|Sino-British Joint Declaration|
|Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong|
The Sino-British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by the Prime Ministers of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the United Kingdom (UK) governments on December 19, 1984 in Beijing. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 324 - Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar)
The Declaration entered into force with the exchange of instruments of ratification on May 27, 1985, and was registered by the PRC and UK governments at the United Nations on June 12, 1985. Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Events 1381 - Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) In the Joint Declaration, the PRC Government stated that it had decided to resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong (including Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, and the New Territories) with effect from July 1, 1997, and the UK Government declared that it would hand over Hong Kong to the PRC with effect from July 1, 1997. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Hong Kong Island ( is an island in the southern part of Hong Kong, China. The Kowloon Peninsula, commonly referred to as Kowloon, is a Peninsula that forms the southern part of the main landmass in the territory of Hong Kong, New Territories, abbreviated to NT or NT, is a region in Hong Kong excluding Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and Stonecutters Island "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. The PRC Government also declared its basic policies regarding Hong Kong in the document.
In accordance with the "One Country, Two Systems" Principle agreed between the UK and the PRC, the socialist system of PRC would not be practiced in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), and Hong Kong's previous capitalist system and its way of life would remain unchanged for a period of 50 years. " One country two systems " is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping during the early 1980s then Paramount Leader of the People's Republic Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution A special administrative region or SAR may be;People's Republic of China Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, present-day Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where The Joint Declaration provides that these basic policies should be stipulated in the Hong Kong Basic Law. The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, or simply Hong Kong Basic Law, serves as the Constitutional document
The background of the Sino-British Joint Declaration was the pending expiration of the lease of the New Territories on July 1, 1997. New Territories, abbreviated to NT or NT, is a region in Hong Kong excluding Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and Stonecutters Island "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar The lease was negotiated between the UK and the Guangxu Emperor of China, and was for a period of 99 years starting from 1898. The Guangxu Emperor (光緒帝 (14 August 1871&ndash14 November 1908 born Zaitian (載湉 was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty At the time of the lease signing, Hong Kong Island had already been ceded to the UK in perpetuity under the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 after the First Opium War, and the Kowloon Peninsula had also been ceded to the UK in perpetuity under the Convention of Peking in 1860 after the Second Opium War. The Treaty of Nanking (Treaty of Nanjing signed 29 August, 1842, was the unequal treaty which marked the end of the First Opium War between The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the British East India Company and the Qing Dynasty in China from 1839 The Convention of Peking or the First Convention of Peking is the name used for three different treaties which were concluded between Qing China and the The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war of the United Kingdom
The signing of the Joint Declaration by the Conservative Party government of Margaret Thatcher was a cause of controversy in Britain at the time: some were surprised that the right wing Prime Minister would agree to such an arrangement with the Communist government of China represented by Deng Xiaoping. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer The Joint Declaration would also have to have been signed by HM Queen Elizabeth II and the President of China. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Li Xiannian ( (23 June 1909&ndash21 June 1992 was President of the People's Republic of China between 1983 and 1988 and then president of the Chinese People's Political
However, many commentaries pointed out that Britain was in an extremely weak negotiating position. Hong Kong was not militarily defensible and received most of its water and food supply from Guangdong province in mainland China. Guangdong ( EFEO: Kouangtong; Pinyin Guǎngdōng; Postal map spelling: Kwangtung) is a province on the Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction It was therefore considered economically infeasible to divide Hong Kong, with the UK retaining control for Hong Kong Island and Kowloon while returning the New Territories to the PRC in 1997, if no agreements could be reached by then. As mortgages for property in Hong Kong were typically fifteen years, without reaching an agreement on the future of Hong Kong in the early '80s, it was feared that the property market would collapse, causing a collapse of the general economy in Hong Kong. Hong Kong's highly favorable geographical position and Entrepot trading opportunities are wealth-generating assets Constraints in the land lease in the New Terrorities were also pressing problems at that time. In fact, while negotiation concerning the future of Hong Kong had started in the late 1970s, the final timing of the Declaration was related to the land and property factors.
After signing of the declaration, a Sino-British Joint Liaison Group was set up according to the Annex II of the declaration. Sino-British Joint Liaison Group ( or simply Joint Liaision Group was a meeting group between the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland