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow For their part, the social democrats pointed to the dislocation caused by revolution, and later, the growing authoritarianism of the Communist Parties. When the Communist Party of Great Britain applied to affiliate to the Labour Party in 1920 it was turned down.
In 1945, the world’s three great powers met at the Yalta Conference to negotiate an amicable and stable peace. UK Prime Minister Winston Churchill joined USA President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party With the relative decline of Britain compared to the two superpowers, the USA and the Soviet Union, however, many viewed the world as "bi-polar" — a world with two irreconcilable and antagonistic political and economic systems. Many termed the Soviet Union "socialist", not least the Soviet Union itself, but also commonly in the USA, China, Eastern Europe, and many parts of the world where Communist Parties had gained a mass base. In addition, scholarly critics of the Soviet Union, such as economist Friedrich Hayek were commonly cited as critics of socialism. Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist
This view was not universally shared, particularly in Europe, and especially in Britain, where the Communist Party was very weak. In 1951, British Health Minister Aneurin Bevan expressed the view that, "It is probably true that Western Europe would have gone socialist after the war if Soviet behaviour had not given it too grim a visage. Aneurin Bevan, usually known as Nye Bevan ( 15 November 1897 &ndash 6 July 1960) was a Welsh Labour Soviet Communism and Socialism are not yet sufficiently distinguished in many minds. "
In 1949, the Chinese Revolution established a Communist state in China. 'For the full story of the war that led to the Communist seizure of power on Mainland China, see Chinese Civil War. Criticizing the invasion and trade embargo of the young Soviet state, Bevan wrote "At the moment it looks as though the United States is going to repeat the same folly in China. . . You cannot starve a national revolution into submission. You can starve it into a repressive dictatorship; you can starve it to the point where the hellish logic of the police state takes charge. "
In 1951, the Socialist International was refounded by the European social democratic parties. Socialist International is a worldwide organization of socialist ( social democratic and labour) political parties It declared: "Communism has split the International Labour Movement and has set back the realisation of Socialism in many countries for decades. . . Communism falsely claims a share in the Socialist tradition. In fact it has distorted that tradition beyond recognition. It has built up a rigid theology which is incompatible with the critical spirit of Marxism. "
In the postwar years, socialism became increasingly influential throughout the so-called Third World. Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically Countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America frequently adopted socialist economic programs. In many instances, these nations nationalized industries held by foreign owners. The Soviet Union had become a superpower through its adoption of a planned economy, albeit at enormous human cost. This achievement seemed hugely impressive from the outside, and convinced many nationalists in the former colonies, not necessarily communists or even socialists, of the virtues of state planning and state-guided models of social development. This was later to have important consequences in countries like China, India and Egypt, which tried to import some aspects of the Soviet model. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics.
The last quarter of the twentieth century marked a period of major crisis for Communists in the Soviet Union and the Eastern bloc, where the growing shortages of housing and consumer goods, combined with the lack of individual rights to assembly and speech, began to disillusion more and more Communist party members. During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were With the rapid collapse of Communist party rule in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe between 1989 and 1991, the Soviet version of socialism has effectively disappeared as a worldwide political force.
In 1945, the British Labour Party led by Clement Attlee was swept to power on a radical programme. Clement Richard Attlee 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC ( 3 January 1883 &ndash 8 October 1967 The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the Clement Richard Attlee 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC ( 3 January 1883 &ndash 8 October 1967 Socialist (and in some places Communist) parties also dominated postwar governments in France, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Norway and other European countries. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Social Democratic Party had been in power in Sweden since 1932, and Labour parties also held power in Australia and New Zealand. The Swedish Social Democratic Party, (Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti 'Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden' contests elections as 'Workers' Party - Social Democrats' "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island In Germany, on the other hand, the Social Democrats were defeated in Germany's first democratic elections in 1949. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The unity of the democrats and the Communist parties which had been established in the wartime resistance movements continued in the immediate postwar years. The democratic socialist parties of Eastern Europe, however, were destroyed when Stalin imposed "Communist" regimes in these countries.
Social democracy at first took the view that they had begun a "serious assault" on the five "Giant Evils" afflicting the working class, identified for instance by the British social reformer William Beveridge: "Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor, and Idleness. For the Scottish footballer and athlete see William Beveridge (footballer William Henry Beveridge 1st Baron Beveridge ( 5 March " However on the left wing of the Labour Party, Aneurin Bevan, who had been responsible for introducing the Labour Party’s National Health Service in 1945, criticised the government for not going further. Aneurin Bevan, usually known as Nye Bevan ( 15 November 1897 &ndash 6 July 1960) was a Welsh Labour Bevan demanded that the "main streams of economic activity are brought under public direction" with economic planning, and criticised the Labour Party's implementation of nationalisation for not empowering the workers in the nationalised industries with democratic control over their operation. In his In Place of Fear, which Crosland called the "the most widely read socialist book" of the period, Bevan begins: "A young miner in a South Wales colliery, my concern was with one practical question: Where does the power lie in this particular state of Great Britain, and how can it be attained by the workers?"
The Frankfurt Declaration of the refounded Socialist International stated:
|“||1. From the nineteenth century onwards, capitalism has developed immense productive forces. It has done so at the cost of excluding the great majority of citizens from influence over production. It put the rights of ownership before the rights of man. It created a new class of wage-earners without property or social rights. It sharpened the struggle between the classes. |
Although the world contains resources which could be made to provide a decent life for everyone, capitalism has been incapable of satisfying the elementary needs of the world’s population. It proved unable to function without devastating crises and mass unemployment. It produced social insecurity and glaring contrasts between rich and poor. It resorted to imperialist expansion and colonial exploitation, thus making conflicts between nations and races more bitter. In some countries, powerful capitalist groups helped the barbarism of the past to raise its head again in the form of Fascism and Nazism.
— The Frankfurt Declaration 1951
The social democratic governments in the post war period introduced measures of social reform and wealth redistribution through state welfare and taxation policy. For instance, the newly elected UK Labour government carried out nationalisations of major utilities such as mines, gas, coal, electricity, rail, iron and steel and the Bank of England. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government  France claimed to be the most state controlled capitalist country in the world, carrying through many nationalisations
In the UK, the National Health Service was established, bringing free health care to all for the first time. Social housing for working class families was provided in council housing estates and university education was made available for working class people through a grant system. Free school milk was introduced by Ellen Wilkinson, Minister for Education, who told the 1946 Labour Party conference: "Free milk will be provided in Hoxton and Shoreditch, in Eton and Harrow. What more social equality can you have than that?" Attlee's biographer argues that this "contributed enormously to the defeat of childhood illnesses resulting from bad diet. Generations of poor children grew up stronger and healthier because of this one small and inexpensive act of generosity by the Attlee government". 
In 1956, Anthony Crosland estimated that 25% of industry was nationalised in the UK, and that public authorities accounted for a similar percentage of total employment, including the nationalised industries. Charles Anthony Raven Crosland (29 August 1918 - 19 February 1977 was a member of the Labour Party and an important socialist theorist  However the parliamentary leadership of the social democracies in general had no intention of ending capitalism, and their national outlook and their dedication to the maintenance of the post-war 'order' prevented the social democracies from moving to nationalize the "commanding heights" of industry. They were termed 'socialist' by all in 1945, but in the UK, for instance, where Social Democracy had a large majority in Parliament, "The government had not the smallest intention of bringing in the 'common ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange'" as written in Clause 4 of the Labour Party constitution. Clause IV of the United Kingdom Labour Party constitution sets out the aims and values of the party and has been the object of political fights over its direction  Nevertheless, Anthony Crosland argued that capitalism had been ended, stating, "To the question 'Is this still capitalism?' I would answer 'No. '" In Germany, the Social Democratic Party adopted the Godesberg Program in 1959, which rejected class struggle and Marxism. The Godesberg Program (Godesberger Programm was the party program outline of the political course of Germany 's social-democratic party the SPD. Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
In 1980, with the rise of Ronald Reagan in the U. S. and Margaret Thatcher in Britain, and Brian Mulroney in Canada, the Western welfare state found itself under increasing political pressure. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939) was the eighteenth Margaret Thatcher had abolished free school milk for children when Education Secretary in the 1970–74 Conservative government. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 Now monetarists and neoliberals attacked social welfare systems as an impediment to individual entrepreneurship. Monetarism is a school of economic thought concerning the determination of national income and monetary Economics. Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism Western European socialists were under intense pressure to refashion their parties in the late 1980s and early 1990s and to reconcile their traditional economic programs with the integration of a European economic community based on liberalizing markets. The Labour Party in the United Kingdom went through a period of intense struggle, epitomised by Labour leader Neil Kinnock’s passionate and highly publicised 1985 Labour Party conference attack on the Militant Tendency and his repudiation of the demands of the miners who had been defeated after a year-long all-out strike against pit closures. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the Neil Gordon Kinnock Baron Kinnock PC (born 28 March 1942 is a British Politician. The Militant tendency was an entryist group within the UK Labour Party founded in 1964 By the 1990s, released from the pressure of the left, the Labour Party, especially under the premiership of Tony Blair, put together a set of policies based on encouraging the market economy while promoting the involvement of private industry in delivering public services. Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to
In 1989, the 18th Congress of the Socialist International at Stockholm adopted a Declaration of Principles which declares that "Democratic socialism is an international movement for freedom, social justice and solidarity. Its goal is to achieve a peaceful world where these basic values can be enhanced and where each individual can live a meaningful life with the full development of his or her personality and talents and with the guarantee of human and civil rights in a democratic framework of society. " The objectives of the Party of European Socialists, the socialist bloc in the European Parliament, are "to pursue international aims in respect of the principles on which the European Union is based, namely principles of freedom, equality, solidarity, democracy, respect of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and respect for the Rule of Law. " The companion to contemporary political philosophy states: "The rallying cry of the French Revolution—equality, liberty and fraternity—now constitute essential socialist values. "
In 1995, the UK Labour Party revised its aims: "The Labour Party is a democratic socialist party. It believes that by the strength of our common endeavour we achieve more than we achieve alone, so as to create for each of us the means to realise our true potential and for all of us a community in which power, wealth and opportunity are in the hands of the many, not the few. " Cabinet minister Herbert Morrison famously argued that, "Socialism is what the Labour government does,". Herbert Stanley Morrison Baron Morrison of Lambeth, CH PC ( 3 January 1888 &ndash 6 March 1965) was a British 
In some Latin American countries, socialism has re-emerged in recent years, with an anti-imperialist stance, the rejection of the policies of neo-liberalism and the nationalisation or part nationalisation of oil production, land and other assets. Anti-imperialism, strictly speaking is a term that may be applied to or movement opposed to some form of Imperialism. Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez and Bolivian President Evo Morales, for instance, refer to their political programs as socialist. Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela. Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro) popularly known as Evo (ˈeβo is the President of Bolivia since Chávez has coined the term "21st century socialism" (sometimes translated more literally as "Socialism of the 21st century"). Socialism of the 21st century is a political term and a Slogan coined by Heinz Dieterich in 1996. After winning re-election in December 2006, President Chávez said, "Now more than ever, I am obliged to move Venezuela's path towards socialism. "
In the developing world, some elected socialist parties and communist parties remain prominent, particularly in India and Nepal. The Communist Party of Nepal in particular calls for multi-party democracy, social equality, and economic prosperity.  In China, the Chinese Communist Party has led a transition from the command economy of the Mao period to an economic program they term the socialist market economy or "socialism with Chinese characteristics. A socialist market economy is an economic form that is practiced in the People's Republic of China, where it is called Socialism with Chinese characteristics This article is about the term itself and its relationships For its implementation and effects see Economy of the People's Republic of China and Chinese economic " Under Deng Xiaoping, the leadership of China embarked upon a program of market-based reform that was more sweeping than had been Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika program of the late 1980s. Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician (Перестройка) is the Russian term (now used in English for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev Deng's program, however, maintained state ownership rights over land, state or cooperative ownership of much of the heavy industrial and manufacturing sectors and state influence in the banking and financial sectors. In South Africa the ANC abandoned its partial socialist allegiances on taking power and followed a standard neo-liberal route. But from 2005 through to 2007 the country was wracked by many thousands of protests from poor communities. One of these gave rise to a mass movement of shack dwellers, Abahlali baseMjondolo that, despite major police suppression, continues to advocate for popular people's planning and against the marketization of land and housing. Abahlali baseMjondolo is a popular entirely non-professionalized and democratic mass movement of Shack dwellers and other poor people in South Africa. Communist candidate Dimitris Christofias won a crucial presidential runoff in Cyprus, defeating his conservative rival with a majority of 53%.  The Left Party in Germany has also grown in popularity. 
The term socialism is used to refer to an economic system characterized by state ownership or worker ownership of the means of production and distribution. Socialist economics is a broad and sometimes controversial term In the Soviet Union, state ownership of productive property was combined with central planning. Down to the workplace level, Soviet economic planners decided what goods and services were to be produced, how they were to be produced, in what quantities, and at what prices they were to be sold (see economy of the Soviet Union). The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of State ownership, administrative planning Socialist competition and free labour Soviet economic planning was promoted as an alternative to allowing prices and production to be determined by the market through supply and demand. Supply and demand is an Economic model describing effects on price and quantity in a Market. Especially during the Great Depression, many socialists considered Soviet-style planning a remedy to what they saw as the inherent flaws of capitalism, such as monopolies, business cycles, unemployment, vast inequalities in the distribution of wealth, and the exploitation of workers. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient The term business cycle or economic cycle refers to the fluctuations of economic activity during its long term growth trend Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work.
In the West, neoclassical liberal economists such as Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman argued that socialist planned economies were doomed to failure. Economic liberalism is the Economic component of Classical liberalism. Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist Milton Friedman (July 31 1912 November 16 2006 was an American Nobel Laureate Economist and Public intellectual. They asserted that central planners could never match the overall information inherent in the decision-making throughout a market economy (see economic calculation problem). The economic calculation problem is a criticism of Socialist economics. Nor could enterprise managers in Soviet-style socialist economies match the motivation of private profit-driven entrepreneurs in a market economy.
Following the stagnation of the Soviet economy in the 1970s and 1980s, many socialists have begun to accept some of this critique. Polish economist Oskar Lange, for example, was an early proponent of "market socialism. Oskar Ryszard Lange ( July 27, 1904 in Tomaszów Mazowiecki, then Vistulan Country – October 2, 1965 in London Market socialism is a term used to denote two different Economic system (s based in Socialism which operate according to Market principles " He proposed a Central Planning Board that sets the prices of producer goods and controls the overall level of investment in the economy. The prices of producer goods would be determined through trial and error. The prices of consumer goods would be determined by supply and demand, with the supply coming from state-owned firms that would set their prices equal to the marginal cost, as in perfectly competitive markets. In Economics and Finance, marginal cost is the change in Total cost that arises when the quantity produced changes by one unit In Neoclassical economics and Microeconomics, perfect competition describes a market in which no buyer or seller has Market power. The Central Planning Board would distribute a "social dividend" to ensure reasonable income equality. 
In western Europe, particularly in the period after World War II, many socialist parties in government implemented what became known as mixed economies. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  These governments nationalised major and economically vital industries while permitting a free market to continue in the rest. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government These were most often monopolistic or infrastructural industries like mail, railways, power and other utilities. In some instances a number of small, competing and often relatively poorly financed companies in the same sector were nationalised to form one government monopoly for the purpose of competent management, of economic rescue (in the UK, British Leyland, Rolls Royce), or of competing on the world market. British Leyland was a vehicle manufacturing company formed in the United Kingdom in 1968 as British Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd (BLMC  Typically, this was achieved through compulsory purchase of the industry (i. e. with compensation). For example in the UK the nationalization of the coal mines in 1947 created a coal board charged with running the coal industry commercially so as to be able to meet the interest payable on the bonds which the former mine owners' shares had been converted into. 
These nationalized industries would frequently be combined with Keynesian economics and incomes policies in order to guide the entire economy (see indicative planning and dirigisme). In Economics Keynesian economics (ˈkeɪnziən also Keynesianism and Keynesian Theory) is based on the ideas of twentieth-century British economist Incomes policies in Economics are Wage and Price controls, most commonly instituted as a response to Inflation. Indicative planning is a form of economic planning implemented by a State in an effort to solve the problem of Imperfect information in economies Dirigisme (from the French) (in English also "dirigism" although per the OED both spellings are used is an Economic term designating an economy  Nevertheless, most economists, and many socialists, consider that these economies were (or are) capitalist economies, and the aspirations of those who believed the mixed economy would abolish boom and slump, mass unemployment, and industrial unrest, were disappointed with the onset of the first world wide recession of 1973–4, the oil crisis of this period, and the monetary instability which followed. Some far left socialists, as well as some workers in the nationalised industries, also criticised the nationalisations for not establishing workers' control of the nationalised industries, through elected representatives, and the amount of compensation paid to the previous owners.
