In sociology and critical social theory, alienation refers to an individual's estrangement from traditional community and others in general. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist Critical theory, Social research, and Philosophy. It is considered by many that the atomism of modern society means that individuals have shallower relations with other people than they would normally. Atomism is the belief that Society should be viewed in terms of the Individual 's importance and that society is artificially constructed Modernity is a term that refers to the Modern era. It is distinct from Modernism, and in different contexts refers to cultural and intellectual movements of the This, it is argued, leads to difficulties in understanding and adapting to each other's uniqueness (see normlessness). Emile Durkheim described Anomie which is a state of relative normlessness or a state in which norms have been eroded It is also sometimes referred to as commodification, emphasizing the compatibility of capitalism with alienation (a common theme of the early work of Karl Marx; see Marx's theory of alienation). Commodification (or commoditization) is the transformation of goods and services (or things that may not normally be regarded as goods or services into a Commodity Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Marx's theory of alienation ( Entfremdung in German) as expressed in the writings of young Karl Marx, refers to the separation of things that naturally Many sociologists of the late 19th and early 20th century were concerned about alienating effects of modernization. German sociologists Georg Simmel and Ferdinand Tönnies have written rather critical works on individualization and urbanization. Georg Simmel (March 1 1858 &ndash September 28 1918 was one of the first generation of German sociologists. Ferdinand Tönnies ( July 26, 1855, near Oldenswort ( Eiderstedt, North Frisia) - April 9, 1936, Kiel Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing Simmel's "Philosophie des Geldes" ("Philosophy of Money") describes how relationships become more and more mediated through money. Tönnies' "Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft" ("Community and Society") is about the loss of primary relationships such as family bonds in favour of goal oriented secondary relationships. Gemeinschaft ( gəˈma͡ɪnʃaft and Gesellschaft are sociological categories introduced by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies for two In biological terms a community is a group of interacting Organisms sharing an environment. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence A goal or objective consists of a projected state of affairs which a Person or a System plans or intends to achieve or bring about — a personal or An interpersonal relationship is a relatively long-term association between two or more people The American sociologist C. Wright Mills conducted a major study of alienation in modern society with "White Collar", 1951, describing how modern consumption-capitalism have shaped a society where you have to sell your personality in addition to your work. Charles Mills ( August 28, 1916, Waco Texas &ndash March 20, 1962, West Nyack New York) was an American
This idea of alienation can be observed in some other contexts, although the term may not be as frequently used. In the context of an individual's relations within society, alienation can mean the unresponsiveness of the society as a whole to the individuality of each member of the society. When collective decisions are made, it is usually impossible for the unique needs of each person to be taken into account. This form of alienation was criticized by many of the Young Hegelians. Young Hegelians, or Left Hegelians, were a group of Prussian intellectuals writing in the decade or so after the death of Georg Wilhelm Hegel in 1833 and responding
In a broader philosophical context, especially in existentialism and phenomenology, alienation describes the inadequacy of human being or mind in relation to the world. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence Disambiguation For the Wigwam album see Being (album, for spiritual or religious beingness, see Ego (spirituality MIND ( Moving In New Directions) (est 1975 is an alternative education high school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The human mind, as the subject of perception, relates to the world as an object of its perception, and so is distanced from the world rather than living within it. Not to be confused with the subiectum or Hypokeimenon in Aristotelianism This line of thought can be found, among others, in Søren Kierkegaard, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre,André Gorz ,Albert Camus and Theodor Adorno. Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (ˈsœːɐn ˈkʰiɐ̯kəˌɡ̊ɒˀ in Danish Anglicized as;) Martin Heidegger ( September 26, 1889 &ndash May 26, 1976) (ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪ̯dɛgɐ was an influential German philosopher Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 &ndash 15 April 1980 commonly known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (ʒɑ̃ pol saʁtʁə was a French André Gorz (February 1923 &ndash September 22, 2007) also known by his Pen name Michel Bosquet was an Austrian and French Albert Camus ( (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960 was an Algerian born French Author, philosopher, and journalist who won the Nobel prize Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund Adorno ( September 11, 1903 &ndash August 6, 1969) was a German -born international sociologist
There is a commonly noted problem of translation in grappling with ideas of alienation derived from German-language philosophical texts: the word alienation, and similar words such as estrangement, are often used to translate two quite distinct German words, Entfremdung and Entäußerung, interchangeably.