|Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs|
|Opened for signature||March 30, 1961 in New York|
|Entered into force||December 13, 1964|
|Conditions for entry into force||40 ratifications|
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research. A signature (from Latin signare, " Sign " is a handwritten (and sometimes stylized depiction of someone's name nickname or even a simple Events 240 BC - 1st recorded Perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Coming into force (also called enforcement or enactment) is a term that refers to the process by which Legislation, or part of legislation and Events 1294 - Saint Celestine V abdicates the papacy after only five months Celestine hoped to return to his previous life Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. A party is a Person or group of persons that compose a single Entity which can be identified as one for the purposes of the Law. A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. The term narcotic (ναρκωτικός is believed to have been coined by the Greek physician Galen to refer to agents that benumb or deaden causing loss A drug, broadly speaking is any chemical substance that when absorbed into the body The verb license or grant license means to give permission The noun license is the document demonstrating that permission Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the
Earlier treaties had only controlled opium, coca, and derivatives such as morphine, heroin and cocaine. Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( Not to be confused with Cocoa. Coca is a Plant in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to north-western South America Medical uses Morphine can be used as an analgesic in hospital settings to relieve pain in Myocardial infarction pain in Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant The Single Convention, adopted in 1961, consolidated those treaties and broadened their scope to include cannabis and drugs whose effects are similar to those of the drugs specified. Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp The Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the World Health Organization were empowered to add, remove, and transfer drugs among the treaty's four Schedules of controlled substances. Commission on Narcotic Drugs is the central drug policy-making body within the United Nations system The International Narcotics Control Board was put in charge of administering controls on drug production, international trade, and dispensation. The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) was delegated the Board's day-to-day work of monitoring the situation in each country and working with national authorities to ensure compliance with the Single Convention. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC is a United Nations agency that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention This treaty has since been supplemented by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, which controls LSD, Ecstasy, and other psychoactive pharmaceuticals, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, which strengthens provisions against money laundering and other drug-related offenses. The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations Treaty designed to control Psychoactive drugs such as Amphetamines Barbiturates MDMA ( 34-methylenedioxy- N -methylamphetamine) most commonly known today by the street name Ecstasy (often abbreviated E, X, The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force Money laundering is the practice of engaging in financial Transactions in order to conceal the Identity, source and/or destination of Money,
Since the Single Convention is not self-executing, Parties must pass laws to carry out its provisions. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime works with countries' legislatures to ensure compliance. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC is a United Nations agency that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation As a result, most of the national drug statutes in the UNODC's legal library share a high degree of conformity with the Single Convention and its supplementary treaties, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations Treaty designed to control Psychoactive drugs such as Amphetamines Barbiturates The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force
The Single Convention has been extremely influential in standardizing national drug control laws. In particular, the United States' Controlled Substances Act of 1970 and the United Kingdom's Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 were designed to fulfill treaty obligations. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (c38 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs Both Acts include analogous schemes of drug Scheduling, along with similar procedures for adding, removing, and transferring drugs among the Schedules. The Controlled Substances Act follows the Single Convention's lead in granting a public health authority a central role in drug Scheduling decisions. It also includes a provision mandating that federal authorities control all drugs of abuse at least as strictly as required by the Single Convention(21 U.S.C. § 811(d)).
As of January 2005, the Single Convention had 180 Parties.
The League of Nations adopted several drug control treaties prior to World War II specifying uniform controls on addictive drugs such as cocaine, opium, and its derivatives. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( However, the lists of substances to be controlled were fixed in the treaties' text; consequently, the conventions had to periodically be amended or superseded by new treaties in order to keep up with advances in chemistry. The cumbersome process of conference and state-by-state ratification could take decades.
A Canadian Senate committee report notes, "The work of consolidating the existing international drug control treaties into one instrument began in 1948, but it was 1961 before an acceptable third draft was ready". The Senate of Canada (Le Sénat du Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the sovereign (represented by the governor general That year, the UN Economic and Social Council convened a plenipotentiary conference of 73 nations for the adoption of a single convention on narcotic drugs. The Economic and Social Council ( ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation The word plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power has two meanings Canadian William B. McAllister, Q. C. , notes that the participating states organized themselves into five distinct caucuses:
These competing interests, after more than eight weeks of negotiations, finally produced a compromise treaty. Several controls were watered down; for instance, the proposed mandatory embargoes on nations failing to comply with the treaty became recommendatory. In international Commerce and politics, an embargo is the prohibition of commerce The 1953 New York Opium Protocol, which had not yet entered into force, limited opium production to seven countries; the Single Convention lifted that restriction, but instituted other regulations and put the International Narcotics Control Board in charge of monitoring their enforcement. The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions A compromise was also struck that allowed heroin and some other drugs classified as particularly dangerous to escape absolute prohibition. Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative
The Single Convention created four Schedules of controlled substances and a process for adding new substances to the Schedules without amending the treaty. The Schedules were designed to have significantly stricter regulations than the two drug "Groups" established by predecessor treaties. For the first time, cannabis was added to the list of internationally controlled drugs. Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp In fact, regulations on the cannabis plant – as well as the opium poppy, the coca bush, poppy straw and cannabis leaves – were embedded in the text of the treaty, making it impossible to deregulate them through the normal Scheduling process. Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( A poppy is any of a number of showy Flowers typically withone per stem, belonging to the poppy family. Not to be confused with Cocoa. Coca is a Plant in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to north-western South America A 1962 issue of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs' Bulletin on Narcotics proudly announced that "after a definite transitional period, all non-medical use of narcotic drugs, such as opium smoking, opium eating, consumption of cannabis (hashish, marijuana) and chewing of coca leaves, will be outlawed everywhere. Commission on Narcotic Drugs is the central drug policy-making body within the United Nations system The Bulletin on Narcotics is a publication of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. This is a goal which workers in international narcotics control all over the world have striven to achieve for half a century".
An August 3, 1962 Economic and Social Council resolution ordered the issuance of the Commentary on the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. Events 8 - Roman Empire General Tiberius defeats Dalmatians on the river Bathinus. Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The legal commentary was created by the United Nations Secretary-General's staff (specifically, Adolf Lande, former Secretary of the Permanent Central Narcotics Board and Drug Supervisory Body), operating under a mandate to give "an interpretation of the provisions of the Convention in the light of the relevant conference proceedings and other material". The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Adolf Lande served for many years as secretary of the Permanent Central Narcotics Board and the Drug Supervisory Body (two international drug organs and was the primary drafter The Commentary contains the Single Convention's legislative history and is an invaluable aid to interpreting the treaty. Legislative history includes any of various materials generated in the course of creating Legislation, such as committee reports analysis by legislative counsel committee hearings
The Single Convention entered into force on December 13, 1964, having met Article 41's requirement of 40 ratifications. As of January 1, 2005, 180 states were Parties to the treaty. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Others, such as Cambodia, have committed to becoming Parties. The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East
On May 21, 1971, the UN Economic and Social Council called a conference of plenipotentiaries to consider amendments to the Single Convention. Events 878 - Syracuse Italy is captured by the Muslim sultan of Sicily. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The Economic and Social Council ( ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation The conference met at the United Nations Office at Geneva from March 6 to March 24, 1972, producing the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. Events 1079 - Omar Khayyám completes the Iranian calendar. 1454 - Thirteen Years' War: Delegates of Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was a protocal that made several changes to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The amendments entered into force on August 8, 1975. Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
On November 11, 1990, mechanisms for enforcing the Single Convention were expanded significantly by the entry into force of the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, which had been signed at Vienna on December 20, 1988. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) The Preamble to this treaty acknowledges the inadequacy of the Single Convention's controls to stop "steadily increasing inroads into various social groups made by illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances". The new treaty focuses on stopping organized crime by providing for international cooperation in apprehending and convicting gangsters and starving them of funds through forfeiture, asset freezing, and other methods. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. Asset forfeiture is a term used to describe the confiscation of Assets, by the State, which are either (a the proceeds of Crime or (b the instrumentalities It also establishes a system for placing precursors to Scheduled drugs under international control. Some non-Parties to the Single Convention, such as Andorra, belong to this treaty and thus are still under the international drug control regime. Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra ( Catalan: Principat d'Andorra) is a small Landlocked country in western
The Single Convention repeatedly affirms the importance of medical use of controlled substances. The Preamble notes that "the medical use of narcotic drugs continues to be indispensable for the relief of pain and suffering and that adequate provision must be made to ensure the availability of narcotic drugs for such purposes". The term narcotic (ναρκωτικός is believed to have been coined by the Greek physician Galen to refer to agents that benumb or deaden causing loss Articles 1, 2, 4, 9, 12, 19, and 49 contain provisions relating to "medical and scientific" use of controlled substances. In almost all cases, parties are permitted to allow dispensation and use of controlled substances under a prescription, subject to record-keeping requirements and other restrictions. A prescription (℞ is a health-care program implemented by a Physician or other medical practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual
The Single Convention unambiguously condemns drug addiction, however, stating that "addiction to narcotic drugs constitutes a serious evil for the individual and is fraught with social and economic danger to mankind". Drug addiction is widely considered a pathological state. The disorder of addiction involves the progression of acute Drug use to the development of drug-seeking It takes a prohibitionist approach to the problem of drug addiction, attempting to stop all non-medical, non-scientific use of narcotic drugs. The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary Legislation or Religious law is a common means of attempting to control Drug use and the Article 4 requires nations to limit use and possession of drugs to medicinal and scientific purposes. Article 49 allows countries to phase out coca leaf chewing, opium smoking, and other traditional drug uses gradually, but provides that "the use of cannabis for other than medical and scientific purposes must be discontinued as soon as possible. Not to be confused with Cocoa. Coca is a Plant in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to north-western South America Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( "
The discontinuation of these prohibited uses is intended to be achieved by cutting off supply. Rather than calling on nations to prosecute drug users, the treaty focuses on traffickers and producers. As of March 2005, 116 drugs were controlled under the Single Convention.
Article 36 requires Parties to criminalize "cultivation, production, manufacture, extraction, preparation, possession, offering, offering for sale, distribution, purchase, sale, delivery on any terms whatsoever, brokerage, dispatch, dispatch in transit, transport, importation and exportation of drugs contrary to the provisions of this Convention," as well as "[i]ntentional participation in, conspiracy to commit and attempts to commit, any of such offences, and preparatory acts and financial operations in connexion with the offences referred to in this article".
