Shudra (IAST: Śūdra) is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Hindu society. The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration ( IAST) is a popular Transliteration scheme that allows a lossless Romanization of Indic Varna (sa वर्ण varṇa) is a Sanskrit term derived from the root meaning "to enclose" A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Their assigned and expected role in post-Vedic India was that of labourers. The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the History of India during which the Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism, were being The four Varnas are Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaisya, Shudra. Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism. Kshatriya (क्षत्रिय kṣatriya from क्षत्र kṣatra) is one of the four varnas (social orders in Hinduism The Hindu varna (class System, a Vaishya ( Sanskrit वैश्य vaiśya) is a member of the third of the four classes of traditional
Whilst the origins of the other varnas can be traced to Indo-Aryan or even Proto-Indo-European words, the root of the word is not clear at all. The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic) are a branch of the Indo-European language family A threefold division of societies can be found in ancient Iran that matches the Brahmin, Kshatriya and Vaisya varnas. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. However, the linguistically related Nuristani people in neighboring Afghanistan have a class equivalent to the Shudras amongst them. The Nuristani people are an Ethnic group found mostly in Laghman Province and Nurestan Province of Afghanistan. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, 
But the latter groups are also encountered in the Avestan texts and no subjugation is mentioned, though enmity is. The Avesta is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the Avestan language. This is because the Dasa, Dasyus or Pani as they are sometimes referred to were Iranic. The Iranians call themselves "Dahyu"(which means tribe, province, and district. ). Panini was a Pashtun Brahmin scholar of Sanskrit grammar. Pashtuns ( Pashto: پښتون Paṣtūn, Paxtūn, also rendered as Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns) also called Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism. . So then this suggests that the Dasa were merely a tribe. The ancient texts of India portray no such subjugation by conquest resulting in servile group of people, but merely assume that the Shudras are part of society, even if not the most exalted.
The etymology of the word can be traced back to the vedic age. Shudra comes from the word "shuchAt dravanam" a person who is in suffering/mourning/pain, who needs mental or physical cleansing. Shudra was a common Sanskrit word, any person regardless of his/her varna to could be addressed as shudra. An implied version of this common form has become traditionally associated with the varna system. It is also mentioned in the purusha-sukta of Rig veda where shudras are said to have emanated from the feet of the lord (padbhyAm shUdrO ajaayata). The Rigveda ( Sanskrit sa ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise verse" and veda "knowledge" A very symbolic statement indeed. It denotes that the three other varnas which made up the parts of purusha (the lord) were supported by the shUdras as the feet form the supporting system of the entire body. This can be understood clearly from the fact that the shudras were basically farmers, potters, cobblers etc (anything the other three varnas would not do viz, teaching, fighting and trade) and hence they formed a support system for the entire society. Unfortunately, direct misinterpretations of these vedic hymns have caused a lot of unrest and confusion in the modern Hindu society.
The theoretical and the original varnas carried to its extreme in the ages following the 'Vedic' period. Jātis (in Devanagari: जाति (the word literally means births) is the term used to denote communities and sub-communities in India Varna (Варна is the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv Every Jāti claimed to belong to some Varna.
Local variations of Jāti sub-castes exist wit the Shudra caste. Jātis (in Devanagari: जाति (the word literally means births) is the term used to denote communities and sub-communities in India A sub-caste is a local endogenous group practising a lower end Shudras will be untouchable Dalits. Dalit is a self designation for group of people of South Asian descent who were traditionally regarded as untouchables or low Caste.
Maharishi Angira considered as creator of Rig Ved belonged to Jangid Brhamin Community and his successors known as khati
It is commonly believed that the caste division is somewhat uniform in North Indian society compared to South Indian society. However some prominent rulers of North India were believed to have originated from the Shudra caste. Ex: The Nandas and the Mauryas.
