Republic of Slovenia
|Motto: Stati in obstati (unofficial)|
Sto et resisto
To Stand And Withstand
|Anthem: 7th stanza of Zdravljica|
(and largest city)
|-||Prime Minister||Janez Janša|
|-||Declared||June 25, 1991|
|EU accession||May 1, 2004|
|-||Total||20,273 km² (153rd)|
7,827 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0. The national flag of Slovenia features three equal horizontal bands of white (top blue and red with the Slovenian coat of arms located in the upper hoist side The Slovenian Coat of arms consists of a red bordered blue shield on which there is a stylised white mount Triglav. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's A Toast (Zdravljica is a famous Poem by France Prešeren. It was written in 1844 and has been Slovenia 's National anthem since The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The majority of Slovenia 's population is Slovene (8306% Hungarians and Italians have the status of indigenous minorities under the Constitution Ljubljana ( is the largest and Capital city of Slovenia. It is located in the center of the country and is a mid-sized city of some 270000 inhabitants An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Slovene or Slovenian ( slovenski jezik or slovenščina, not to be confused with Slovenčina) is a South Slavic language Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Slovenes or Slovenians ( Slovene Slovenci, dual Slovenca, singular Slovenec, feminine Slovenke, dual Slovenki For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government The function of President of the Republic of Slovenia (Predsednik Republike Slovenije was established on 23 December 1991, when the National Assembly of Slovenia Danilo Türk (tyrk born February 19, 1952 in Maribor) is a Slovenian lawyer and diplomat and current President of Slovenia. There have been five Prime ministers of Slovenia since that country gained its independence in the breakup of Yugoslavia. Janez Janša (born 17 September 1958 as Ivan Janša in Ljubljana) is a Slovenian politician and president of the Slovenian Democratic Party since Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in A Member State of the European Union is any one of the twenty-seven sovereign Nation states that have acceded the European Union (EU since its De facto Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions  Areas between 10000 km² and 100000 km² are listed here This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 6|
|-||2008 estimate||2,023,358 2 (143rd)|
|-||Density||99. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 6/km² (80th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2008 estimate|
|-||Total||$48. List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 343 billion  (83rd)|
|-||Per capita||$28,010  (29th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$38. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita 240 billion (67th)|
|-||Per capita||$22,079 (30th)|
|HDI (2005)||▲ 0. This list compares various sizes of positive Numbers including counts of things Dimensionless quantity and probabilities. PLEASE NO RANDOM FIGURES THERE ARE NO FIGURES BASED ON NATIONAL STATISTICS IN THIS ARTICLE Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product Per capita at Nominal values, the The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 917 (high) (27th)|
|Currency||euro (€)3 (|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|1 Italian and Hungarian are recognised as official languages in the residential municipalities of the Italian or Hungarian national community. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e The euro sign (€ is the Currency sign used for the Euro, the official currency of the European Union (EU ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Central European Time ( CET) is one of the names of the Time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. Daylight saving time ( DST Central European Summer Time ( CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. |
2 Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia: Population, Slovenia, 30 June 2007
3 Prior to 2007: Slovenian tolar
4 Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states. The tolar was the Currency of Slovenia from 1991 until the introduction of the Euro on December 31, 2006. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: Republika Slovenija, ), is a country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north. Slovene or Slovenian ( slovenski jezik or slovenščina, not to be confused with Slovenčina) is a South Slavic language In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The capital of Slovenia is Ljubljana. Ljubljana ( is the largest and Capital city of Slovenia. It is located in the center of the country and is a mid-sized city of some 270000 inhabitants
At various points in Slovenia's history, the country has been part of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Carantania (only modern Slovenia's northern part), the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire (later known as Austria-Hungary), the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929) between the two World Wars, and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1945 until gaining independence in 1991. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica Carantania, also known as Carentania (Karantanija Karantanien in old Slovene Onomastics Korotan) was a Slavic Principality The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. The State of Slovenes Croats and Serbs was a short-lived state formed from the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy after its dissolution at the end of The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian:
Slovenia is the only former communist state to be at the same time a member of the European Union (currently holding its rotating presidency), the Eurozone, the Schengen area, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe and NATO. Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Presidency of the Council of the European Union is the responsibility for the functioning of the Council of the European Union which is rotated between European Union Euro Enlargement of the The term Schengen Agreement is used for two agreements concluded among European states in 1985 and 1990 which deal with the abolition of systematic Border controls The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 The North Atlantic Treaty
|March of Carniola|
|Kingdom of Illyria|
|Duchy of Carniola|
|Province of Ljubljana|
|Socialist Republic of Slovenia|
|Republic of Slovenia|
Slavic ancestors of the present-day Slovenes settled in the area in the 6th century. The history of Slovenia chronicles the period from the 5th Century BC to the present times Samo (died 658 was a Frankish merchant from the "Senonian country" ( Senonago) probably modern Sens, France. Carantania, also known as Carentania (Karantanija Karantanien in old Slovene Onomastics Korotan) was a Slavic Principality Carniola (Kranjska Krain is a traditional and historical region of Slovenia. The March (or Margraviate) of Carniola (Stara Kranjska Krain was an imperial estate of the Holy Roman Empire and predecessor estate of the The Windic march or marca Vindica (Slovenska krajina, Slovenska marka Windische Mark was a province of the Holy Roman Empire The Illyrian Provinces (Provinces illyriennes Ilirske province Ilirske pokrajne Province Illiriche were lands on the north and east coasts of the Adriatic Sea which were The Kingdom of Illyria was an administrative unit of the Austrian Empire from 1816 to 1849 The Duchy of Carniola ( Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain) was an administrative unit of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1849 to 1918 The Drava Banovina or Drava Banate (Dravska banovina was a province ( banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941 Province of Ljubljana ( Italian: Provincia di Lubiana, Slovenian: Ljubljanska pokrajina, German: Provinz Laibach) was a The Socialist Republic of Slovenia ( Slovene: Socialistična republika Slovenija) was a Socialist state that was a Constituent country of the The history of Slovenia chronicles the period from the 5th Century BC to the present times This is a timeline of key events in the History of Slovenia, both of the Slovenes and the other ethnicities who once lived or do live on Slovene ethnic territory or Slovenes or Slovenians ( Slovene Slovenci, dual Slovenca, singular Slovenec, feminine Slovenke, dual Slovenki The Slavic Duchy of Carantania was formed in the 7th century. Carantania, also known as Carentania (Karantanija Karantanien in old Slovene Onomastics Korotan) was a Slavic Principality In 745, Carantania was incorporated into the Carolingian Empire, while Karantanians and other Slavs living in present Slovenia converted to Christianity. Carolingian Empire is a historiographical term sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty. Carantanians (Quarantani Karantanci were a Slavic people of the Early Middle Ages (Latin la ''Sclavi qui dicuntur Quarantani'' or "Slavs called Caranthanians" The historical phenomenon of Christianization (or Christianisation &mdash see spelling differences) the conversion of individuals to Christianity Carantania retained its internal independence until 828 when the local princes were deposed following the anti-Frankish rebellion of Ljudevit Posavski and replaced with a German (mostly Bavarian) ascendancy. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Ljudevit Posavski ( Trans- Savian) was a Slavic Prince of Pannonian Croatia from 810 to 823 Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 Under the Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia Carantania, now ruled by a mixed Bavarian-Slav nobility, shortly emerged as a regional power, but was destroyed by the Hungarian invasions in the late 9th century. Arnulf of Carinthia (Arnulf von Kärnten Arnulf Koroški 850 &ndash December 8 899) was the Carolingian King of East Francia from 887 The Slovene Lands were turned into a military borderland of the Carolingian Empire (the Marches of Carinthia, of Carniola and of Friuli). Slovene Lands or Slovenian Lands (Slovenske dežele or shortly sl ''Slovensko'' German: Slowenische Länder or archaically Windische Länder) The March of Carinthia was a frontier district (march of the Carolingian Empire created in 889 The March (or Margraviate) of Carniola (Stara Kranjska Krain was an imperial estate of the Holy Roman Empire and predecessor estate of the The March of Friuli was a Carolingian frontier march against the Slavs and Avars in the ninth and tenth centuries Carantania was established again as an autonomous administrative unit in 976, but it never developed into a unified realm; it soon broke down into what became the duchies of Carinthia, Styria, Carniola and Friuli, into which the Slovene Lands remained divided up to 1918. The Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten Vojvodina Koroška was a Duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. The Duchy of Styria (Herzogtum Steiermark Vojvodina Štajerska Stájerország was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia. Carniola (Kranjska Krain is a traditional and historical region of Slovenia. Friuli ( Friulian: The Carantanian identity remained alive into the 12th century when it was slowly replaced by regional identities. The first mentions of a common Slovene ethnic identity, transcending regional boundaries, date from the 16th century.
The Freising manuscripts, the earliest surviving written documents in a Slovene dialect as well as the oldest document written in any Slavic language with Latin script, were written in the 10th century. The Freising Manuscripts (also Freising Folia, Freising Fragments, or Freising Monuments; Slovene Brižinski spomeniki, Latin Spoken Slovene has at least 32 main Dialects ( narečje) ( dI) and speeches ( govor) ( sP) During the 14th century, most of Slovene Lands passed under Habsburg rule. In the 15th century, the Habsburg domination was challenged by the Counts of Celje, but by the end of the century the great majority of Slovene-inhabited territories were incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy. The Counts of Cilli or Celje (Celjski grofje Grafen von Cilli represent the most important medieval aristocratic and ruling house with roots and territory in present-day Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor Most Slovenes lived in the region known as Inner Austria, forming the majority of the population of the Duchy of Carniola and the County of Gorizia and Gradisca, as well as of Lower Styria and southern Carinthia. Inner Austria ( German Innerösterreich) is a term used from the late 14th to the 16th century referring to Styria, Carinthia, Carniola The Duchy of Carniola ( Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain) was an administrative unit of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1849 to 1918 Gorizia and Gradisca (Görz und Gradisca Gorizia e Gradisca Goriška in Gradiščanska Gurize e Gardiscje was a Habsburg County in Central Europe, in Lower Styria (Štajerska Untersteiermark Latin: Styria) is a historical region in northeastern Slovenia, comprising the southern third of the former The Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten Vojvodina Koroška was a Duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. Slovenes also inhabited most of the territory of the Imperial Free City of Trieste, although representing the minority of its population. In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a City formally ruled by the Emperor only &mdash Trieste (Trieste Slovene and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy very near to Slovene majorities also existed in the Prekmurje region of the Kingdom of Hungary, in the Venetian Slovenia and north-western Istria which were part of the Republic of Venice. Prekmurje (Muravidék is the easternmost region of Slovenia. It borders Hungary to the north-east Austria to the north-west Croatia to the The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 Venetian Slovenia (Beneška Slovenija Slavia Veneta or Slavia Friulana Sclavanie is a small mountainous region in northeastern Italy, in the area between the towns of This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica
In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation spread throughout the Slovene Lands. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time During this period, the first books in Slovene language were written by the Lutheran preacher Primož Trubar and his followers, establishing the base for the development of the Slovene standard language. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Primož Trubar ( 9 June 1508 – 28 June 1586) was a Slovene protestant reformer, the founder and the first superintendent Although almost all Protestants were expelled from the Slovene Lands (with the exception of Prekmurje) by the beginning of the 17th century, they left a strong legacy in the tradition of the Slovene culture, which was partially incorporated in the Catholic Counter-Reformation. The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the The Slovene cultural tradition was further reinforced in the Enlightenment period by the endeavours of the Zois Circle. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Sigmund Zois Freiherr von Edelstein, usually referred as Sigmund Zois or Žiga Zois in Slovene ( 23 November 1747 – 10 November
After a short French interim between 1805 and 1813, all Slovene Lands were included in the Austrian Empire. The Empire of the French (1804-1814 also known as the Empire of France, Greater French Empire, First French Empire, French Empire, or For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. Slowly, a distinct Slovene national consciousness developed, and the quest for a political unification of all Slovenes became widespread. In 1848, a mass political and popular movement for the United Slovenia (Zedinjena Slovenija) emerged as part of the Spring of Nations movement within the Austrian Empire. United Slovenia (Zedinjena Slovenija is the name of a political programme of the Slovenes from 1848, that demanded (a unification of all the The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European
Between 1848 and 1918, numerous institutions (including theatres, publishing houses, as well as political, financial and cultural organisations) were founded in the so-called Slovene National Awakening; despite their political and institutional fragmentation and lack of a proper political representation, the Slovenes were able to establish a functioning and integrated national infrastructure. During this period, the town of Ljubljana, the capital of Carniola, emerged as the undisputed centre of all Slovene Lands, while the Slovenes developed an internationally comparable literature and culture. Nevertheless, the Slovene national question remained unsolved, so the political élite of the time started looking towards other Slavic nations in Austria-Hungary and the Balkans in order to engage in a common political action against German and Magyar hegemony. This article is about the German diaspora See Germans for the German ethnicity in general Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. Hegemony (hɨˈdʒɛməni (Amer /hɨˈɡɛməni/ (Brit (ἡγεμονία hēgemonía) is a concept that has been used to describe and explain the dominance of one social The idea of a common political entity of all South Slavs, known as Yugoslavia, emerged. The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly throughout the former Yugoslavia (meaning "Land of See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian
During World War I, after the Italian attack on Austria-Hungary in 1915, the Italian front opened, and some of the most important battles (the Battles of the Isonzo) were fought along the river Soča and on the Kras Plateau in the Slovenian Littoral. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Italy, along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 " Battles of the Isonzo " were a series of battles between the Austria-Hungarian and Italian armies in World War I. The Soča (in Slovene) or KRAS is a gene encoding the KRas Proto-oncogene. Like other members of the Ras gene family the KRAS protein is a GTPase and is an early player in many The Slovenian Littoral (Primorska Litorale Küstenland is a historical region of Slovenia.
With the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918, the Slovenes initially joined the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, which soon afterwards merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The State of Slovenes Croats and Serbs was a short-lived state formed from the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy after its dissolution at the end of The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija The western part of the Slovene Lands (the Slovenian Littoral and western districts of Inner Carniola) was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy and became known under the name of Julian March. Inner Carniola ( Slovenian: Notranjska; Innerkrain is a traditional region of Slovenia. The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom The Julian March (Venezia Giulia Croatian and Slovene: Julijska Krajina; Julisch Venetien Venesia Jułia Vignesie Julie Carsia Julia is a former political In 1920, in the Carinthian Plebiscite, the majority of Carinthian Slovenes voted to remain in Austria. The Carinthian Plebiscite ( German: Kärntner Volksabstimmung, Slovene: Koroški plebiscit) on October 10, 1920 determined Carinthian Slovenes (Koroški Slovenci Kärntner Slowenen are the Slovene-speaking population group in the Austrian State of Carinthia. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Although the Slovenes in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia were submitted to an intolerant centralist policy trying to eradicate a distinct Slovene national consciousness, they were still better off than Slovenes in Italy, Austria and Hungary, who became victims of policies of forced assimilation and violent persecution. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija In Politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting Moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes Hungarian Slovenes also known as Rába Slovenes (Porabski Slovenci are an Autochthonous ethnic and linguistic Slovene minority living in western Hungary A region or society where several different groups are spontaneously assimilated is sometimes referred to as a Melting pot. As a reaction to the fascist violence of the Italian State in the Julian March, the organisation TIGR, regarded as one of the first armed antifascist resistance groups in Europe, was founded in 1927. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology The Julian March (Venezia Giulia Croatian and Slovene: Julijska Krajina; Julisch Venetien Venesia Jułia Vignesie Julie Carsia Julia is a former political TIGR, abbreviation for T rst ( Trieste) I stra ( Istria) G orica ( Gorizia) and R eka ( Rijeka) was Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideologies organizations governments and people
In April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis Powers. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries Slovenia was divided between Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany and Horthy's Hungary. The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Soon, a liberation movement under Communist leadership emerged. The League of Communists of Slovenia was the Slovenian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the sole legal party of Yugoslavia from 1945 Due to political assassinations carried out by the Communist guerrillas as well as the pre-existing radical anti-Communism of the conservative circles of Slovenian society, a civil war between Slovenes broke out in the Italian-occupied south-eastern Slovenia (known as Province of Ljubljana) between the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People and the Axis-sponsored anti-communist militia, the Slovene Home Guard. Province of Ljubljana ( Italian: Provincia di Lubiana, Slovenian: Ljubljanska pokrajina, German: Provinz Laibach) was a The Liberation Front of the Slovenian People, established 26 April 1941 in Ljubljana as the Anti-Imperialist Front, was the political organization of the Slovenian The Slovene Home Guard ( Slovene: Slovensko Domobranstvo or SD German: Slowenische Landeswehr) SD for short was a Second World War collaborationist Nevertheless, the Slovene partisan guerrilla managed to liberate large portions of the Slovene Lands, making an important contribution to the defeat of Nazism. The Yugoslav Partisans, or simply the Partisans, ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German
Following the re-establishment of Yugoslavia at the end of World War II, Slovenia became part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, declared on 29 November 1945. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar A Communist dictatorship was established, but due to the Tito-Stalin split economic and personal freedom were better than in the Eastern Bloc. During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were In 1947, Italy ceded most of the Julian March to Yugoslavia and Slovenia thus regained the Slovenian Littoral, including access to the sea. The Slovenian Littoral (Primorska Litorale Küstenland is a historical region of Slovenia. From the 1950s, the Socialist Republic of Slovenia enjoyed a relatively wide autonomy under the rule of the local Communist elite. The Socialist Republic of Slovenia ( Slovene: Socialistična republika Slovenija) was a Socialist state that was a Constituent country of the In 1990, the first free and democratic elections were held and the DEMOS coalition defeated the former Communist parties. Democratic Opposition of Slovenia (DEMOS coalition (in Slovenian: Dem okratična o pozicija S lovenije) was a coalition of democratic In December 1990, the overwhelming majority of Slovenian citizens voted for independence, which was declared on 25 June 1991. Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. A Ten-Day War followed in which the Slovenians rejected Yugoslav military interference. The Ten-Day War (Desetdnevna vojna sometimes called the Slovenian Independence War (Slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna was a brief military conflict between Slovenia After 1990, a stable democratic system evolved, with economic liberalisation and gradual growth of prosperity. Slovenia joined NATO on 29 March 2004 and the European Union on 1 May 2004. The North Atlantic Treaty Events 1461 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton - Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Slovenia is the first post-Communist country to hold the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, for the first six months of 2008. Presidency of the Council of the European Union is the responsibility for the functioning of the Council of the European Union which is rotated between European Union
The Slovenian head of state is the president, who is elected by popular vote every five years. The politics of Slovenia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic Republic, whereby the Prime Minister Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state The function of President of the Republic of Slovenia (Predsednik Republike Slovenije was established on 23 December 1991, when the National Assembly of Slovenia The executive branch is headed by the prime minister and the council of ministers or cabinet, who are elected by the parliament. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. A minister or a secretary is a Politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional Government. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those
The bicameral Parliament of Slovenia consists of the National Assembly (Državni zbor), and the National Council (Državni svet). In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral The Slovenian Parliament (Parlament Slovenije is the Bicameral legislative body of Slovenia based in the capital Ljubljana. The National Assembly ( Državni zbor) is the Lower house of the parliament of the Republic of Slovenia. The National Council (Državni svet is the constitutional representative of social economic professional and local interest groups and can be considered as the upper house of the The National Assembly has ninety members, 88 of which are elected by all the citizens in a system of proportional representation, while two are elected by the autochthonous Hungarian and Italian minorities. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation or PR is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes The National Council has forty members, appointed to represent social, economic, professional and local interest groups. Parliamentary elections are held every four years.
|English name||Native name|
|Slovenian Istria||Slovenska Istra|
Goriška and Slovenian Istria together are known as the Littoral region (Slovene: Primorska). Crown land is a designated area belonging to The Crown, the equivalent of an entailed estate that passed with the Monarchy and could not be Carniola (Kranjska Krain is a traditional and historical region of Slovenia. The Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten Vojvodina Koroška was a Duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. The Duchy of Styria (Herzogtum Steiermark Vojvodina Štajerska Stájerország was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia. The Slovenian Littoral (Primorska Litorale Küstenland is a historical region of Slovenia. Upper Carniola (Gorenjska Oberkrain is a traditional region of Slovenia. Lower Styria (Štajerska Untersteiermark Latin: Styria) is a historical region in northeastern Slovenia, comprising the southern third of the former Prekmurje (Muravidék is the easternmost region of Slovenia. It borders Hungary to the north-east Austria to the north-west Croatia to the Koroška ( Slovene for Carinthia) is both a historical and a statistical region in the north of Slovenia. Inner Carniola ( Slovenian: Notranjska; Innerkrain is a traditional region of Slovenia. Lower Carniola ( Slovenian: Dolenjska; Unterkrain is a traditional region of Slovenia. Goriška or Gorizia is a traditional Region in western Slovenia on the border of Italy. The Slovenian Littoral (Primorska Litorale Küstenland is a historical region of Slovenia. Slovene or Slovenian ( slovenski jezik or slovenščina, not to be confused with Slovenčina) is a South Slavic language White Carniola (Slovene: Bela krajina), otherwise part of Lower Carniola, is considered a separate region of Slovenia, as are Zasavje and Posavje, the former being a part of Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola and Styria; and the latter part of Lower Carniola and Styria. White Carniola (Bela Krajina Weißkrain Weiße Mark) is a traditional Region in southeastern Slovenia on the border with Croatia. Slovene or Slovenian ( slovenski jezik or slovenščina, not to be confused with Slovenčina) is a South Slavic language Posavje (Eng Region around Sava River) is a Region in southeastern Slovenia on the border with Croatia.
The first regionalisations of Slovenia were made by geographers Anton Melik (1935-1936) and Svetozar Ilešič (1968). Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, Anton Melik ( January 1 1890 &ndash June 8 1966) was a Slovene Geographer. The newer regionalisation by Ivan Gams divides Slovenia in the following macroregions:
According to a newer natural geographic regionalisation, the country consists of four macroregions. The Ljubljana Basin stretches from Bled to the Ljubljana marshlands Littoral refers to the coast of an ocean or sea or to the banks of a river lake or estuary The Dinaric Alps or Dinarides ( Croatian and Bosnian: Dinarsko gorje or Dinaridi, Alpet Dinaride Karst topography is a landscape shaped by the dissolution of a layer or layers of soluble Bedrock, usually Carbonate rock such as Limestone Piran ( Italian Pirano) is a Town and Municipality in southwestern Slovenia on the Adriatic coast along the A macroregion is a geopolitical subdivision that encompasses several traditionally or politically defined regions the meaning may vary the common denominator being cultural economical These are the Alpine, the Mediterranean, the Dinaric, and the Pannonian landscapes. Macroregions are defined according to major relief units (the Alps, the Pannonian plain, the Dinaric mountains) and climate types (submediterranean, temperate continental, mountain climate).  These are often quite interwoven.
Macroregions consist of multiple and very diverse mesoregions. Mesoregion is a geographic region in between the national and the local size The main factor that defines them is the relief together with the geologic composition. Mesoregions in turn consist of numerous microregions. Microregion is a term used for formal and informal geographic divisions on the local level
Slovenia's statistical regions exist solely for legal and statistical purposes. As of February 2007 there are 12 statistical regions (NUTS-2 level), which are grouped in two macroregions (NUTS-1 level):
The government, however, is preparing a plan for new administrative regions. Littoral-Kras statistical region (Obalno-kraška statistična regija is a statistical region in the south-west of Slovenia. The number of these regions is not yet defined, but is said to be between twelve and fourteen. After being unveiled publicly, the plan will undergo parliamentary debate. Constitutional changes allowing the creation of regions have already been approved by the National Assembly. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity If, however, twelve administrative regions are favored, they will most likely be the same as those already in place.
On May 24, 2007 the government proposed a reform in the local government system, introducing administrative regions with limited home rule. Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. Home rule refers to a demand that constituent parts of a state be given greater self-government within the greater administrative purview of the central government It has been stated that 13 will be the maximum allowed number of such regions (or provinces), but their actual names, territories and capitals have yet to be exactly determined. As the passage of necessary legislation has stalled, the process of devolution has been postponed, probably till 2010. Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a State to government at subnational level 
Slovenia is divided into 210 local municipalities, eleven of which have urban status. Slovenia is divided into 210 municipalities ( občine, singular Občina) of which 11 have urban status
Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps, the Dinarides, the Pannonian plain, and the Mediterranean. Triglav (Monte Tricorno is the highest Mountain in Slovenia (and formerly in all of Yugoslavia and the Illyrian Provinces) and the Julian The Kamnik Alps ( Slovene: Kamniške Alpe, German: Steiner Alpen) are a Mountain range, part of the Southern Limestone Slovenia is situated in Central Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Natural heritage in Slovenia is protected either as a National park, a regional park or as a nature park The Dinaric Alps or Dinarides ( Croatian and Bosnian: Dinarsko gorje or Dinaridi, Alpet Dinaride The Pannonian Plain is a large Plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea dried out Slovenia's highest peak is Triglav (2,864 m; 9,396 ft); the country's average height above sea level is 557 metres (1,827 ft). Triglav (Monte Tricorno is the highest Mountain in Slovenia (and formerly in all of Yugoslavia and the Illyrian Provinces) and the Julian Around half of the country (11,691 km²; 4,514 sq mi) is covered by forests; the third most forested country in Europe, after Finland and Sweden. A forest is an area with a high density of Trees There are many definitions of a forest based on various criteria Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Remnants of primeval forests are still to be found, the largest in the Kočevje area. Kočevje (Gottschee is a Municipality and town in Slovenia, the largest by area located between the rivers Krka and Kolpa, but also refers Grassland covers 5,593 square kilometres (2,159 sq mi) and fields and gardens 2,471 square kilometres (954 sq mi). There are 363 square kilometres (140 sq mi) of orchards and 216 square kilometres (83 sq mi) of vineyards. A vineyard is a Plantation of Grape -bearing Vines grown mainly for Winemaking, but also Raisins Table grapes and non-alcoholic
Its climate is submediterranean on the coast, alpine in the mountains and continental with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaux and valleys to the east. Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of Average temperatures are -2 °C (28 °F) in January and 21 °C (70 °F) in July. The average rainfall is 1,000 millimetres (39. 4 in) for the coast, up to 3,500 millimetres (137. 8 in) for the Alps, 800 millimetres (31. 5 in) for south-east and 1,400 millimetres (55. 1 in) for central Slovenia.
