Smoke is the collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Pyrolysis is the Chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of Oxygen or any other reagents except possibly Steam See Entrainment for other types Entrainment as commonly used in various branches of Engineering may be defined as the entrapment It is commonly an unwanted by-product of fires (including stoves, candles, oil lamps, and fireplaces), but may also be used for pest control (cf. A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a Manufacturing process a Chemical reaction or a biochemical pathway and is not the primary product A stove is an enclosed heated space The term is commonly taken to mean an enclosed space in which fuel is burned to provide heating either to heat the space in which the stove is situated A candle is a Light source and sometimes a Heat source consisting of a solid block of Fuel and an embedded wick. An oil lamp is a simple vessel used to produce light continuously for a period of time from a fuel source A fireplace is an architectural element consisting of a space designed to contain a Fire, generally for Heating but sometimes also for Cooking Pest control refers to the regulation or management of a Species defined as a pest, usually because it is perceived to be detrimental to a person's Health fumigation), communication (smoke signals), defense (smoke-screen) or smoking (tobacco, marijuana, etc) or inhalation of other drugs. Fumigation is a method of Pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous Pesticides to suffocate or poison the pests within The smoke signal is one of the oldest forms of communication in recorded history For the Transformers character see Smokescreen (Transformers A smoke screen is a release of Smoke in order to mask the movement Smoking is a practice where a substance most commonly Tobacco, is burned and the Smoke tasted or inhaled Tobacco Smoking is the inhalation of smoke from burned dried or cured leaves of the Tobacco plant most often in the form of a Cigarette. Cannabis, also known as marijuana or marihuana, or ganja (from Hindi / Sanskrit: गांजा gānjā hemp) is a Inhalation (also known as respiration) is the movement of air from the external environment through the air ways and into the Alveoli. A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a Chemical substance that acts primarily upon the Central nervous system where it alters Brain Smoke is sometimes used as a flavouring agent and preservative for various foodstuffs. Smoke is also sometimes a component of internal combustion engine exhaust gas, particularly diesel exhaust. The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a Exhaust gas is Flue gas which occurs as a result of the Combustion of fuels such as Natural gas, Gasoline /petrol Diesel, Fuel Exhaust gas is Flue gas which occurs as a result of the Combustion of fuels such as Natural gas, Gasoline /petrol Diesel, Fuel
Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of death in victims of indoor fires. Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of Death in victims of indoor Fires Smoke inhalation injury refers to injury due to inhalation or exposure to hot gaseous Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. The smoke kills by a combination of thermal damage, poisoning and pulmonary irritation caused by carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and other combustion products. In the context of Biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, Illness, or Death to Organisms usually by lung is the essential Respiration organ in air-breathing Animals including most Tetrapods a few Fish and a few Snails The most primitive Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. Hydrogen cyanide is a Chemical compound with Chemical formula HCN
Smoke particles are an aerosol (or mist) of solid particles and liquid droplets that are close to the ideal range of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light. Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas Mist is a phenomenon of small droplets suspended in Air. It can occur as part of natural Weather or Volcanic activity and is common in cold air above Mie theory, also called Lorenz-Mie theory or Lorenz-Mie-Debye theory, is a complete analytical solution of Maxwell's equations for the Scattering This effect has been likened to three-dimensional textured privacy glass — a smoke cloud does not obstruct an image, but thoroughly scrambles it.
The composition of smoke depends on the nature of the burning fuel and the conditions of combustion.
Fires with high availability of oxygen burn at high temperature and with small amount of smoke produced; the particles are mostly composed of ash, or with large temperature differences, of condensed aerosol of water. High temperature also leads to production of nitrogen oxides. The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any Binary compound of Oxygen and Nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds Nitric Sulfur content yields sulfur dioxide. Carbon and hydrogen are almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Fires burning with lack of oxygen produce a significantly wider palette of compounds, many of them toxic. Partial oxidation of carbon produces carbon monoxide, nitrogen-containing materials can yield hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, and nitrogen oxides. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. Hydrogen cyanide is a Chemical compound with Chemical formula HCN Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any Binary compound of Oxygen and Nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds Nitric Content of halogens such as chlorine (eg. in polyvinyl chloride) or other halogens may lead to production of eg. Abundance Owing to their high Reactivity, the halogens are found in the environment only in compounds or as Ions Halide ions and oxoanions hydrogen chloride, phosgene, dioxin, and chloromethane, bromomethane and other halocarbons. Phosgene is the Chemical compound with the formula COCl2 This colorless gas gained infamy as a Chemical weapon during World War I Not to be confused with Dioxane or Digoxin. Dioxin is a heterocyclic, organic, antiaromatic compound Chloromethane, also called Methyl chloride, R-40 or HCC 40 is a Chemical compound of the group of Organic compounds called Haloalkanes. The Chemical compound bromomethane, commonly known as methyl bromide, is an organic Halogen compound with formula C[[Hydrogen Halocarbon compounds are Chemicals in which one or more Carbon Atoms are linked by Covalent bonds with one or more Halogen Atoms
Pyrolysis of burning material also results in production of a large amount of hydrocarbons, both aliphatic (methane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene) and aromatic (benzene and its derivates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; eg. Diesel or Diesel fuel (ˈdiːzəl in general is any Fuel used in Diesel engines The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum Pyrolysis is the Chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of Oxygen or any other reagents except possibly Steam In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. ETHANE is a mnemonic indicating a protocol used by Emergency services to report situations which they may be faced with especially as it relates to major incidents where Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Acetylene ( IUPAC name ethyne), C2H2 is a Hydrocarbon belonging to the group of Alkynes It is the simplest of all alkynes Benzene, or benzol, is an organic Chemical compound and a known Carcinogen with the molecular formula C 6 H 6 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAH s are Chemical compounds that consist of fused Aromatic rings and do not contain Heteroatoms or benzo[a]pyrene, studied as a carcinogen, or retene), terpenes. Benzopyrene, C20H12 is a five-ring Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is Mutagenic and highly Carcinogenic It is a crystalline Retene, methyl isopropyl phenanthrene or 1-methyl-7-isopropyl phenanthrene C18H18 is a Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon present in the Coal tar Terpenes are a large and varied class of Hydrocarbons, produced primarily by a wide variety of plants particularly Conifers though also by some insects such Heterocyclic compounds may be also present. Heavier hydrocarbons may condense as tar. Tar is a viscous black Liquid derived from the Destructive distillation of organic matter
Presence of sulfur can lead to formation of eg. A bee smoker (usually called simply a smoker) is a device used in Beekeeping to calm Honey bees It is designed to generate smoke from the Smouldering Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, Bee) is the maintenance of Honey bee colonies commonly in Hives hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, and thiols; especially thiols tend to get adsorbed on surfaces and produce a lingering odor even long after the fire. Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the Chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. Carbonyl sulfide is the Chemical compound with the formula OCS In Organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a Sulfur atom and a Hydrogen atom (-SH Partial oxidation of the released hydrocarbons yields in a wide palette of other compounds: aldehydes (eg. An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a terminal Carbonyl group. formaldehyde, acrolein, and furfural), ketones, alcohols (often aromatic, eg. Formaldehyde is a Chemical compound with the formula H2CO It is the simplest Aldehyde —an organic compound containing a terminal Carbonyl Acrolein (systematic name 2-propenal) is the simplest unsaturated Aldehyde. The Chemical compound furfural is an industrial chemical derived from a variety of agricultural byproducts including corncobs, Oat and phenol, guaiacol, syringol, catechol, and cresols), carboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, etc. Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell" Guaiacol is a naturally occurring Organic compound with the formula C6H4(OH(OCH3 Syringol is a dimethyl ether of Pyrogallol. It is slightly soluble in water Pyrocatechol, more commonly known as catechol, is the Organic compound with the formula C6H4(OH2 Cresols are Organic compounds which are methyl[[phenol]]s They are a widely occurring natural and manufactured group of Aromatic Organic compounds Carboxylic acids are Organic acids characterized by the presence of a Carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=OOH usually written -COOH or -CO2H Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest Carboxylic acid. Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound, giving Vinegar its sour taste ).
The visible particles in such smokes are most commonly composed of carbon (soot). Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Soot (ˈsʊt is a general term that refers to the black impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon Other particulates may be composed of drops of condensed tar, or solid particles of ash. The presence of metals in the fuel yields particles of metal oxides. Particles of inorganic salts may also be formed, eg. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate. Ammonium sulfate, (NH42SO4 is an inorganic chemical compound commonly used as a fertilizer The Chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the Nitrate of Ammonia with the chemical formula N[[Hydrogen H]]4 N[[Oxygen O]]3 Many organic compounds, typically the aromatic hydrocarbons, may be also adsorbed on the surface of the solid particles. Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid Solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or a liquid (adsorbent forming a film of molecules or atoms (the
Smoke emissions may contain characteristic trace elements. Vanadium is present in emissions from oil fired power plants and refineries; oil plants also emit some nickel. Vanadium (vəˈneɪdiəm is a Chemical element that has the symbol V and Atomic number 23 An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is A refinery is composed of a group of Chemical engineering unit processes and Unit operations used for Refining certain materials or converting Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 Coal combustion produces emissions containing aluminium, arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, mercury, selenium, and uranium. A fossil fuel power plant burns Fossil fuels such as Coal, Natural gas or Petroleum (oil to produce Electricity. WikipediaNaming Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 Chromium (ˈkroʊmiəm is a Chemical element which has the symbol Cr and Atomic number 24 Cobalt (ˈkoʊbɒlt is a hard lustrous silver-grey Metal, a Chemical element with symbol Co. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Selenium (səˈliniəm is a Chemical element with the Atomic number 34 represented by the chemical symbol Se, an atomic mass of 78 Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the
Some components of smoke are characteristic of the combustion source. Guaiacol and its derivatives are products of pyrolysis of lignin and are characteristic of wood smoke; other markers are syringol and derivates, and other methoxy phenols. Guaiacol is a naturally occurring Organic compound with the formula C6H4(OH(OCH3 Lignin or lignen is a complex Chemical compound most commonly derived from Wood and an integral part of the secondary Cell walls of Plants Smoke is the collection of airborne solid and liquid Particulates and Gases ref> ''Smoke Production and Properties'' - SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering Syringol is a dimethyl ether of Pyrogallol. It is slightly soluble in water In Chemistry (particularly Organic chemistry) methoxy refers to the Functional group consisting of a Methyl group bound to Oxygen Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell" Retene, a product of pyrolysis of conifer trees, is an indicator of forest fires. Retene, methyl isopropyl phenanthrene or 1-methyl-7-isopropyl phenanthrene C18H18 is a Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon present in the Coal tar A wildfire, also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, brush fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, Peat fire, Levoglucosan is a pyrolysis product of cellulose. Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 Hardwood vs softwood smokes differ in the ratio of guaiacols/syringols. The term hardwood is used to describe Wood from broad-leaved angiosperm Trees mostly Deciduous, but not necessarily in the case of tropical Softwood is a generic term used in Woodworking and the Lumber industries for Wood from Conifers (needle-bearing trees from the order Pinales Markers for vehicle exhaust include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hopanes, steranes, and specific nitroarenes (eg. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAH s are Chemical compounds that consist of fused Aromatic rings and do not contain Heteroatoms or Hopanoids are Pentacyclic compounds similar to Sterols whose primary function is to improve Plasma membrane fluidity in Prokaryotes. Steranes are a class of 4- Cyclic compounds derived from Steroids or Sterols via diagenetic and catagenetic degradation and saturation 1-nitropyrene). The ratio of hopanes and steranes to elemental carbon can be used to distinguish between emissions of gasoline and diesel engines. 
Smoke from oxygen-deprived fires contains a significant concentration of compounds that are flammable. A cloud of smoke, in contact with atmospheric oxygen, therefore has the potential of being ignited - either by another open flame in the area, or by its own temperature. This leads to effects like backdraft and flashover. A backdraft is a situation which can occur when a Fire is starved of Oxygen; consequently combustion ceases but the fuel gases and Smoke remain at high For the 2007 documentary see Flashover (film. In Electric power transmission, a flashover is an unintended high voltage electric discharge over
Many compounds of smoke from fires are highly toxic and/or irritating. The most dangerous is the carbon monoxide, leading to carbon monoxide poisoning, sometimes with supporting effects of hydrogen cyanide and phosgene. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of Carbon monoxide gas Hydrogen cyanide is a Chemical compound with Chemical formula HCN Phosgene is the Chemical compound with the formula COCl2 This colorless gas gained infamy as a Chemical weapon during World War I Smoke inhalation can therefore quickly lead to incapacitation and loss of consciousness. Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of Death in victims of indoor Fires Smoke inhalation injury refers to injury due to inhalation or exposure to hot gaseous
Smoke can obscure visibility, impeding occupant exiting from fire areas. In fact, the poor visibility due to the smoke that was in the Worcester Cold Storage Warehouse fire in Worcester, Massachusetts was the exact reason why the trapped rescue firefighters couldn't evacuate the building in time. The Worcester Cold Storage Warehouse fire was a fire that began on December 3, 1999, in Worcester Massachusetts. Worcester (ˈwʊstɚ is a City in the state of Massachusetts in the United States of America. Due to the striking similarity that each floor shared, the dense smoke caused the firefighters to become disoriented. 
Depending on particle size, smoke can be visible or invisible to the naked eye. A wildfire, also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, brush fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, Peat fire, In Meteorology, visibility is a measure of the Distance at which an object or light can be clearly discerned The naked eye is a Figure of speech referring to human Visual perception that is unaided by enhancing equipment such as a Telescope or This is best illustrated when toasting bread in a toaster. Toast is sliced Bread which has been browned by exposure to dry Heat ("toasted" As the bread heats up, the products of combustion increase in size. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of The particles produced initially are invisible but become visible if the toast is burnt. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of
Smoke from a typical house fire contains hundreds of different chemicals and fumes. As a result, the damage caused by the smoke can often exceed that caused by the actual heat of the fire. In addition to the physical damage caused by the smoke of a fire - which manifests itself in the form of stains - is the often even harder to eliminate problem of a smokey odor. Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Just as there are contractors that specialize in rebuilding/repairing homes that have been damaged by fire and smoke, Fabric Restoration companies specialize in restoring fabrics that have been damaged in a fire. Fabric restoration is the process of refurbishing fabric items after they have been affected by fire smoke water or mold
Throughout recorded history, humans have used the smoke of medicinal plants to cure illness. A sculpture from Persepolis shows Darius the Great (522–486 b. c. ), the king of Persia, with two censers in front of him for burning Peganum harmala and/or sandalwood Santalum album, which was believed to protect the king from evil and disease. More than 300 plant species in 5 continents are used in smoke form for different diseases. As a method of drug administration, smoking is important as it is a simple, inexpensive, but very effective method of extracting particles containing active agents. More importantly, generating smoke reduces the particle size to a microscopic scale thereby increasing the absorption of its active chemical principles. However, the hazards of inhaling a particulate are unacceptable to some people. Although the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes has been recorded for centuries, it has only recently become a subject of intense public scrutiny. So far, only a few examples of medicinal smoke have been studied in detail (e. g. cannabis). Smoke-based medicinal substances represent multiple opportunities for studies on the chemical constituents, applications, and introduction and preparation of new drugs and dosage forms.