Even today, the ruling coalitions of the Nardaz in most of the North Indian provinces like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh are dominated by political parties that either overtly or covertly represent the interests and identities of the Shudra sections (called the 'other backward castes' or OBCs by the politically correct. ) Examples include the Samajwadi Party, at the head of the ruling coalition in India's biggest state UP and deriving most of its support from the Yadav (Ahir) tribe/caste and the Samata Party, at the head of Bihar's ruling coalition, which gets most of its support from the Kurmi OBC.
OBC does not means Sudra status. OBC is very flexible group and changes state to state. One community/caste is OBC in one state but not in other state. Here are some examples, Banias are OBCs in Bihar but not in other states, Rajputs are OBC in Karnataka and Gujarat but not in other state. Kurmis are OBC in UP,MP,Bihar but not in Gujarat. Dr Ambedkar investigated thoroughly the vast Hindu literature and wrote the book "who were Shudras". He proposed that shudras varna was developed by brahmins to punish tyrannical kshatriyas.
South Indian society makes more sense from feudal angle than caste angle. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed Here, both the dominant castes and weaker castes are classified under Shudras. This caste model is also true for Bengal, Orissa, and Assam. Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang Orissa (ଓଡ଼ିଶା is a state located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. Assam) ( Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Hence the mapping of four varnas over these areas is incomplete. Varna (sa वर्ण varṇa) is a Sanskrit term derived from the root meaning "to enclose"
In South India, they rank next to the Brahmin. 
The caste system that made feudal families in all over South India an endogenous unit was readily accepted even though Brahmins didn't exactly give Kshatriya and Vaishya status to all the warrior and merchant communities. Kshatriya (क्षत्रिय kṣatriya from क्षत्र kṣatra) is one of the four varnas (social orders in Hinduism The Hindu varna (class System, a Vaishya ( Sanskrit वैश्य vaiśya) is a member of the third of the four classes of traditional Mostly the Brahmins acquired land and until land reforms in twentieth century, were feudal lords. Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government
It could be debated if the people of South India really realized (when it comes to weaker castes) or cared (when it comes to dominant castes), their position in caste hierarchy. Also, most importantly whether many communities even think they were part of the caste system, since if one removes the Vedic part of Brahmanical Hinduism, there isn't much difference between Brahmin worship and native Dravidian worship. Dravidian peoples refers to the peoples that natively speak languages belonging to the Dravidian language family.
Many South Indian communities had their own temples and priests. However, the universal education during British period and the Western concepts of community identity caused the development of caste consciousness in South Indian society (the clan identities were present and those could be within the caste too). In Tamil Nadu it resulted in the dominant castes asserting themselves through the Dravidian movement against the caste system in general and Brahmins in particular. Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. The Self-Respect Movement was founded in 1925 by EV Ramasami Naicker (also known as Periyar in Tamil Nadu, India. In Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh it resulted in dominant castes claiming higher caste positions. Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ pronounced) is a state in the southern part of India
The three castes, viz. Brahmanas and the next [Kshatriyas and Vaishyas], were produced from the face, the arms and the thighs of the Lord; and for their support was born the fourth caste from His feet. That this caste is purer than the former [three] is self-evident; for this caste was born along with the river Ganges [which also springs from his feet], the purifier of the three worlds. The members of this caste are eagerly attentive to their duties, not wicked, pure-minded, and are devoid of passion and other such blemishes; they ably bear all the burdens of the earth by helping those born in the kingly caste.
Another inscription relates how his relative Kapaya-Nayaka "rescued the Andhra country from the ravages of the Mohammedans". 
Shudra as a Varna is seen amongst the Hindus of Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bali in Indonesia. Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Bali is an Indonesian Island located at, the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. In Bali, Indonesia they form 97% of the practicing Hindu population (See Balinese caste system). The Balinese caste system is a system of social organization similar to the Indian caste system. During the historic period many people in Java, Cambodia and Champa (a region in Vietnam) were considered to be Shudras prior to their conversion to Islam and Buddhism. Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East The kingdom of Champa ( Chăm Pa in Vietnamese or Chiêm Thành in Hán Việt records was an Indianized kingdom and controlled what Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially