The Sibylline Oracles (sometimes called the "pseudo-Sibylline Oracles") are a collection of oracular utterances written in Greek hexameters ascribed to the Sibyls, prophetesses who uttered divine revelations in a frenzied state. Dactylic Hexameter (also known as "heroic hexameter" is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme The word sibyl probably comes (via Latin) from the Greek word sibylla, meaning Prophetess (Other schools of thought suggest that the word Twelve books of Sibylline Oracles survive. These are not considered to be the famous Sibylline Books of Roman history, which have been lost, but a collection of utterances that were composed under various circumstances from the middle of the second century BC to the fifth century AD. The Sibylline Books or Libri Sibyllini were a collection of oracular utterances set out in Greek Hexameters purchased from a Sibyl The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC. The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era.
The pseudo-Sibylline texts are a valuable source for information about Classical mythology and early first millennium Gnostic, Jewish and Christian beliefs. Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems Hellenistic Judaism was a movement which existed in the Jewish diaspora before the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD that sought to establish a Hebraic-Jewish Early Christianity is commonly defined as the Christianity of the three centuries between the Crucifixion of Jesus ( c Some apocalyptic passages scattered throughout seem to adumbrate themes of John's Book of Revelation and other Apocalyptic literature. The Book of Revelation, also called Revelation to John, Apocalypse of John ( pronounced, from the Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰωάννου In places the oracles have also undergone extensive editing, re-writing, and redaction, as they came to be exploited in wider circles.
In one instance a passage has a Christian code-phrase in successive first letters on each line (an 'acrostic'). An acrostic (from the late Greek akróstichon, from ákros, "top" and stíchos, "verse" is a Poem or other Writing
The oldest of the surviving Sibylline oracles seem to be books 3-5, which were composed partly by Jews in Alexandria. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια The third oracle seems to have been composed in the reign of Ptolemy VI Philometor. Ptolemy VI Philometor ( Greek: grc Πτολεμαῖος Φιλομήτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philomḗtōr, ca Books 1-2 may have been written by Christians, though again there may have been a Jewish original that was adapted to Christian purposes.
All the oracles seem to have undergone later revision, enrichment, and adaptation by editors and authors of different religions, who added similar texts, all in the interests of their respective religions. The Sibylline oracles are therefore a pastiche of Greek and Roman pagan mythology, employing motifs of Homer and Hesiod; Judeo-Christian legends such as the Garden of Eden, Noah and the Tower of Babel; Gnostic and early Christian homilies and eschatological writings; and thinly veiled references to historical figures such as Alexander the Great and Cleopatra, and there are many allusions to the events of the later Roman Empire, often portraying Rome in a negative light. The word pastiche describes a literary or other artistic Genre. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Hesiod ( Greek: Hesiodos) was an early Greek Poet and Rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BCE Not to be confused with Eden Gardens.The Garden of Eden ( Hebrew "pleasure" גַּן עֵדֶן Arabic: جنات عدن, Noah (or Noe, Noach;; Nūḥ; Arabic: نوح; "Rest") was according to the Bible, the tenth and last of The Tower of Babel (מגדל בבל Migdal Bavel برج بابل Burj Babil) is a structure featured in chapter 11 of the Book of Genesis, an enormous Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems A homily is a commentary that follows a reading of scripture In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and in the Eastern Orthodox Church Eschatology (from the Greek, Eschatos meaning "last" and -logy meaning "the study of" is a part of Theology Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC &ndash 30 BC was a Hellenistic ruler of Egypt The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
Some have suggested that the surviving texts may include some fragments or remnants of the Sibylline Books with a legendary provenance from the Cumaean Sibyl, which had been kept in temples in Rome. The Sibylline Books or Libri Sibyllini were a collection of oracular utterances set out in Greek Hexameters purchased from a Sibyl The ageless Cumaean Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian Oracle at Cumae, a Greek colony located near Naples, Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The original oracular books in Rome were destroyed by fire in 83 BC, which resulted in an attempt in 76 BC to recollect them when the Roman senate sent envoys throughout the world to discover copies. Year 83 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Sulla returns to Italy from his campaigns Year 76 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Salome Alexandra becomes queen of Judea This official copy existed until at least AD 405, but little is known of their contents. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Stilicho orders the Sibylline Books burned
That use of the Sibylline Oracles was not always exclusive to Christians is shown by an extract from Book III concerning the Tower of Babel as quoted by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, in the late 1st century AD. The Tower of Babel (מגדל בבל Migdal Bavel برج بابل Burj Babil) is a structure featured in chapter 11 of the Book of Genesis, an enormous Josephus (AD 37 – c 100 also known as Yosef Ben Matityahu (Joseph son of Matthias and after he became a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus The 1st century was the Century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Julian calendar.
The Christian apologist Athenagoras of Athens, writing A Plea for the Christians to Marcus Aurelius in ca. Athenagoras (ca 133-190 was a Christian Apologist who lived during the second half of the 2nd century of whom little is known for certain besides that he was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (often referred to as "the wise" ( April 26, 121 – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor AD 176, quoted the same section of the extant Oracles verbatim, in the midst of a lengthy series of classical and pagan references including Homer and Hesiod, and stated several times that all these works should already be familiar to the Roman Emperor. Events By Place Roman Empire November 27 — Commodus becomes co-emperor to his father Marcus Aurelius. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Hesiod ( Greek: Hesiodos) was an early Greek Poet and Rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BCE
The sibyls themselves, and the so-called Sibylline oracles, were often referred to by other early Church fathers; Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch (ca. The word sibyl probably comes (via Latin) from the Greek word sibylla, meaning Prophetess (Other schools of thought suggest that the word There is also a Theophilus of Alexandria ( c AD 412 Theophilus, Patriarch of Antioch, succeeded Eros c 180), Clement of Alexandria (ca. Events By place Roman Empire The praetorian prefect Tarutenius Paternus achieved a decisive victory against the Quadi Saint Clement of Alexandria (born Titus Flavius Clemens) (c150 - 211/216 was the first notable member of the Church of Alexandria, and one of its most 200), Lactantius (ca. Events By Place World Human population reaches about 257 million Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius? Firmianus Lactantius was an Early Christian author (ca 305), and Augustine (ca. Events By Place Roman Empire May 1 — Diocletian and Maximian, Emperors of Rome retire from office 400), all knew various versions of the pseudo-Sibylline collections, quoted them or referred to them in paraphrase, and were unreluctant to Christianize them, by as simple means as inserting "Son of God" into a passage, as Lactantius:
Some fragmentary verses that do not appear in the collections that survive, are only known because they were quoted by a Church Father. Justin Martyr (ca. Saint Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher, Latin Iustinus Martyr or Flavius 150), if he is truly the author of the Hortatory Address to the Greeks, gives such a circumstantial account of the Cumaean sibyl that the Address is quoted here at the Cumaean sibyl's entry. The ageless Cumaean Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian Oracle at Cumae, a Greek colony located near Naples, The Catholic Encyclopedia states, "Through the decline and disappearance of paganism, however, interest in them gradually diminished and they ceased to be widely read or circulated, though they were known and used during the Middle Ages in both the East and the West. The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language Encyclopedia published by The Encyclopedia " A student may find echoes of their imagery and style in much early medieval literature, nevertheless.
These books, in spite of their pagan content, have sometimes been described as part of the Pseudepigrapha. Pseudepigrapha (from Ancient Greek ψευδής They do not appear in the canonical lists of any Church.
Large collections of these Jewish and Christian oracles are still in existence. When they were recovered in the 16th century, their initial publication caused a sensation among scholars. In 1545 Xystus Betuleius (Sixt Birck of Augsburg) published at Basel an edition of eight books of oracles with a preface dating from perhaps the sixth century AD, and the next year a version set in Latin verse appeared. Sixt or Sixtus Birck, as Xystus Betuleius ( February 24 1501 — June 19 1554) was a German humanist of Augsburg Augsburg is an independent City in the south-west of Bavaria. "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly. Better manuscripts were used by Johannes Opsopoeus (Johannes Koch), whose edition appeared at Paris in 1599. The next edition was that in Andrea Gallandi's Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum (Venice, 1765, 1788). Andrea Gallandi (born at Venice, 7 December[[ 709]] died there 12 January, 1779, or 1780 was an Italian Oratorian and Patristic In 1817 Angelo Mai edited a further book, from a manuscript in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana at Milan (Codex Ambrosianus) and later he discovered four more books, in the Vatican Library, none of which were continuations of the eight previously printed, but an independent collection. Angelo Mai ( March 7, 1782 &ndash September 8, 1854) was an Italian Cardinal and Philologist. The Biblioteca Ambrosiana is a historical Library in Milan, also housing the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana art gallery Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. The Vatican Library ( Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the Library of the Holy See, currently located in Vatican City. These are numbered XI to XIV in later editions. Several fragments of oracles taken from the works of Theophilus and Lactantius, printed in the later editions, show that even more Sibylline oracles formerly existed. In the course of the 19th century, better texts also became available for the parts previously published. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar
The so-called Sibylline oracles are couched in classical hexameter verses. Hexameter is a literary and poetic form consisting of six metrical feet per line as in the Iliad. The contents are of the most varied character and for the most part contain references to peoples, kingdoms, cities, rulers, temples, etc. It is futile to attempt to read any order into their plan or any connected theme. The Catholic Encyclopedia suggests that