Some socialists propose various decentralized, worker-managed economic systems. One such system is the "cooperative economy," a largely free market economy in which workers manage the firms and democratically determine remuneration levels and labor divisions. A market economy is a realized Social system based on the Division of labour in which the prices of Goods and Services are determined in a Productive resources would be legally owned by the cooperative and rented to the workers, who would enjoy usufruct rights. Usufruct is the legal right to use and derive profit or benefit from Property that belongs to another person as long as the property is not damaged  Another, more recent, variant is "participatory economics," wherein the economy is planned by decentralized councils of workers and consumers. Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is a proposed Economic system that uses participatory decision making as an economic mechanism Workers would be remunerated solely according to effort and sacrifice, so that those engaged in dangerous, uncomfortable, and strenuous work would receive the highest incomes and could thereby work less.  Some Marxists and Anarcho-communists also propose a worker managed economy based on workers councils, however unlike participatory economics in Anarcho communism workers are remunerated according to their needs Recently socialists have also been working with the Technocracy movement to promote such concepts as Energy Accounting. Technocracy is a form of government in which scientists and technical experts are in administrative or decision making control Energy Accounting is the hypothetical system of distribution proposed by Technocracy Incorporated in the Technocracy Study Course, which would record the Energy
Marxist and non-Marxist social theorists have both generally agreed that socialism, as a doctrine, developed as a reaction to the rise of modern industrial capitalism, but differ sharply on the exact nature of the relationship. Émile Durkheim saw socialism as rooted in the desire simply to bring the state closer to the realm of individual activity as a response to the growing anomie of capitalist society. Émile Durkheim ( April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French Sociologist whose contributions were instrumental Anomie, in contemporary English language is a sociological term that signifies in individuals an erosion diminution or absence of personal norms standards or values Max Weber saw in socialism an acceleration of the process of rationalization commenced under capitalism. Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (maks 'veːbɐ (21 April 1864 &ndash 14 June 1920 was a German political economist and sociologist who was considered Weber was a critic of socialism who warned that putting the economy under the total bureaucratic control of the state would not result in liberation but an 'iron cage of future bondage. Iron cage is a sociological concept introduced by Max Weber. Iron cage refers to the increasing rationalization of human life which traps individuals in '
Socialist intellectuals continued to retain considerable influence on European philosophy in the mid–20th century. Herbert Marcuse's 1955 Eros and Civilization was an explicit attempt to merge Marxism with Freudianism. Herbert Marcuse ( July 19, 1898 &ndash July 29, 1979) was a German philosopher and sociologist, and a member of Eros and Civilization is one of Herbert Marcuse 's best known works Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded Structuralism, widely influential in mid–20th century French academic circles, emerged as a model of the social sciences that influenced the 1960s and 1970s socialist New Left. For the use of structuralism in biology see Structuralism (biology Structuralism is an approach to the human sciences that attempts to analyze The New Left were the Left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism instead adopted a
Criticisms of socialism range from claims that socialist economic and political models are inefficient or incompatible with civil liberties to condemnation of specific socialist states. Criticisms of Socialism range from disagreements over the efficiency of socialist economic and political models to condemnation of states described by themselves The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers' state) can carry one of several different (but related meanings In strictly speaking any There is much focus on the economic performance and human rights records of Communist states, although some proponents of socialism reject the categorization of such states as socialist. Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system
In the economic calculation debate, classical liberal Friedrich Hayek argued that a socialist command economy could not adequately transmit information about prices and productive quotas due to the lack of a price mechanism, and as a result it could not make rational economic decisions. The economic calculation problem is a criticism of Socialist economics. Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist A planned economy or directed economy is an Economic system in which the Government or Workers' councils manages the Economy. A price mechanism or market-based mechanism is any of a wide variety of ways to match up buyers and sellers Ludwig von Mises argued that a socialist economy was not possible at all. Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (ˈluːtvɪç fɔn ˈmiːzəs ( September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) was an Austrian Hayek further argued that the social control over distribution of wealth and private property advocated by socialists cannot be achieved without reduced prosperity for the general populace, and a loss of political and economic freedoms. 
Some individuals, such as Winston Churchill, have claimed that socialism slowly evolves into a totalitarian regime when people begin to defect from supporting it. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 During his 1945 election campaign, in which Attlee's Labour Party won in a landslide victory, Churchill stated that:
a socialist policy is abhorrent to the British ideas of freedom. Socialism is inseparably interwoven with totalitarianism and the object worship of the state. It will prescribe for every one where they are to work, what they are to work at, where they may go and what they may say. Socialism is an attack on the right to breathe freely. No socialist system can be established without a political police. They would have to fall back on some form of Gestapo, no doubt very humanely directed in the first instance.