Although on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, most of Slovenia is in the Black Sea drainage basin. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, The geometric center of gravity of Slovenia is at the geographic coordinates 46°07'11. Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position In Geometry, the centre (or center, in American English of an object is a point in some sense in the middle of the object A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. 8" N and 14°48'55. 2" E. It lies in Spodnja Slivna near Vače in the municipality of Litija. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or Litija is a town and a municipality in Slovenia, located in the Sava River Valley
Slovenia has a high-income developed economy which enjoys the second highest (after Cyprus) GDP per capita ($28,010. Slovenia today is a Developed country that enjoys prosperity and stability as well as a GDP per capita substantially higher than that of the other transitioning economies The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors 76 estimate for 2008) of the new EU countries which is 93% of the EU average. Although the country's relatively high inflation declined to 2. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time 3% in 2006 (prior to adoption of the euro), it recently reached 5. 1% year-on-year, exceeding the average in the eurozone. Euro Enlargement of the Slovenia's economy has started to grow more strongly in the last few years (7. Economic growth is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time 2% in first quarter of 2007, 5. 7% in 2006, 4. 1% in 2005), after relatively slow growth in 2003 (2. 8%).
Despite economic success, Slovenia faces challenges. Much of the economy remains in state hands and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU per capita. Foreign direct investment ( FDI) in its classic definition is defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country Taxes are relatively high, the labor market is seen as inflexible, and industries are losing sales to China, India, and elsewhere. Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the Market and dynamics for labour. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country 
During the 2000s, privatisations were seen in the banking, telecommunications, and public utility sectors. A banker or bank is a Financial institution whose primary activity is to act as a payment agent for customers and to borrow and lend money Restrictions on foreign investment are being dismantled, and foreign direct investment (FDI) is expected to increase. Investment or investing is a term with several closely-related meanings in Business management, Finance and Economics, related to saving Foreign direct investment ( FDI) in its classic definition is defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country Slovenia is the economic front-runner of the countries that joined the European Union in 2004 and the first new member to adopt the euro on 1 January 2007. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
Slovenian euro coins were first issued for circulation on 1 January 2007 and feature a unique design for each coin. Slovenian euro coins were first issued for circulation on 1 January 2007 and feature a unique design for each coin Euro gold and silver commemorative coins are special Euro coins minted and issued by member states of the Eurozone, mainly in Gold and The Slovenian euro coins were the first to feature a new common side, with a new map of Europe on the bicoloured and Nordic-gold coins.
Since January 1, 2007, in such a short time, Slovenia have already built a small collection of collectors' coins, in gold, silver and other metals, with face value ranging from 3 to 100 euro. These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting of silver and gold commemorative coins. Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the eurozone. For instance, a €3 Slovenian commemorative coin cannot be used in any other country.
|Ethnic composition of Slovenia|
|Slovene||83. The majority of Slovenia 's population is Slovene (8306% Hungarians and Italians have the status of indigenous minorities under the Constitution The Roman Catholic Church in Slovenia is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and Curia in Rome The small Jewish community of Slovenia (Judovska skupnost Slovenije is estimated at 400 to 600 members, with most living in the capital Ljubljana The Izbrisani ( English: The Erased is the name used in the media for a group of people in Slovenia that remained without a legal status after the declaration Slovene or Slovenian ( slovenski jezik or slovenščina, not to be confused with Slovenčina) is a South Slavic language 06%|
|other minorities||1. 9%|
|undeclared or unknown||8. 9%|
|source: 2002 census|
Slovenia's main ethnic group is Slovene (83%). Slovenes or Slovenians ( Slovene Slovenci, dual Slovenca, singular Slovenec, feminine Slovenke, dual Slovenki Nationalities from the former Yugoslavia (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Macedonian, Montenegrin) form 5. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, Croats (Hrvati are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries The Bosniaks or Bosniacs (Bošnjak pl Bošnjaci bɔ'ʃɲaːt͡si are a South Slavic people living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina ("Bosnia" The Macedonians (Македонци transliterated Makedonci) also referred to as Macedonian Slavs --> --> are a South Slavic people Montenegrins ( Serbian: Црногорци/ Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people closely akin to the Serbs, associated to Montenegro 3%, and the Hungarian, Albanian, Roma, Italian and other minorities form 2. Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging 8% of the population. Ethnic affiliation of 8. 9% was either undeclared or unknown.
Life expectancy in 2003 was 72. 2 years for men and 80 years for women. Slovenia ranks number 8 on the list of countries by suicide rate. The following is a List of suicide rates by country according to data from the World Health Organization in which a country's rank is determined by its total rate of Suicides
|Religion in Slovenia|
|Roman Catholic||57. 8%|
|undeclared or unknown||22. 8%|
|other religions||0. 3%|
|source: 2002 census|
With 99 inhabitants per square kilometre (256/sq mi), Slovenia ranks low among the European countries in population density (compared to 320/km² (829/sq mi) for the Netherlands or 195/km² (505/sq mi) for Italy). The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Notranjska-Kras statistical region has the lowest population density while the Central Slovenia has the highest. Approximately 51% of the population lives in urban areas and 49% in rural areas.
The official language is Slovene, which is a member of the South Slavic Slavic language group. St Nicholas's Cathedral ( Slovene: Stolnica svetega Nikolaja) commonly referred to as the Cathedral of St Slovene or Slovenian ( slovenski jezik or slovenščina, not to be confused with Slovenčina) is a South Slavic language South Slavic languages comprise one of the three geographical groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic) Hungarian and Italian enjoy the status of official languages in the ethnically mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian borders. Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy.
By religion, Slovenes are traditionally largely Roman Catholic (57. 8% according to the 2002 Census). According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005, 37% of Slovenian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 46% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 16% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force". Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973
Slovenia's first book was printed by the Protestant reformer Primož Trubar (1508-1586). See also List of Slovenians, Holidays in Slovenia, Slovene literature, Music of Slovenia, Slovenian cuisine Slovenia 's This is a list of Slovenes and people from Slovenia that are famous or notable There are two kinds of Holidays in Slovenia - national holidays and work-free days Slovene Literature starts with Freising manuscripts around 1000 The Music of Slovenia is closely related to Austrian Istrian and Croatian because of its common history and Alpine and Primož Trubar ( 9 June 1508 – 28 June 1586) was a Slovene protestant reformer, the founder and the first superintendent It was actually two books, Latin: Catechismus (a catechism) and Abecedarium, which was published in 1550 in Tübingen, Germany. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. A catechism (ˈkætəkɪzəm κατηχισμός is a summary or exposition of Doctrine, traditionally used in Christian religious teaching from New Testament Abecedarium ( Abecednik) is along with the Katekizem ( Catechism) the first Slovenian printed book Tübingen, a traditional University town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, is situated 30 km (19 miles southwest of Stuttgart, on a ridge between Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
The central part of the country, namely Carniola (which existed as a part of Austria-Hungary until the early 20th century) was ethnographically and historically well-described in the book The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola (German: Die Ehre deß Herzogthums Crain, Slovene: Slava vojvodine Kranjske), published in 1689 by Baron Janez Vajkard Valvasor (1641-1693). Carniola (Kranjska Krain is a traditional and historical region of Slovenia. The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola (Die Ehre deß Hertzogthums Crain Slava vojvodine Kranjske is Janez Vajkard Valvasor 's most important work on the Natural The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Slovene or Slovenian ( slovenski jezik or slovenščina, not to be confused with Slovenčina) is a South Slavic language Baron Janez Vajkard Valvasor (also Johann Weikhard Freiherr von Valvasor) (baptized on May 28, 1641 - September 19, 1693) was a
Some of Slovenia's greatest literates were the poets France Prešeren (1800-1849), Srečko Kosovel, Edvard Kocbek and Dane Zajc, as well as the writers Ivan Cankar (1876-1918) and Vladimir Bartol. France Prešeren, also known in the Germanized version as Franz Prescheren (1800–1849 was a Slovene Romantic Poet. Božidar Jakac ( July 16 1899 - November 12 1989) was a Slovene Expressionist, Realist and Symbolist France Prešeren, also known in the Germanized version as Franz Prescheren (1800–1849 was a Slovene Romantic Poet. Srečko Kosovel ( March 18 1904 &ndash May 27 1926) was a Slovene avant-garde poet Edvard Kocbek ( 27 September 1904, Sveti Jurij ob Ščavnici, Duchy of Styria, now Slovenia - 3 November 1981 Dane Zajc ( October 26 1929 in Zgornja Javoršica near the Moravče – October 20 2005 in Ljubljana) was a Ivan Cankar (10 May 1876 – 11 December 1918 was a Slovene Writer, Playwright, Essayist, Poet and political activist. Vladimir Bartol ( February 24 1903 &ndash September 12 1967) was a Slovenian Writer, most famous for his novel Alojz Rebula, Drago Jančar, Boris Pahor, Tomaž Šalamun and Aleš Debeljak are the leading names of contemporary Slovene literature, while Aleš Šteger is one of the most noticeable name among newcomers. Alojz Rebula (born June 21 1924) is an eminent Slovene Writer, Playwright, Essayist and Translator, who Drago Jančar (born 13 April 1948, Maribor) is a Slovene Writer, Playwright, Essayist and Public intellectual Boris Pahor (born 28 August 1913 is a Slovene Writer from Italy. Tomaž Šalamun is a Slovenian poet He was born in 1941 in Zagreb, Croatia, and raised in Koper, Slovenia. Aleš Debeljak (born December 25, 1961) is a Slovenian Cultural critic, Poet, and Essayist. Aleš Šteger (born 31 May 1973) is a Slovenian poet He was born in the town of Ptuj in Lower Styria, Slovenia, then The most important Slovene painters include Anton Ažbe, Ivana Kobilca, Rihard Jakopič, Božidar Jakac, Avgust Černigoj and Zoran Mušič. Anton Ažbe ( 30 May 1862 - 6 August 1905) was a Slovene painter and Teacher. Ivana Kobilca ( December 20, 1861 - December 4, 1926) was a Slovene realist painter who lived worked and studied Rihard Jakopič ( April 12 1869 &ndash April 21 1943) was a Slovene painter Božidar Jakac ( July 16 1899 - November 12 1989) was a Slovene Expressionist, Realist and Symbolist Avgust Černigoj ( August 24, 1898, &ndash November 17, 1985) was a Slovene painter, known for his Avant-garde Zoran Mušič ( February 12 1909 - May 25 2005) was a Slovene painter. The most famed Slovene architects are Jože Plečnik and Max Fabiani. Jože Plečnik, ( January 23 1872 - January 7 1957) was a Slovene Architect who practised in Vienna, Max Fabiani, ( 29 April 1865 &ndash 18 August 1962) was a Slovenian Italian Art nouveau Architect.
Slovenia is a homeland of numerous musicians and composers, including Renaissance composer Jacobus Gallus (1550-1591), who greatly influenced Central European classical music, and the violin virtuoso Giuseppe Tartini. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Jacobus Gallus Carniolus ( Jacob Handl or Jacob Handl-Gallus) ( July 3, 1550 &ndash July 18, 1591) was a late Renaissance Giuseppe Tartini (April 8 1692 &ndash February 26 1770 was an Italian Composer and Violinist. In the twentieth century, Bojan Adamič was a renowned film music composer and Ivo Petrić (born June 16, 1931), is a composer of European classical music. Bojan Adamič, ( 9 August 1912 - 3 November 1995) was a renowned Slovenian composer of Film scores born in Ribnica Ivo Petrić (born June 16, 1931) is a Slovenian Composer of European classical music. Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Contemporary popular musicians have been Slavko Avsenik, Laibach, Vlado Kreslin, Pero Lovšin, Pankrti, Zoran Predin, Lačni Franz, New Swing Quartet, DJ Umek, Valentino Kanzyani, Siddharta, Big Foot Mama,Terrafolk, Katalena, Magnifico and others. Slavko Avsenik (born 1929 is a Slovenian composer and musician Laibach is a Slovenian avant-garde Music group strongly associated with industrial, martial, and neo-classical musical Vlado Kreslin (born 29 november, 1953) is a Slovenian Folk rock Musician. Pankrti ( Bastards in Slovenian) were a Punk rock band from Ljubljana, Slovenia, active in the late 1970s and during the 1980s Zoran Predin (born June 16 1958) is a musician from Maribor, Slovenia. Lačni Franz was a rock band from Slovenia. The band was formed in Maribor in June 1979. Uroš Umek (born May 16, 1976 in Ljubljana, Slovenia, better known as DJ Umek or simply Umek is a Slovenian Dance Siddharta is a five-piece Slovenian rock band founded in 1995 Big Foot Mama is one of the most successful Rock bands from Slovenia in recent years Terrafolk is a Slovenian folk band which formed in 1999 at Festival Lent in Slovenia Robert Pešut (Роберт Пешут (born December 1, 1965 in Ljubljana, SR Slovenia, Yugoslavia) known as Magnifico
Slovene cinema has more than a century-long tradition with Karol Grossmann, Janko Ravnik, Ferdo Delak, France Štiglic, Mirko Grobler, Igor Pretnar, France Kosmač, Jože Pogačnik, Matjaž Klopčič, Jane Kavčič, Jože Gale, Boštjan Hladnik and Karpo Godina as its most established filmmakers. Karel Grossmann (1864 -1929 was a pioneering Slovene Film maker. France Štiglic ( November 12, 1919 - May 4, 1993) was a Slovenian Film director and Screenwriter. Boštjan Hladnik ( January 30, 1929 – May 30, 2006) was a Yugoslavian Slovene filmmaker Contemporary film directors Janez Burger, Jan Cvitkovič, Damjan Kozole, Janez Lapajne and Maja Weiss are most notable representatives of the so-called "Renaissance of Slovenian cinema". Jan Cvitkovič (1966- is a critically acclaimed Slovenian Film director, Screenwriter and actor Janez Lapajne la-pie-nay Slovenian Film director, * June 24 1967, Celje, Slovenia.
Famous Slovene scholars include the chemist and Nobel prize laureate Friderik Pregl, physicist Jožef Stefan, philosophers Slavoj Žižek and Milan Komar, linguist Franc Miklošič, physician Anton Marko Plenčič, mathematician Jurij Vega, sociologist Thomas Luckmann, theologian Anton Strle and rocket engineer Herman Potočnik. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature Fritz Pregl ( September 3, 1869 &ndash December 13, 1930) was an Austrian Slovene Physician and Chemist Joseph Stefan ( Jožef Stefan) ( March 24, 1835 &ndash January 7, 1893) was a Physicist, Mathematician and Slavoj Žižek (ˈslavoj ˈʒiʒɛk (born 21 March 1949) is a Post-Marxist Sociologist, Philosopher, and Cultural critic Milan Komar, also known as Emilio Komar ( 4 June 1921 - 20 January 2006) was a Slovene Argentine Catholic Fran Miklošič (also known in German as Franz von Miklosich) ( November 29, 1813 – March 7, 1891) was a Slovene Baron Jurij Bartolomej Vega (also correct Veha; official Georgius Bartholomaei Vecha Georg Freiherr von Vega ( March 23, 1754 &ndash Thomas Luckmann (born October 14 1927) is a German sociologist of Slovene origin Anton Strle ( 21 January 1915 &ndash 20 October 2003) was a Slovenian professor of dogmatic theology and a Priest Herman Potočnik ( Pseudonym Hermann Noordung) ( December 22, 1892 - August 27, 1929) was a Slovene rocket
Although Slovenia is a small country, there is an exceptionally wide variety of habitats. In the north of Slovenia are the Alps (namely, Julian Alps, Karavanke, Kamnik Alps), and in the south stand the Dinaric Alps. The Julian Alps (Julijske Alpe Alpi Giulie are a Mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps that stretches from north-eastern Italy to Slovenia Karawanken ( German) or Karavanke ( Slovene) is a Mountain range on the border between Slovenia and Austria. The Kamnik Alps ( Slovene: Kamniške Alpe, German: Steiner Alpen) are a Mountain range, part of the Southern Limestone The Dinaric Alps or Dinarides ( Croatian and Bosnian: Dinarsko gorje or Dinaridi, Alpet Dinaride There is also a small area of the Pannonian plain and a Littoral Region. The Pannonian Plain is a large Plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea dried out Littoral refers to the coast of an ocean or sea or to the banks of a river lake or estuary Much of southwestern Slovenia is characterized by Classical Karst, a very rich, often unexplored underground habitat containing diverse flora and fauna. KRAS is a gene encoding the KRas Proto-oncogene. Like other members of the Ras gene family the KRAS protein is a GTPase and is an early player in many In Botany, flora ( Plural: floras or florae has two meanings The first meaning flora of an area or of time period, refers to all Fauna is all of the Animal life of any particular region or time
More than half of the country (about 58%) is covered by forests. These forests are an important natural resource, but they are also valuable for the preservation of natural diversity. An ecological asset like all forests, they enrich the soil and cleanse the water and air. Slovenes find the social benefits of tourism and recreation. The forests also lend their natural beauty to the Slovenian landscape. In the interior of the country there are typical Central European forests. Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and The predominant trees are oaks and beeches. The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin For the babyfood see Beech-Nut. Beech ( Fagus) is a genus of ten Species of Deciduous Trees in the In the mountains, spruce, fir, and pine are more common. Spruce refers to Trees of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of Coniferous Evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae Firs ( Abies) are a genus of between 45-55 species of Evergreen conifers in the family Pinaceae. This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation. The tree line is at 1,700 to 1,800 metres (or 5,575 to 5,900 ft). The tree line or timberline is the edge of the habitat at which Trees are capable of growing
Pine trees also grow on the Kras plateau. Only one third of Kras is now covered by pine forest. Before that Kras was covered by oak forest. It is said that most of the forest was chopped down long ago to provide the wooden piles on which the city of Venice now stands. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the The Kras and White Carniola are well known for the mysterious proteus. White Carniola (Bela Krajina Weißkrain Weiße Mark) is a traditional Region in southeastern Slovenia on the border with Croatia. The olm, or proteus ( Proteus anguinus) is a blind Amphibian endemic to the subterranean waters of caves of the Dinaric The lime/linden tree, also common in Slovenian forests, is a national symbol. Tilia is a Genus of about 30 species of Trees native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, in Asia (where the greatest
In the Alps, flowers such as Daphne blagayana, various gentians (Gentiana clusii, Gentiana froelichi), Primula auricula, edelweiss (the symbol of Slovene mountaineering), Cypripedium calceolus, Fritillaria meleagris (snake's head fritillary), and Pulsatilla grandis are found. Gentiana is a genus of Flowering plants belonging to the Gentian family ( Gentianaceae) tribe Gentianeae and monophyletic subtribe Gentianinae Gentiana clusii (sometimes called "Clusius' gentian" is a large-flowered short-stemmed Gentian, which is very similar to G Primula auricula, often known as Auricula or bear's ear (from the shape of its leaves is a species of primrose that grows on basic rocks Cypripedium calceolus is a Lady's Slipper Orchid. It is a widespread plant worldwide found from Europe east through Asia to the Pacific Ocean Fritillaria meleagris ( Fritillary, Checkered Daffodil, Frog-cup, Guinea-hen Flower, Leper Lily, Snake's
The country's fauna includes marmots, Alpine ibex, and chamois. Marmots are members of the Genus Marmota, in the Rodent family Sciuridae (squirrels The Alpine Ibex ( Capra ibex)— commonly called by its local names in the various languages - French bouquetin, German steinbock, The chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra) is a Goat -like animal native to the Carpathian Mountains of Romania the European Alps, the Gran There are numerous deer, roe deer, boar, and hares. A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. The European Roe Deer ( Capreolus capreolus) is a Deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions The boar or wild boar ( Sus scrofa) is an Omnivorous, gregarious Mammal of the biological family Suidae. Hares and jackrabbits are Leporids belonging to the Genus Lepus. The edible dormouse is often found in the Slovenian beech forests. The edible dormouse or fat dormouse ( Glis glis) is a small Dormouse and the only Species in the Genus Glis. Hunting these animals is a long tradition and is well described in the book The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola (Slovene: Slava vojvodine Kranjske, 1689), written by Janez Vajkard Valvasor (1641-1693). The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola (Die Ehre deß Hertzogthums Crain Slava vojvodine Kranjske is Janez Vajkard Valvasor 's most important work on the Natural Slovene or Slovenian ( slovenski jezik or slovenščina, not to be confused with Slovenčina) is a South Slavic language Baron Janez Vajkard Valvasor (also Johann Weikhard Freiherr von Valvasor) (baptized on May 28, 1641 - September 19, 1693) was a Some important carnivores include the Eurasian lynx (reintroduced to the Kočevje area in 1973), European wild cats, foxes (especially the red fox), and the rare jackal. The Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat native to European and Siberian forests where it is one of the predators Kočevje (Gottschee is a Municipality and town in Slovenia, the largest by area located between the rivers Krka and Kolpa, but also refers The Wildcat ( Felis silvestris) sometimes Wild Cat or Wild-cat, is a small felid native to Europe, the western part of Asia A fox is an Animal belonging to any one of about 27 Species (of which only 12 actually belong to the Vulpes genus or 'true foxes' of small The Red Fox ( Vulpes vulpes) is a Mammal of the order Carnivora. A jackal (from Turkish çakal, via Persian shaghal ultimately from Sanskrit sṛgālaḥ) is a member of any of three  There are also hedgehogs, martens, and snakes such as vipers and grass snakes. A hedgehog is any of the small spiny Mammals of the Subfamily Erinaceinae and the order Erinaceomorpha. For the Wiltshire village see Marten Wiltshire. For the town in Bulgaria see Marten Bulgaria. Common names: pitless vipers true vipers Old World vipers true adders This article is about the European Grass Snake or Ringed Snake Natrix natrix As of March 2005, Slovenia also has a limited population of wolves and around four hundred brown bears. The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora The Brown Bear ( Ursus arctos) is an Omnivorous Mammal of the family Ursidae, distributed across much of northern Eurasia and
There is a wide variety of birds, such as the Tawny Owl, the Long-eared Owl, the Eagle Owl, hawks, and Short-toed Eagles. The Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus) is a species of Owl which breeds in Europe, Asia, and North America. The American horned owls and the Old World eagle-owls make up the Genus Bubo, at least as traditionally circumscribed The term hawk can be used in several ways In strict usage in Europe and Asia, to mean any of the Species in the Subfamily The Short-toed Eagle ( Circaetus gallicus) is a medium-sized Bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which also includes many other diurnal raptors Various other birds of prey have been recorded, as well as a growing number of ravens, crows and magpies migrating into Ljubljana and Maribor where they thrive. Raven is the common name given to the largest species of Passerine Birds in the Genus Corvus. The true crows are large Passerine Birds that comprise the Genus Corvus in the family Corvidae. Magpies are Passerine Birds of the Crow family, Corvidae. The names ' Jay ' and 'magpie' are to a certain extent interchangeable Ljubljana ( is the largest and Capital city of Slovenia. It is located in the center of the country and is a mid-sized city of some 270000 inhabitants Maribor (historical German name de ''Marburg an der Drau'' is the second largest City in Slovenia. Other birds include (both Black and Green) Woodpeckers and the White Stork, which nests in Prekmurje. The woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks are a family, Picidae, of Near-passerine Birds. The White Stork ( Ciconia ciconia) is a large wading Bird in the Stork family Ciconiidae, breeding in the warmer parts of Europe Prekmurje (Muravidék is the easternmost region of Slovenia. It borders Hungary to the north-east Austria to the north-west Croatia to the
The indigenous Slovenian fish is the marble trout or marmorata (Salmo marmoratus). Salmo marmoratus is a species of Fish in the Salmonidae family the second largest European trout species second in size only to Huchen ( Extensive breeding programmes have been introduced to repopulate the marble trout into lakes and streams invaded by non-indigenous species of trout. Trout is the common name given to a number of Species of Freshwater Fish belonging to the Salmonidae family
The only regular species of cetaceans found in the northern Adriatic sea is the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The Order Cetacea (sɪˈteɪʃiə L cetus, whale includes Whales Dolphins and Porpoises Cetus is The Bottlenose Dolphin is one of the most common and well-known Dolphins. 
Domestic animals originating in Slovenia include the Carniolan honeybee, the indigenous Karst Shepherd and the Lipizzan horse. The Carniolan honey bee ( Apis mellifera carnica) is a subspecies of Western honey bee. The Lipizzan or Lipizzaner ( Slovene Lipicanec) is a breed of Horse closely associated with the Spanish Riding School The exploration of various cave systems has yielded discoveries of many cave-dwelling insects and other organisms.
Slovenia is a veritable cornucopia of forest, cavern and mountain-dwelling wildlife. Many species that are endangered or can no longer be found in other parts of Europe can still be found here.
The Slovenian education system consists of:
Specific parts of the system:
Currently there are four universities in Slovenia:
The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Slovenia's education as the 12th best in the world, being significantly higher than the OECD average. Education in Slovenia Primary school Children first enter primary schooling at about age 6 and finish at about age 14 The University of Ljubljana (Univerza v Ljubljani Universitas Labacensis is the first and the largest University in Slovenia; with 64000 enrolled graduate The University of Ljubljana (Univerza v Ljubljani Universitas Labacensis is the first and the largest University in Slovenia; with 64000 enrolled graduate The University of Maribor ( Slovenian Univerza v Mariboru) is the second university in Slovenia, established in 1961. University of Primorska ( Slovenian Univerza na Primorskem, Italian Università del Litorale) is the third university in Slovenia University of Nova Gorica - UNG ( Slovenian Univerza v Novi Gorici) is the fourth university in Slovenia.