The term social contract describes a broad class of philosophical theories whose subjects are implied agreements by which people form nations and maintain a social order. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered Social order is a concept used in sociology history and other social sciences Such social contract implies that the people give up some rights to a government and/or other authority in order to receive or jointly preserve social order.
Social contract theory provides the rationale behind the historically important notion that legitimate state authority must be derived from the consent of the governed. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. " Consent of the governed " is a political theory stating that a Government 's legitimacy and Moral right to use State power The starting point for most of these theories is a heuristic examination of the human condition absent from any structured social order, termed the “state of nature” or “natural state”. heuristic (hyu̇-ˈris-tik is a method to help solve a problem commonly an informal method State of nature is a term in Political philosophy used in Social contract theories to describe the hypothetical condition of humanity before the State 's In this state of being, an individual’s words or action are bound only by his or her conscience. Conscience is a hypothesized Ability or faculty that distinguishes whether our actions are right or wrong From this common starting point, the various proponents of social contract theory attempt to explain, in different ways, why it is in an individual’s rational self-interest to voluntarily subjugate the freedom of action one has under the natural state (their so called “natural rights”) in order to obtain the benefits provided by the formation of social structures.
Common to all of these theories is the notion of a 'sovereign will', to which all members of a society are bound by the social contract to respect. The various theories of social contract that have developed are largely differentiated by their definition of the 'sovereign' will, be it a King (monarchy), a Council (oligarchy) or The Majority (republic or democracy). A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Under a theory first articulated by Plato in his Socratic dialog Crito, members within a society implicitly agree to the terms of the social contract by their choice to stay within the society. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece The Crito (IPA; in English usually) is a short but important Dialogue by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions Thus implicit in most forms of social contract is that freedom of movement is a fundamental or natural right which society may not legitimately require an individual to subrogate to the sovereign will.
John Locke (1689) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762) are the most famous philosophers of contractarianism, which formed the theoretical groundwork of democracy. John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Although the theory of natural rights influenced the development of classical liberalism, its emphasis on individualism and its rejection of the necessity to subordinate individual liberty to the sovereign will stands in opposition to the general tenets of social contract theory. Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world 
According to Thomas Hobbes and canonical theory, the essence is as follows: Without society, we would live in a state of nature, where we each have unlimited natural freedoms. Thomas Hobbes (born 5 April 1588died 4 December 1679 was an English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation State of nature is a term in Political philosophy used in Social contract theories to describe the hypothetical condition of humanity before the State 's The downside of this general autonomy is that it includes the "right to all things" and thus the freedom to harm all who threaten one's own self-preservation; there are no positive rights, only laws of nature and an endless "war of all against all" (Bellum omnium contra omnes, Hobbes 1651). Positive law is a legal term that is sometimes understood to have more than one meaning Natural law or the law of nature ( Latin: lex naturalis) is a theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by Nature and that Bellum omnium contra omnes, a Latin phrase meaning "the war of all against all" is the description that Thomas Hobbes gives to human existence In other words, anyone in the state of nature can do anything he likes; but this also means that anyone can do anything he likes to anyone else. To avoid this, we jointly agree to a social contract by which we each gain civil rights in return for subjecting ourselves to civil law or to political authority. In Hobbes' formulation, the sovereign power is not a party of the contract but instead the sovereign is its creation; so it is not bound by it. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself
Alternatively, some have argued that we gain civil rights in return for accepting the obligation to respect and defend the rights of others, giving up some freedoms to do so; this alternative formulation of the duty arising from the social contract is often identified with militia, or defense activity. The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service
The social contract and the civil rights it gives us are neither "natural" nor permanently fixed. Rather, the contract itself is the means towards an end — the benefit of all — and (according to some philosophers such as Locke or Rousseau), is only legitimate to the extent that it meets the general interest. Therefore, when failings are found in the contract, we renegotiate to change the terms, using methods such as elections and legislature. Locke theorized the right of rebellion in case of the contract leading to tyranny. In Political philosophy, the right of revolution (or right of rebellion) is a Right or Duty, variously stated throughout history of a people In modern usage a tyrant is a single ruler holding absolute power over a State or within an Organization.
Since rights come from agreeing to the contract, those who simply choose not to fulfill their contractual obligations, such as by committing crimes, deserve losing their rights, and the rest of society can be expected to protect itself against the actions of such outlaws. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment To be a member of society is to accept responsibility for following its rules, along with the threat of punishment for violating them. Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an Entity whether it is a Government, Corporation, Organization Punishment is the practice of imposing something unpleasant or aversive on a person or animal usually in response to disobedient or morally wrong behavior It is justified with laws punishing behavior that breaks the Social Contract because we are concerned about others harming us and don't plan on harming others. In this way, society works by "mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon" (Hardin 1968).
Some rights are defined in terms of the negative obligation they impose on others. Some philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between negative and positive Rights, not to be confused with the similar but different distinction between For example, your basic property rights entail that everyone else refrain from taking what is yours. Rights can also involve positive obligations, such as the right to have stolen property returned to you, which obligates others to give you back what's yours when they find it in the hands of others (or, in modern society, to send the police in to do it). Theorists argue that a combination of positive and negative rights is necessary to create an enforceable contract that protects our interests.
. Some have argued that Epicurus explicitly endorsed "social contract" ideas; the last fourth of his Principal Doctrines state that justice comes from agreement not to harm each other, and in laws being made for mutual advantage (pleasure, happiness), and that laws which are no longer advantageous are no longer just. In this sense, the Greeks had little to do with contractualism as it is formulated by modern philosophy: conventionalism is in fact quite the opposite of contractualism, since it considers justice to be the product of social conventions (as in the sophists' acceptation of the term), while contractualism considers nature to be the grounds of justice. Contractualism can to refer to two different positions First it can to refer to moral theories based on Social contract theory also known as contractarianism which argue Conventionalism is the philosophical attitude that fundamental principles of a certain kind are grounded on (explicit or implicit agreements in society rather than on JUSTICE is a Human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom. Other have argued that Plato's dialog Crito express the Greek social contract theory. The Crito (IPA; in English usually) is a short but important Dialogue by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. In this dialog, Socrates refuses to escape from jail to avoid being put to death. He argues that since he has benefited from living in Athens all of his life, this shows that he has (at least tacitly) accepted the social contract i. e. the burden of the local laws, and he cannot therefore abandon these laws now, even though they are against his self-interest.
Quentin Skinner has argued that several critical modern innovations in contract theory are found in the writings from French Calvinists and Huguenots, whose work in turn was invoked by writers in the low countries who objected to their subjection to Spain and, later still, by Catholics in England. Quentin Robert Duthie Skinner (born 26 November 1940) is Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge University, and the Barber Beaumont  Among these, Francisco Suárez (1548-1617), from the School of Salamanca, might be considered as an early theorist of the social contract, theorizing natural law in an attempt to limit the divine right of absolute monarchy. Francisco Suárez ( 5 January 1548, Granada, Spain - 25 September 1617, Lisbon, Portugal) was a The School of Salamanca is the Renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical Natural law or the law of nature ( Latin: lex naturalis) is a theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by Nature and that Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything All of these groups were led to articulate notions of popular sovereignty by means of a social covenant or contract: all of these arguments began with proto-“state of nature” arguments, to the effect that the basis of politics is that everyone is by nature free of subjection to any government. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself However, these arguments relied on a corporatist theory found in Roman Law, according to which "a populus" can exist as a distinct legal entity. Therefore these arguments held that a community of people can join a government because they have the capacity to exercise a single will and make decisions with a single voice in the absence of sovereign authority — a notion rejected by Hobbes.
It is largely as a result of having rejected this medieval, Roman-Legal, and Aristotelian notion that in common parlance, contractualism refers to the theory of sovereignty first elaborated by Hobbes in the 17th century. His book Leviathan is generally considered to be a landmark of absolutism. Leviathan or The Matter Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil, commonly called Leviathan, is a book written by Thomas Absolutism is a Historiographical term used to describe a form of monarchical power that is unrestrained by any other institutions such as churches legislatures or social
In the early 17th century, Grotius (1583-1645) introduced the modern idea of natural rights of individuals. Hugo Grotius or Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; ( Delft, 10 April 1583 Rostock, 28 August 1645 Grotius says that we each have natural rights which we have in order to preserve ourselves. He uses this idea to try and establish a basis for moral consensus in the face of religious diversity and the rise of natural science and to find a minimal basis for a moral beginning for society, a kind of natural law that everyone could potentially accept. He goes so far as to say even if we were to concede what we cannot concede without the utmost wickedness, that there is no God, these laws would still hold. The idea was considered incendiary, since it suggests that power can ultimately go back to the individuals if the political society that they have set up forfeits the purpose for which it was originally established, which is to preserve themselves. In other words, the people i. e. the individual people, are sovereign. Grotius says that the people are sui juris - under their own jurisdiction. People have rights as human beings but there is a delineation of those rights because of what is possible for everyone to accept morally - everyone has to accept that each person is entitled to try and preserve themselves and therefore they shouldn't try to do harm to others or to interfere with them and they should punish any breach of someone else's rights that arises.
The first modern philosopher to articulate a detailed contract theory was Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), who contended that people in a state of nature ceded their individual rights to create sovereignty, retained by the state, in return for their protection and a more functional society, so social contract evolves out of pragmatic self-interest. Thomas Hobbes (born 5 April 1588died 4 December 1679 was an English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation Hobbes named the state Leviathan, thus pointing to the artifice involved in the social contract. Leviathan or The Matter Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil, commonly called Leviathan, is a book written by Thomas He believed that the state of nature for humans was asocial and apolitical. The state of nature was also regarded by Hobbes as war because we were nasty and mean; each person was a threat to others for natural resources. People therefore give up their natural law, right, and liberty for a social contract that provides the safety of civil law, right, and liberty. For Hobbes, it is important that this social contract involves an absolute government that does not rule by consent, since people cannot be trusted.
Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), in his influential 1762 treatise The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right, outlined a different version of contract theory, based on the conception of popular sovereignty, defined as indivisible and inalienable — this last trait explaining Rousseau's aversion for representative democracy and his advocacy of direct democracy. Year 1712 ( MDCCXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap Year 1778 ( MDCCLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or The Social Contract Or Principles of Political Right (1762 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is the book in which Rousseau theorized about Social contracts Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the State is created by the will or consent of its people, who Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public Rousseau's theory has many similarities with the individualist Lockean liberal tradition, but also departs from it on many significant points. For example, his theory of popular sovereignty includes a conception of a "general will", which is more than the simple sum of individual wills: it is thus collectivist or holistic, rather than individualist. Collectivism is a term used to describe any moral political or social outlook that stresses human Interdependence and the importance of a Collective, rather than Distinguish from the suffix -holism, which describes addictions As an individual, Rousseau argues, the subject can be egoist and decide that his personal interest should override the collective interest. However, as part of a collective body, the individual subject puts aside his egoism to create a "general will", which is popular sovereignty itself. Popular sovereignty thus decides only what is good for society as a whole:
[The social contract] can be reduced to the following terms. Each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will; and in a body we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole
Hence, Rousseau's infamous phrase that man must "be forced to be free" should be understood as such: since individual subjects resign their free will, as in Hobbes's theory, to form popular sovereignty; besides, since the indivisible and inalienable popular sovereignty decides what is good for the whole, then if an individual lapses back into his ordinary egoism, he shall be forced to listen to what they decided as a member of the collectivity.
Rousseau's version of the social contract is the one most often associated with the term "social contract" itself. His theories had an influence on both the 1789 French Revolution and the subsequent formation of the socialist movement. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Furthermore, one can note that, as in Locke or Hobbes' theories, Rousseau gave particular attention to subjective and individual questions, as in his Confessions for example. Confessions is an autobiographical book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
While Rousseau's social contract is based on popular sovereignty and not on individual sovereignty, there are other theories espoused by individualists, libertarians and anarchists, which do not involve agreeing to anything more than negative rights and creates only a limited state, if at all. Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the State is created by the will or consent of its people, who Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i This is related to the non-aggression principle. The non-aggression principle (also called the non-aggression axiom, anticoercion principle, or zero aggression principle) is a Deontological
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809–1865) advocated a conception of social contract which didn't involve an individual surrendering sovereignty to others. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (ˈpruːd ɒn in British English, dɔ̃ in French) ( 15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year According to him, the social contract was not between individuals and the state, but rather between individuals themselves refraining from coercing or governing each other, each one maintaining complete sovereignty upon oneself:
What really is the Social Contract? An agreement of the citizen with the government? No, that would mean but the continuation of [Rousseau’s] idea. The social contract is an agreement of man with man; an agreement from which must result what we call society. In this, the notion of commutative justice, first brought forward by the primitive fact of exchange, …is substituted for that of distributive justice … Translating these words, contract, commutative justice, which are the language of the law, into the language of business, and you have commerce, that is to say, in its highest significance, the act by which man and man declare themselves essentially producers, and abdicate all pretension to govern each other—Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century (1851)
This idea of a social contract that excludes intervention by the state in individual liberty was also followed by other individualist anarchists, such as Benjamin Tucker (an enthusiast of Proudhon's writings) who said "Mankind is approaching the real social contract, which is not, as Rousseau thought, the origin of society, but rather the outcome of a long social experience, the fruit of its follies and disasters. Distributive justice concerns what is just or right with respect to the allocation of goods in a society Benjamin Ricketson Tucker ( April 17, 1854 &ndash June 22, 1939) was a leading proponent of American Individualist anarchism It is obvious that this contract, this social law, developed to its perfection, excludes all aggression, all violation of equality and liberty, all invasion of every kind. " (Liberty, VII, 1890)
John Rawls (1921–2002) proposed a contractarian approach that has a decidedly Kantian flavour, in A Theory of Justice (1971), whereby rational people in a hypothetical "original position," setting aside their individual preferences and capacities under a "veil of ignorance," would agree to certain general principles of justice. John Rawls ( February 21, 1921  &ndash November 24, 2002) was an American Philosopher, a Professor of Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Germany (now Kaliningrad, Russia A Theory of Justice is a widely-read book of political and Moral philosophy by John Rawls. The original position is a hypothetical situation developed by American Philosopher John Rawls as a Thought experiment to replace the imagery of a savage The original position is a hypothetical situation developed by American Philosopher John Rawls as a Thought experiment to replace the imagery of a savage This idea is also used as a game-theoretical formalization of the notion of fairness. Game theory is a branch of Applied mathematics that is used in the Social sciences (most notably Economics) Biology, Engineering,
Philip Pettit (b. Philip Noel Pettit (born 1945 is an Irish Philosopher and Political theorist. 1945) has argued, in Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and Government (1997), that the theory of social contract, classically based on the consent of the governed (as it is assumed that the contract is valid as long as the people consent to being governed by its representatives, who exercise sovereignty), should be modified, in order to avoid dispute. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Republicanism is the Ideology of governing a nation as a Republic, with an emphasis on Liberty, Rule of law, Popular sovereignty " Consent of the governed " is a political theory stating that a Government 's legitimacy and Moral right to use State power Instead of arguing that an explicit consent, which can always be manufactured, should justify the validity of social contract, Philip Pettit argues that the absence of an effective rebellion against the contract is the only legitimacy of it.
An early critic of the validity of social contract theory was David Hume. In his essay "Of the Original Contract", contained in his Essays Moral and Political (1748), Hume stressed that the contract theory of government was not supported by available historical data.
According to the will theory of contract, which was dominant in the 19th century and still exerts a strong influence, a contract is not presumed valid unless all parties agree to it voluntarily, either tacitly or explicitly, without coercion. Lysander Spooner, a 19th century lawyer and staunch supporter of a right of contract between individuals, in his essay No Treason, argues that a supposed social contract (of the Rousseauean sort) cannot be used to justify governmental actions such as taxation, because government will initiate force against anyone who does not wish to enter into such a contract. No Treason is an 1867 essay by American individualist anarchist, political philosopher and legal theorist Lysander Spooner. As a result, he maintains that such an agreement is not voluntary and therefore cannot be considered a legitimate contract at all. However, the philosophical concept of social contract does not address the same issues as present-day juridical contract theory, making the name "social contract" potentially misleading. In Economics, contract theory studies how economic actors can and do construct contractual arrangements generally in the presence of Asymmetric information. For this reason some thinkers, such as James Madison, preferred the term social compact. James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding The key notion of social contract or compact is that the individual consents by entering or remaining on the dominion of an existing society, which is usually a geographic territory, in much the same way one does when entering or remaining in someone's household or private property. People are normally brought up from childhood to respect the boundaries of societies, including families, and the rules made by them for their territorial spaces. That is part of the socialization development process.
As legal scholar Randy Barnett has argued, however, while presence in the territory of a society is necessary for consent, it is not consent to any rules the society might make, and a second condition of consent is that the rules be consistent with underlying principles of justice and the protection of natural and social rights, and have procedures for effective protection of those rights (or liberties). Randy E Barnett (born February 5, 1952) is a lawyer a law professor at Georgetown University Law Center, and a legal theorist in the United This has also been discussed by O. A. Brownson, who argued that there are, in a sense, three "constitutions" involved: The first the constitution of nature that includes all of what the Founders called "natural law". The second would be the constitution of society, an unwritten and commonly understood set of rules for the society formed by a social contract before it establishes a government, by which it does establish the third, a constitution of government. To consent, a necessary condition is that the rules be constitutional in that sense.
Modern Anglo-American law, like European civil law, is based on a will theory of contract, according to which all terms of a contract are binding on the parties because they chose those terms for themselves. This was less true when Hobbes wrote Leviathan; then, more importance was attached to consideration, meaning a mutual exchange of benefits necessary to the formation of a valid contract, and most contracts had implicit terms that arose from the nature of the contractual relationship rather than from the choices made by the parties. Accordingly, it has been argued that social contract theory is more consistent with the contract law of the time of Hobbes and Locke than with the contract law of our time, and that features in the social contract which seem anomalous to us, such as the belief that we are bound by a contract formulated by our distant ancestors, would not have seemed as strange to Hobbes' contemporaries as they do to us. 
The theory of an implicit social contract holds that by remaining in the territory controlled by some government, people give consent to be governed. This consent is what gives legitimacy to the government. Philosopher Roderick Long argues that this is a case of question begging, because the argument has to presuppose its conclusion:
I think that the person who makes this argument is already assuming that the government has some legitimate jurisdiction over this territory. In Logic, begging the question has traditionally described a type of Logical fallacy (also called petitio principii) in which the proposition And then they say, well, now, anyone who is in the territory is therefore agreeing to the prevailing rules. But they’re assuming the very thing they're trying to prove – namely that this jurisdiction over the territory is legitimate. If it's not, then the government is just one more group of people living in this broad general geographical territory. But I've got my property, and exactly what their arrangements are I don't know, but here I am in my property and they don't own it – at least they haven't given me any argument that they do – and so, the fact that I am living in "this country" means I am living in a certain geographical region that they have certain pretensions over – but the question is whether those pretensions are legitimate. You can’t assume it as a means to proving it. 
An answer to this argument is that a society which has effective dominion over a territory, that is, a state, is the sovereign over that territory, and therefore the true, legal owner of all of it. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself This is actually the theory of law for real property in every country. In the Common law, real property (or realty) refers to one of the two main classes of Property, the other class being Personal property ( What individuals can own is not the land itself, but an estate in the land, that is, a transferrable right to use and exclude others from use. An estate is the Net worth of a person at any point in time It is the sum of a person's Assets - legal rights interests and entitlements to Property of The true owner is the sovereign, or supreme lawmaking authority, because it can make and enforce laws that restrict what one can do on one's estate.
In his 1986 book Law's Empire, Ronald Dworkin touches briefly on social contract theory, firstly distinguishing between the use of social contract theory in an ethical sense, to establish the character or content of justice (such as John Rawls' A Theory of Justice) and its use in a jurisprudential sense as a basis for legitimate government. Ronald Dworkin, QC, FBA (born December 11, 1931) is an American Legal philosopher, currently professor of Jurisprudence
Dworkin argues that if every citizen were a party to an actual, historical agreement to accept and obey political decisions in the way his community's political decisions are in fact taken, then the historical fact of agreement would provide at least a good prima facie case for coercion even in ordinary politics:
A typical counterargument is that the choice is not limited to tacit consent to the status quo vs. Prima facie is a Latin expression meaning "on its first appearance" or "by first instance" expatriation, but also includes accepting the contract, then working to alter the parts that are disagreed with, as by participating in the political process.
Another counterargument is that there is tacit consent as long as there is somewhere else to go, even if life there is difficult or impossible, or the regime there oppressive. A society has dominion over its territory and the sovereign power to make the rules for it, but no duty to provide a comfortable alternative. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself By this argument, the Universe is not organized for our comfort or convenience, and life is often not a choice between good and bad, but among the alternatives that are available, which may all be bad.
Contractualism is based on a philosophy of rights being agreed to in order to further our interests, which is a form of individualism: each individual subject is accorded individual rights, which may or may not be inalienable, and form the basis of civil rights, as in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Not to be confused with the subiectum or Hypokeimenon in Aristotelianism The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen is a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining It must be underlined, however, as Hannah Arendt did on her book on imperialism, that the 1789 Declarations, in this agreeing with the social contract theory, bases the natural rights of the human-being on the civil rights of the citizen, instead of doing the reverse as the contractualist theory pretends to do. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude  However, this individualist and liberal approach has been criticized since the 19th century by thinkers such as Marx, Nietzsche or Freud, and afterward by structuralist and post-structuralist thinkers, such as Lacan, Althusser, Foucault, Deleuze or Derrida. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15 1844 August 25 1900 ( was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and classical philologist Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded For the use of structuralism in biology see Structuralism (biology Structuralism is an approach to the human sciences that attempts to analyze Post-structuralism encompasses the intellectual developments of continental philosophers and critical theorists who wrote with tendencies of twentieth-century Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French ʒak lakɑ̃ ( April 13, 1901 &ndash September 9, 1981) was a French Psychoanalyst Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation altuˡseʁ ( October 16, 1918 – October 22, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. Michel Foucault ( (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984 was a French philosopher, Historian, Intellectual, Critic and Sociologist. Gilles Deleuze ( (January 18 1925 &ndash November 4 1995 was a French philosopher of the late 20th century Several of those philosophers have attempted, in a spinozist inspiration, of thinking some sort of transindividuality which would precede the division between individual subject and collective subject (i. Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (ברוך שפינוזה Bento de Espinosa Benedictus de Spinoza ( November 24, 1632 – February 21, e. society).