Social insurance is any government-sponsored program with the following four characteristics:
- the benefits, eligibility requirements and other aspects of the program are defined by statute;
- explicit provision is made to account for the income and expenses (often through a trust fund);
- it is funded by taxes or premiums paid by (or on behalf of) participants (although additional sources of funding may be provided as well); and
- the program serves a defined population, and participation is either compulsory or the program is heavily enough subsidized that most eligible individuals choose to participate. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Income, refers to consumption opportunity gained by an entity within a specified time frame which is generally expressed in monetary terms In common usage an expense or expenditure is an outflow of Money to another person or group to pay for an item or service or for a category of costs In Common law legal systems a trust is an arrangement whereby Property (including real tangible and intangible is managed by one person (or persons or organizations 
Social insurance has also been defined as a program where risks are transferred to and pooled by an organization, often governmental, that is legally required to provide certain benefits. 
In the U. S. , programs that meet these definitions include Social Security, Medicare, the PBGC program, the railroad retirement program and state-sponsored unemployment insurance programs. Social Security, in the United States currently refers to the federal Old-Age Survivors and Disability Insurance ( OASDI) program This article refers to Medicare, a United States health insurance program The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (or PBGC) is an independent agency of the United States government that was created by the Employee Retirement Income The Railroad Retirement Board (or RRB) is an agency of the United States government created in the 1930s to administer a Social insurance program providing Unemployment benefits are payments made by Governments to unemployed people  The Canada Pension Plan (CCP) is also a social insurance program. The Canada Pension Plan ( CPP) is a contributory earnings-related Social insurance program
Typical similarities between social insurance programs and private insurance programs include:
- Wide pooling of risks;
- Specific definitions of the benefits provided;
- Specific definitions of eligibility rules and the amount of coverage provided;
- Specific premium, contribution or tax rates required to meet the expected costs of the system. Insurance, in Law and Economics, is a form of Risk management primarily used to hedge against the Risk of a contingent loss A risk pool is one of the forms of risk management mostly practised by Insurance companies 
Typical differences between private insurance programs and social insurance programs include:
- Equity versus Adequacy - Private insurance programs are generally designed with greater emphasis on equity between individual purchasers of coverage, while social insurance programs generally place a greater emphasis on the social adequacy of benefits for all participants.
- Voluntary versus Mandatory Participation - Participation in private insurance programs is often voluntary, and where the purchase of insurance is mandatory, individuals usually have a choice of insurers. Participation in social insurance programs is generally mandatory, and where participation is voluntary, the cost is heavily enough subsidized to ensure essentially universal participation.
- Contractual versus Statutory Rights - The right to benefits in a private insurance program is contractual, based on an insurance contract. A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law The insurer generally does not have a unilateral right to change or terminate coverage before the end of the contract period (except in such cases as non-payment of premiums). Social insurance programs are not generally based on a contract, but rather on a statute, and the right to benefits is thus statutory rather than contractual. A statute is a formal written enactment of a Legislative authority that governs a Country, State, City, or County. The provisions of the program can be changed if the statute is modified.
- Funding - Individually purchased private insurance generally must be fully funded. Full funding is a desirable goal for private pension plans as well, but is often not achieved. Social insurance programs are often not fully funded, and some argue that full funding is not economically desirable. 
- ^ a b "Social Insurance," Actuarial Standard of Practice No. 32, Actuarial Standards Board, January 1998
- ^ Margaret E. Lynch, Editor, "Health Insurance Terminology," Health Insurance Association of America, 1992, ISBN 1-879143-13-5
- ^ a b Robert J. Myers, "Social Security," Third Edition, Richard D. Irwin, Inc. , 1985, ISBN 0-256-03307-2
See also A Social Insurance Number (SIN is a number issued in Canada to administer various government programs Social security primarily refers to a Social insurance program providing social protection or protection against socially recognized conditions including poverty old Social Security, in the United States currently refers to the federal Old-Age Survivors and Disability Insurance ( OASDI) program Sweden 's social democratic economic formula a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the early 1990s by high Unemployment Social Security, in Australia, refers to a system of Social welfare payments provided by Commonwealth Government of Australia. Social Security Disability Insurance ( SSDI) is a payroll tax-funded federal insurance program of the United States government. Social health insurance (SHI is a method for Financing Health care costs through a (governnment-mandated social insurance program based on the collection Social security primarily refers to a Social insurance program providing social protection or protection against socially recognized conditions including poverty old The social safety net is a term used to describe a collection of services provided by The state, such as welfare, Unemployment benefit, Universal healthcare "Social welfare" redirects here For other uses see Welfare A social welfare provision refers to any program which seeks to provide This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom.
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