Until the baroque era, the differences between concerto and sinfonia (or: symphony), had not been all that clear. Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a three part musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an Orchestra Sinfonia is the Italian (Spanish and also Portuguese word for Symphony (see that article for etymology Sinfonia was also used as the name for an ouverture to a stage work; for example, Antonio Vivaldi wrote concertos without discernible soloists, which stylistically have few differences compared to his sinfonias. Overture ( French ouverture meaning opening in Music is the instrumental introduction to a Dramatic choral or occasionally The baroque genre that comes closest to the sinfonia concertante is the concerto grosso. The concerto grosso ( Italian for big concert(o, Plural concerti grossi) is a form of Baroque music in which the musical material
By the classical era, both the symphony and the concerto had a more definite meaning (and the concerto grosso had disappeared altogether), which led in the last decades of the 18th century to composers, such as those in the Mannheim school, attempting to produce a cross-over between the two genres. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Mannheim school refers to both the orchestral techniques pioneered by the court orchestra of Mannheim in the latter half of the 18th century as well as the group of composers Johann Christian Bach, the "London Bach", was publishing symphonies concertantes in Paris from the early 1770s on. Johann Christian Bach ( September 5, 1735 &ndash January 1, 1782) was a Composer of the Classical era the eleventh and Mozart, acquainted with the Mannheim school from 1777 and probably not unaware of J. Year 1777 ( MDCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common C. Bach's publications, put considerable effort into attempts to produce convincing sinfonia concertantes.
His most successful concertante symphonies are the following:
Joseph Haydn, who wrote over 100 symphonies as well as a number of concertos for all kinds of instruments, produced three sinfonia concertante, No. 's 6-8. However, this sinfonia concertante draws much more from the "Concerto Grosso" style than from Mozart's more symphonic treatment of the genre. The Sinfonia Concertante in B flat major, Hob I/105 by Joseph Haydn was composed in 1792
Beethoven seems to have avoided the risky sinfonia concertante genre, although some say his Triple concerto is his answer to that genre . Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Ludwig van Beethoven 's Concerto for Violin Cello and Piano in C major Op
Few composers still called their compositions sinfonia concertante after the classical music era. However, some works such as Hector Berlioz' Harold in Italy, for viola and orchestra approach the genre. Harold en Italie (English Harold in Italy Symphony with Viola obbligato) Op The viola is a bowed String instrument. It is the middle voice of the Violin family,
Camille Saint-Saëns' Symphony No. 3 features an organ that is partially immersed in the orchestral sound, but also has several distinct solo passages. Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (/ʃaʁl kamij sɛ̃sɑ̃s/ (9 October 1835 &ndash 16 December 1921 was a French Composer, Organist, conductor, and The Symphony No 3 in C minor Op 78 was completed by Camille Saint-Saëns in 1886 at what was probably the artistic zenith of his career The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon "organ instrument tool" is a Keyboard instrument of one or more divisions each The second half of this work also features a semi-soloistic part for piano four hands.
By the end of the 19th century, several French composers had started using the sinfonia concertante technique in symphonic poems, for example, Saint-Saëns uses a violin in Danse macabre, and César Franck a piano in Les Djinns. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of Orchestral Music in one movement in which some extramusical program provides a narrative or illustrative element Danse Macabre (first performed in 1875) is the name of opus 40 by French composer Camille Saint-Saëns. César Franck (December 10 1822 – November 8 1890 a Composer, Organist and music teacher of Belgian and German origin who lived in France
Richard Strauss' Don Quixote (1897) uses several soloists to depict the main characters, namely cello, viola, bass clarinet and tuba. Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 &ndash 8 September 1949 was a German Composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era particularly noted Don Quixote, op 35 is a composition by Richard Strauss for Cello, Viola and Large orchestra.
Édouard Lalo's most known work, the Symphonie Espagnole, is in fact a sinfonia concertante for violin and orchestra. Édouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo ( 27 January 1823 &ndash 22 April 1892) was a French Composer of Spanish descent The Symphonie Espagnole is a work for Violin and Orchestra by Edouard Lalo, his Opus 21 in D minor. The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member
A work in the same vein, but with the piano taking the "concertante" part is Vincent d'Indy's Symphonie Cévenole (Symphony on a French Mountain Air). Paul Marie Théodore Vincent d'Indy (March 27 1851 &ndash December 2 1931 was a French Composer and teacher The Symphonie sur un chant montagnard français ( English: Symphony on a French Mountain Air) op Likewise, Henry Charles Litolff wrote five Concerto Symphoniques, also with a piano obbligato,. Henry Charles Litolff ( 6 February 1818 &ndash August 5 1891) was a keyboard Virtuoso and Composer of Romantic In classical music obbligato usually describes a musical line that is in some way indispensable in performance
Max Bruch explored the boundaries of the solistic and symphonic genres in the Scottish Fantasy (violin soloist), Kol Nidrei (cello soloist), and Serenade (violin soloist). Max Christian Friedrich Bruch (January 6 1838 &ndash October 2 1920 also known as Max Karl August Bruch was a German Romantic Composer and conductor The Scottish Fantasy in E-flat major op 46 is a composition for Violin and Orchestra by Max Bruch. Kol Nidrei, Op 47 is a composition for Cello and Orchestra written by Max Bruch. The violoncello (abbreviated to cello, or 'cello, plural cellos or celli —the c is tʃ
Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade can be considered a sinfonia concertante for violin and orchestra. Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov ( Николай Андреевич Римский-Корсаков, Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov) also Nikolay Scheherazade ( Шехерезада in Cyrillic, Šekherezada in transliteration Op
In the 20th century, some composers such as George Enescu, Frank Martin, William Walton and Malcolm Williamson again used the name sinfonia concertante for their compositions. George Enescu (pronunciation in Romanian: /'ʤěorʤe e'nesku/ known in France as Georges Enesco) ( August 19 1881, Liveni &ndash Frank Martin ( September 15, 1890 &ndash November 21, 1974) was a Swiss Composer, who lived Sir William Turner Walton, OM ( March 29, 1902 &ndash March 8, 1983) was a British Composer and Malcolm Benjamin Graham Christopher Williamson AO (honorary CBE (21 November 1931 – 2 March 2003 was an Australian Composer and Master of the Prokofiev called his work for cello and orchestra Symphony-Concerto, stressing its serious symphonic character, in contrast to the light character of the Classical period sinfonia concertante. Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Серге́й Серге́евич Проко́фьев Sergéj Sergéjevič Prokófjev) ( - 5 March 1953 was a Russian composer who Sergei Prokofiev 's Symphony-Concerto in E minor (sometimes also called Sinfonia Concertante) is a large-scale work for Cello and Orchestra. Martin's work, more reminiscent of the classical works with multiple soloists, features a piano, a harpsichord, and a harp. Karol Szymanowski also composed a sinfonia concertante (for solo piano and orchestra), also known as Szymanowski's Symphony No. Karol Maciej Szymanowski (3 October 1882 in Tymoszówka (present-day Ukraine) – 28 March 1937 was a Polish Composer and Pianist Karol Maciej Szymanowski (3 October 1882 in Tymoszówka (present-day Ukraine) – 28 March 1937 was a Polish Composer and Pianist 4 "Symphonie-Concertante. " Another example is Joseph Jongen's 1926 Symphonie Concertante Op. Joseph Jongen ( December 14, 1873 &ndash July 12, 1953) was a Belgian Organist, Composer, and Music Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 81, with an organ soloist, and Peter Maxwell Davies's Sinfonia Concertante for wind quintet, timpani and string orchestra 1982. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, CBE (b 8 September 1934 is an English Composer and conductor. A wind quintet, also sometimes known as a woodwind quintet, is a group of five wind players (most commonly flute, Oboe, clarinet, horn Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) The symphonies of the Czech composer Bohuslav Martinů feature a piano, as do most of Martinů's orchestral works, however they are still labeled as symphonies. Bohuslav Martinů ( (December 8 1890 – August 28 1959 was a prolific Bohemian Czech Composer, who wrote six symphonies, 15 Operas
Also P. D. Q. Bach produced a (spoofical) "Sinfonia Concertante". P D Q Bach is a fictional composer invented by musical satirist "Professor" Peter Schickele.