The Article also provides for extradition of drug offenders, although a Party has a right to refuse to extradite a suspect if "competent authorities consider that the offense is not sufficiently serious. Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal " A 1971 amendment to the Article grants nations the discretion to substitute "treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration" for criminal penalties if the offender is a drug abuser. Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is an umbrella term for the processes of medical and/or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency A loophole in the Single Convention is that it requires Parties to place anti-drug laws on the books, but does not clearly mandate their enforcement, except in the case of drug cultivation. A loophole is a weakness or exception that allows a system such as a Law or Security, to be circumvented or otherwise avoided
Drug enforcement varies widely between nations. Many European countries, including the United Kingdom, Germany, and, most famously, the Netherlands, do not prosecute all petty drug offenses. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Dutch coffee shops are allowed to sell small amounts of cannabis to consumers. A coffeehouse ( French / Portuguese: café; Spanish: cafetería; Italian: caffè Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp However, the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport's report, Drugs Policy in the Netherlands, notes that large-scale "[p]roduction and trafficking are dealt with severely under the criminal law, in accordance with the UN Single Convention. The Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport (Dutch Ministerie van Volksgezondheid Welzijn en Sport; VWS is the public health authority Each year the Public Prosecutions Department deals with an average of 10,000 cases involving infringements of the Opium Act". Some of the most severe penalties for drug trafficking are handed down in certain Asian countries, such as Malaysia, which mandate capital punishment for offenses involving amounts over a certain threshold. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Singapore mandates the death penalty for trafficking in 15 g (half an ounce) of heroin, 30 g of cocaine or 500 g of cannabis. Singapore Most nations, such as France and the United States, find a middle ground, imposing a spectrum of sanctions ranging from probation to life imprisonment for drug offenses. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Probation is the suspension of all or part of a jail sentence the Criminal who is "on probation" has been convicted of a crime but instead of serving jail Life imprisonment or life incarceration is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime often for most
The Single Convention's penal provisions frequently begin with clauses such as "Subject to its constitutional limitations, each Party shall . . . " Thus, if a nation's constitution prohibited instituting the criminal penalties called for by the Single Convention, those provisions would not be binding on that country. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity However, Professor Cindy Fazey's A Growing Market: The Domestic Cultivation of Cannabis points out, "Whilst this strategy may be practical politics for some countries, critics will ask why it has taken almost half a century to discover that the UN conventions conflict with a constitutional principle. Cindy Fazey is a criminologist and former Chief of Demand Reduction for the United Nations Drug Control Programme. The argument is particularly difficult to deploy for countries like Britain, where constitutional principles are not formalized or codified to any significant degree. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located " However the current move in Switzerland to enshrine cannabis decriminalization in the national constitution by popular initiative could profit from this rule. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation
It is unclear whether or not the treaty requires criminalization of drug possession for personal use. The treaty's language is ambiguous, and a ruling by the International Court of Justice would probably be required to settle the matter decisively. See also International Commission of Jurists The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; Cour However, several commissions have attempted to tackle the question. With the exception of the Le Dain Commission, most have found that states are allowed to legalize possession for personal use.
The Canadian Le Dain Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs' 1972 report cites circumstantial evidence suggesting that states must prohibit possession for personal use:
However, LeDain himself concludes
The costs to a significant number of individuals, the majority of whom are young people, and to society generally, of a policy of prohibition of simple possession are not justified by the potential for harm of cannabis and the additional influence which such a policy is likely to have upon perception of harm, demand and availability. We, therefore, recommend the repeal of the prohibition against the simple possession of cannabis. LeDain report
The Canadian Department of National Health and Welfare's 1979 report, The Single Convention and Its Implications for Canadian Cannabis Policy, counters with circumstantial evidence to the contrary:
The Sackville Commission of South Australia concluded in 1978 that:
The American National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse reached a similar conclusion in 1972, finding "that the word 'possession' in Article 36 refers not to possession for personal use but to Possession as a link in illicit trafficking. The National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse was created by Public Law 91-513 to study marijuana abuse in the United States "
The Canadian Department of National Health and Welfare report cites the Commentary itself in backing up its interpretation:
The Single Convention's Schedules of drugs range from most restrictive to least restrictive, in this order: Schedule IV, Schedule I, Schedule II, Schedule III. The list of drugs initially controlled was annexed to the treaty. Article 3 states that in order for a drug to be placed in a Schedule, the World Health Organization must make the findings required for that Schedule, to wit:
Schedule I, according to the Commentary, is the category of drugs whose control provisions "constitute the standard regime under the Single Convention". The principal features of that regime are:
Schedule II drugs are regulated only slightly less strictly than Schedule I drugs. The Commentary confirms, "Drugs in Schedule II are subject to the same measures of control as drugs in Schedule I, with only a few exceptions":
Schedule III "contains preparations which enjoy a privileged position under the Single Convention, i. e. are subject to a less strict regime than other Preparations," according to the Commentary. Specifically:
Schedule IV is the category of drugs, such as heroin, that are considered to have "particularly dangerous properties" in comparison to other drugs (alcohol is left conveniently unregulated). Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon According to Article 2, "The drugs in Schedule IV shall also be included in Schedule I and subject to all measures of control applicable to drugs in the latter Schedule" as well as whatever "special measures of control"; each Party deems necessary. This is in contrast to the U. S. Controlled Substances Act, which has five Schedules ranging from Schedule I (most restrictive) to Schedule V (least restrictive), and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, which has four Schedules ranging for Schedule I (most restrictive) to Schedule IV (least restrictive). The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations Treaty designed to control Psychoactive drugs such as Amphetamines Barbiturates
Under certain circumstances, Parties are required to limit Schedule IV drugs to research purposes only:
The Commentary explains two situations in which this provision would apply:
The Commentary notes that "Whether the prohibition of drugs in Schedule IV (Cannabis and cannabis resin, desomorphine, heroin, ketobemidone) should be mandatory or only recommended was a controversial question at the Plenipotentiary Conference. Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp Desomorphine ( Dihydrodesoxymorphine, Permonid) is an Opiate analogue invented in 1933 in the United States that is a derivative of Morphine Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative Ketobemidone (Cliradon Ketogan Ketodur Cymidon Ketorax &c is a powerful Opioid Analgesic. " The provision adopted represents "a compromise which leaves prohibition to the judgement, though theoretically not to the discretion, of each Party. " The Parties are required to act in good faith in making this decision, or else they will be in violation of the treaty.
The Single Convention gives the UN Economic and Social Council's Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) power to add or delete drugs from the Schedules, in accordance with the World Health Organization's findings and recommendations. The Economic and Social Council ( ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation Commission on Narcotic Drugs is the central drug policy-making body within the United Nations system Any Party to the treaty may request an amendment to the Schedules, or request a review of the Commission's decision. The Economic and Social Council is the only body that has power to confirm, alter, or reverse the CND's scheduling decisions. The United Nations General Assembly can approve or modify any CND decision, except for scheduling decisions. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members
The CND's annual meeting serves as a forum for nations to debate drug policy. At the 2005 meeting, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Canada, Australia and Iran rallied in opposition to the UN's zero-tolerance approach in international drug policy. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Their appeal was vetoed by the United States, while the United Kingdom delegation remained reticent. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Meanwhile, U. S. Office of National Drug Control Policy Director John Walters clashed with United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Executive Director Antonio Maria Costa on the issue of needle exchange programs. The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP, a Cabinet level component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, was established in 1988 John P Walters was sworn in as the Director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP on December 7 2001. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC is a United Nations agency that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention Antonio Maria Costa is an Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations, appointed in May 2002 to the positions of Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs A hypodermic needle-exchange program is a sometimes controversial Social policy, based on the philosophy of Harm reduction where injection Walters advocated strict prohibition, while Costa opined, "We must not deny these addicts any genuine opportunities to remain HIV-negative". Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is mandated by Article 9 of the Single Convention to "endeavour to limit the cultivation, production, manufacture and use of drugs to an adequate amount required for medical and scientific purposes, to ensure their availability for such purposes and to prevent illicit cultivation, production and manufacture of, and illicit trafficking in and use of, drugs. The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding " The INCB administers the estimate system, which limits each nation's annual production of controlled substances to the estimated amounts needed for medical and scientific purposes.
Article 21 provides that "the total of the quantities of each drug manufactured and imported by any country or territory in any one year shall not exceed the sum of" the quantity:
Article 21 bis, added to the treaty by a 1971 amendment, gives the INCB more enforcement power by allowing it to deduct from a nation's production quota of cannabis, opium, and coca the amounts it determines have been produced within that nation and introduced into the illicit traffic. Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( Not to be confused with Cocoa. Coca is a Plant in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to north-western South America This could happen as a result of failing to control either illicit production or diversion of licitly produced opium to illicit purposes. In this way, the INCB can essentially punish a narcotics-exporting nation that does not control its illicit traffic by imposing an economic sanction on its medicinal narcotics industry. Economic sanctions are domestic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries on another for a variety of reasons
The Single Convention exerts power even over those nations that have not ratified it. The International Narcotics Board states:
Article 14 authorizes the INCB to recommend an embargo on imports and exports of drugs from any noncompliant nations. In international Commerce and politics, an embargo is the prohibition of commerce The INCB can also issue reports critical of noncompliant nations, and forward those reports to all Parties. This happened when the United Kingdom reclassified cannabis from Class B to class C, eliminating the threat of arrest for possession. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located See Cannabis reclassification in the United Kingdom. Cannabis reclassification in the United Kingdom refers to the transfer of cannabis to a different Class of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.
The most controversial decisions of the INCB are those in which it assumes the power to interpret the Single Convention. Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain continue to experiment with medically supervised injection rooms, despite the INCB's objections that the Single Convention's allowance of "scientific purposes" is limited to clinical trials of pharmaceutical grade drugs and not public health interventions. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. These European nations have more leverage to disregard the Board's decisions because they are not dependent on licit psychoactive drug exports (which are regulated by the Board). As international lawyer Bill Bush notes, "Because of the Tasmanian opium poppy industry, Australia is more vulnerable to political pressure than, say, Germany". Tasmania is an Australian island and state of the same name It is located south of the eastern side of the Continent, being separated from it by Bass For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
The INCB is an outspoken opponent of drug legalization. Its 2002 report rejects a common argument for drug reform, stating, "Persons in favour of legalizing illicit drug use argue that drug abusers should not have their basic rights violated; however, it does not seem to have occurred to those persons that drug abusers themselves violate the basic rights of their own family members and society. " The report dismisses concerns that drug control conflicts with principles of limited government and self-determination, arguing, "States have a moral and legal responsibility to protect drug abusers from further self-destruction. Limited Government is a government structure where any more than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and the economy is not usually allowed by Law, usually " The report takes a majoritarian view of the situation, declaring, "Governments must respect the view of the majority of lawful citizens; and those citizens are against illicit drug use". A majoritarian electoral system is one which is based on a "winner take all" principle
Article 48 designates the International Court of Justice as the arbiter of disputes about the interpretation or application of the Single Convention, if mediation, negotiation, and other forms of alternative dispute resolution fail. See also International Commission of Jurists The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; Cour Mediation, a form of Alternative dispute resolution (ADR or "appropriate Dispute resolution " aims to assist two (or more disputants in reaching For Wikipedia's negotiation policy see WikipediaNegotiation. For other uses see Negotiation (disambiguation. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes Dispute resolution processes and techniques that fall outside of the government judicial process
The Single Convention allows only drugs with morphine-like, cocaine-like, and cannabis-like effects to be added to the Schedules. The strength of the drug is not relevant; only the similarity of its effects to the substances already controlled. For instance, etorphine and acetorphine were considered sufficiently morphine-like to fall under the treaty's scope, although they are many times more potent than morphine. Etorphine ( Immobilon or M99) is a semi-synthetic Opioid possessing an Analgesic potency approximately 10000 times that of Morphine Acetorphine is a potent Analgesic drug (painkiller several thousand times stronger than Morphine by weight However, according to the Commentary:
Since cannabis is a hallucinogen (although some dispute this), the Commentary speculates that mescaline, psilocybin, tetrahydrocannabinol, and LSD could have been considered sufficiently cannabis-like to be regulated under the Single Convention; however, it opines, "It appears that the fact that the potent hallucinogenics whose abuse has spread in recent years have not been brought under international narcotics control does not result from legal reasons, but rather from the view of Governments that a regime different from that offered by the Single Convention would be more adequate. The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories Psychedelics, Dissociatives Mescaline or 345-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally-occurring Psychedelic Alkaloid of the Phenethylamine class Psilocybin (IPA /saɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic Indole of the Tryptamine family found in Psilocybin " That different regime was instituted by the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations Treaty designed to control Psychoactive drugs such as Amphetamines Barbiturates The Convention on Psychotropic Drugs' scope can include any drug not already under international control if the World Health Organization finds that:
The reason for sharply limiting the scope of Single Convention to a few types of drugs while letting the Convention on Psychotropic Drugs cover the rest was concern for the interests of industry. Professor Cindy Fazey's The Mechanics and Dynamics of the UN System for International Drug Control explains, "It should be noted that concerted efforts by drug manufacturing nations and the pharmaceutical industry ensured that the controls on psychotropics in the 1971 treaty were considerably looser than those applied to organic drugs in the Single Convention". Cindy Fazey is a criminologist and former Chief of Demand Reduction for the United Nations Drug Control Programme.
For this reason, the European Parliament, Transnational Radical Party, and other organizations have proposed removing cannabis and other drugs from the Single Convention and scheduling them under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU The Transnational Radical Party (former Radical Party, not to be confused with the Italian Radicals liberal party founded in 2001 is a political
Furthermore, the provisions of the Single Convention regarding the national supply and demand of opium to make morphine contribute to the global shortage of essential poppy-based pain relief medicines. According to the Convention, governments can only request raw poppy materials according to the amount of poppy-based medicines used in the two preceding years. Consequently, in countries where underprescription is chronic due to the high prices of morphine and lack of availability and medical training in the prescription of poppy-based drugs, it is impossible to demand enough raw poppy materials from the INCB, as the Convention's regulating body, to meet the country's pain relief needs. As such, 77% of the world's poppy-based medicine supplies are used by only six countries (See: Fischer, B J. Rehm, and T Culbert, “Opium based medicines: a mapping of global supply, demand and needs” in Spivack D. (ed. ) Feasibility Study on Opium Licensing in Afghanistan, Kabul, 2005. p. 85–86. ). Many critics of the Convention cite this as one of its primary limitations and the World Health Organisation is currently attempting to increase prescription of poppy-based drugs and to help governments of emerging countries in particular alter their internal regulations to be able to demand poppy-based medicines according to the Convention's provisions (see the WHO "Assuring Availability of Opioid Analgesics for Palliative Care"). The Senlis Council, a European drug policy thinktank, proposes creating a second-tier supply system that would complement the existing system without altering the balance of its relatively closed supply and demand system. The Senlis Council The Senlis Council is an international Think tank known for its work in Afghanistan and other conflict zones such as Iraq and The Council, who support licensing poppy cultivation in Afghanistan to create Afghan morphine, believe the opium supply in this country could go a long way to easing the pain relief needs of sufferers in emerging countries by producing a cheap poppy-based medicine solution (see [The Senlis Council]: "Poppy for Medicine".
The Single Convention places the same restrictions on cannabis cultivation that it does on opium cultivation. Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( Article 23 and Article 28 require each Party to establish a government agency to control cultivation. Cultivators must deliver their total crop to the agency, which must purchase and take physical possession of them within four months after the end of harvest. The agency then has the exclusive right of "importing, exporting, wholesale trading and maintaining stocks other than those held by manufacturers. "
In the United States, the National Institute on Drug Abuse fulfills that function. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science NIDA administers a contract with the University of Mississippi to grow a 1. The University of Mississippi, also known as Ole Miss, is a public, coeducational Research University located in Oxford 5 acre (6,000 m²) crop of cannabis every other year; that supply comprises the only licit source of cannabis for medical and research purposes in the United States. Similarly, in 2000, Prairie Plant Systems was awarded a five-year contract to grow cannabis in the Flin Flon mine for Health Canada, that nation's licit cannabis cultivation authority. Prairie Plant Systems is a Saskatoon Saskatchewan -based company established in 1988. Flin Flon (pop 5594 in 2006 census is a Canadian mining city and border city of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Health Canada ( French: Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national Public health
Article 28 specifically excludes industrial hemp from these regulations, stating, "This Convention shall not apply to the cultivation of the cannabis plant exclusively for industrial purposes (fibre and seed) or horticultural purposes. This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. " Hemp-growing countries include China, Romania, France, Germany, Netherlands, England, and Hungary. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Hemp cultivation is theoretically legal in the United States, but tight Drug Enforcement Administration restrictions would likely make it unprofitable. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and
There is some controversy over whether cannabis is "particularly liable to abuse and to produce ill effects" and whether that "liability is not offset by substantial therapeutic advantages," as required by Schedule IV criteria. In particular, the discovery of the cannabinoid receptor system in the late 1980s revolutionized scientific understanding of cannabis' effects, and much anecdotal evidence has come to light about the drug's medical uses. The cannabinoid receptors are a class of receptors under the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily The Canadian Senate committee's report notes,
The Commentary points out the theoretical possibility of removing cannabis from Schedule IV:
Cindy Fazey, former Chief of Demand Reduction for the United Nations Drug Control Programme, has pointed out that it would be nearly impossible to loosen international cannabis regulations. Cindy Fazey is a criminologist and former Chief of Demand Reduction for the United Nations Drug Control Programme. The United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP and the United Nations Centre for International Crime Prevention (CICP are part of the United Nations Office Even if the Commission on Narcotic Drugs removed cannabis from Schedule IV of the Single Convention, prohibitions against the plant would remain imbedded in Article 28 and other parts of the treaty. Fazey cited amendment of the Articles and state-by-state denunciation as two theoretical possibilities for changing cannabis' international legal status, while pointing out that both face substantial barriers. See Cannabis reform at the international level. Cannabis reform at the international level refers to efforts to ease restrictions on cannabis use under international treaties
There have been several lawsuits over whether cannabis' Schedule IV status under the Single Convention requires total prohibition at the national level. The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary Legislation or Religious law is a common means of attempting to control Drug use and the In 1970, the U. S. Congress enacted the Controlled Substances Act to implement the UN treaty, placing marijuana into Schedule I on the advice of Assistant Secretary of Health Roger O. Egeberg. The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Roger Olaf Egeberg MD ( 13 November 1903 – 12 September or 13 September 1997) in addition to serving as General Douglas MacArthur His letter to Harley O. Staggers, Chairman of the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, indicates that the classification was intended to be provisional:
The reference to "certain studies" is to the then-forthcoming National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse. The National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse was created by Public Law 91-513 to study marijuana abuse in the United States In 1972, the Commission released a report favoring decriminalization of marijuana. The Richard Nixon administration took no action to implement the recommendation, however. In 1972, the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws filed a rescheduling petition under provisions of the Act. The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws ( NORML, ˈnɔrməl is a Washington D The government declined to initiate proceedings on the basis of their interpretation of U. S. treaty commitments. A federal Court ruled against the government and ordered them to process the petition (NORML v. Ingersoll 497 F. 2d 654 (1974)). The government continued to rely on treaty commitments in their interpretation of scheduling related issues concerning the NORML petition, leading to another lawsuit (NORML v. DEA 559 F. 2d 735 (1977)). In this decision, the Court made clear that the Act requires a full scientific and medical evaluation and the fulfillment of the rescheduling process before treaty commitments can be evaluated. See Cannabis rescheduling in the United States. Removal of cannabis from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act refers to the proposed removal of Cannabis from Schedule I the most tightly-restricted category of
Cannabis leaves (as opposed to buds) are a special case. The Canadian Health Protection Branch's Cannabis Control Policy: A Discussion Paper found that, while the Single Convention requires nations to take measures against the misuse of, and illicit traffic in, cannabis buds, a ban is not required on licit production, distribution, and use of the leaves:
Article 44 provided that the Single Convention's entry into force terminated several predecessor treaties, including:
The Single Convention is supplemented by two other major drug control treaties: