People of the Pali canon
Lay devotee (m. In religious organizations the laity comprises all persons who are not Clergy. Precepts The five vows to be held by upāsakas are referred to as the " Five Precepts " (Pāli pañcasīla) I will not take In English translations of Buddhist literature, householder denotes a variety of terms In English translations of Buddhist literature, householder denotes a variety of terms , f. )
A Shramana (Sanskrit श्रमण śramaṇa, Pāli शमण samaṇa) is a wandering monk in certain ascetic traditions of ancient India, including Jainism, Buddhism, and Ājīvika religion (now extinct). In English translations of Buddhist literature, householder denotes a variety of terms Ājīvika (also written Ajivika or Ajivaka) was an ancient philosophical and ascetic movement of the Indian subcontinent Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism. Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid. Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India. The term mendicant (Latin mendicans, begging refers to Begging or relying on charitable donations and is most widely used for religious followers or Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Ājīvika (also written Ajivika or Ajivaka) was an ancient philosophical and ascetic movement of the Indian subcontinent Famous śramaṇa include religious leaders Mahavira and Gautama Buddha. Mahavira (महावीर lit Great Hero) (599 – 527 BCE is the name most commonly used to refer to the Indian sage Vardhamana ( Sanskrit: वर्धमान Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder
Traditionally, a śramaṇa is one who performs acts of mortification or austerity. For the Christian metal band see Mortification (band. For the record label see Mortification Records. In Economics, austerity is when a national government reduces its spending in order to pay back Creditors Austerity is usually required when a government's fiscal According to typical śramaṇa worldviews, a śramaṇa is responsible for their own deeds. Salvation, therefore, may be achieved by anybody irrespective of caste, creed, color or culture (in contradistinction to certain historical caste-based traditions). Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. The cycle of rebirth (saṃsāra) to which every individual is subject is viewed as the cause and substratum of misery. The goal of every person is to evolve a way to escape from the cycle of rebirth, namely by discounting ritual as a means of emancipation and establishing from the misery of saṃsāra, through pious religious activities.
The Sanskrit word śramaṇa is derived from the Sanskrit verbal root śram "to exert, effort, labor or to perform austerity". Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Śramaṇa thus means "one who strives" in Sanskrit.
A traditional Sanskrit definition is śramati tapasyatīti śramaṇaḥ ("a śramaṇa is he who exerts himself and performs religious austerities"). One of the earliest uses of the word is in Taittiriya Aranyaka (2-7-1) with the meaning of 'performer of austerities'. The Aranyakas (Sanskrit आरण्यक āraṇyaka) are part of the Hindu śruti, the four Vedas these religious texts were composed in
Buddhist commentaries associate the word's etymology with the quieting (samita) of evil (pāpa) as in the following phrase from the Dhammapada, verse 265: samitattā pāpānaŋ ʻsamaṇoʼ ti pavuccati ("someone who has pacified evil is called 'samaṇa'"). The Dhammapada ( Pāli; Prakrit: Dhamapada; Sanskrit Dharmapada; sometimes translated into English as Path of the
Various forms of the word became known throughout Central and East Asia, largely through the spread of Buddhism in that area. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices According to a still disputed etymology, the word shaman, used by the Tungus people for their religious practitioners, may be borrowed from a local variant of the word śramaṇa. The Evenks or Evenki (autonym Эвэнкил Evenkil; Эвенки Evenki; 鄂温克族 pny ''Èwēnkè Zú'' formerly known as Tungus
Several śramaṇa movements are known to have existed before the 6th century BCE, where they peaked during the times of Mahavira and Buddha. The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC. Śramaṇas adopted a path alternate to the Vedic rituals to achieve salvation, while renouncing household life. This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period see Hinduism and Indian religions for details In English translations of Buddhist literature, householder denotes a variety of terms They typically engaged in three types of activities: austerities, meditation, and associated theories (or views). As spiritual authorities, at times śramaṇa were at variance with traditional Brahmin authority, and they often recruited members from Brahmin communities themselves, such as Cānakya and Śāriputra. Chanakya Sanskrit: चाणक्य Cāṇakya) (c 350-283 BC was an adviser and a Prime minister to the first Maurya Emperor Śāriputra ( Sanskrit: शारिपुत्र or Sāriputta ( Pāli) was one of two principal disciples of The Buddha.
|The Views of Six Samana in the Pali Canon|
(based on the Sāmaññaphala Sutta1)
|Question: "Is it possible to point out the fruit of the|
contemplative life, visible in the here and now?"1
|Amoralism: denies any reward or|
punishment for either good or bad deeds. Pūraṇa Kassapa was an Indian ascetic teacher who lived around the 5th or 4th c Amorality is the quality of existence in which the concept of Morality (or Right and wrong) is invalid
|Fatalism: we are powerless;|
suffering is pre-destined. Makkhali Gosala ( Pāli; BHS: Maskarin Gośāla Jain Prakrit sources Gosala Mankhaliputta was an ascetic teacher of ancient India Fatalism is a Philosophical doctrine emphasizing the subjugation of all events or actions to fate or inevitable predetermination
with death, all is annihilated. Ajita Kesakambali(n, was an ancient Indian philosopher in the 6th century BC The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism.
|Eternalism: Matter, pleasure, pain and|
the soul are eternal and do not interact. Pakudha Kaccāyana was an Indian Brahmin ascetic teacher who lived around the 5th or 4th c Sasatavada (English eternalism/perpetualism is the Pali term for the Buddhist doctrine of eternal becoming or eternal life "one life after another" or
|Restraint: be endowed with, cleansed by|
and suffused with the avoidance of all evil. Mahavira (महावीर lit Great Hero) (599 – 527 BCE is the name most commonly used to refer to the Indian sage Vardhamana ( Sanskrit: वर्धमान Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. 2
|Agnosticism: "I don't think so. Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta (literally "Sanjaya of the Belattha clan" was an Indian ascetic teacher who lived around the 5th or 4th c Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the I don't think in|
that way or otherwise. I don't think not or not not. "
|Notes:||1. DN 2 (Thanissaro, 1997; Walshe, 1995, pp. The Samaññaphala Sutta is the second discourse ( Pali, sutta; Skt 91-109). |
2. DN-a (Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi, 1995, pp. The Digha Nikaya (dīghanikāya "Collection of Long Discourses" is a Buddhist scripture the first of the five Nikayas or collections Atthakatha ( Pali for explanation commentary refers to Pali-language Theravadin Buddhist commentaries to the canonical Theravadin Tipitaka. 1258-59, n. 585).
Mahāvīra, the 24th Jina, and Gautama Buddha were leaders of their śramaṇa orders. Mahavira (महावीर lit Great Hero) (599 – 527 BCE is the name most commonly used to refer to the Indian sage Vardhamana ( Sanskrit: वर्धमान Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder According to Jain literature and the Buddhist Pali Canon, there were also some other śramaṇa leaders at that time . Thus, in the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta (DN 16), a śramaṇa named Subhadda mentions:
Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta (Pāli; Skt. : Nirgrantha Jñātaputra) refers to Mahāvīra. Mahavira (महावीर lit Great Hero) (599 – 527 BCE is the name most commonly used to refer to the Indian sage Vardhamana ( Sanskrit: वर्धमान In regard to the above other teachers identified in the Pali Canon, Jain literature mentions Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla and Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta. (The Pali Canon is the only source for Ajita Kesakambalī and Pakudha Kaccāyana. )
Gautama Buddha regarded rigorous asceticism extreme and not leading to enlightenment. Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid. Accordingly, he rejected ascetic methods, and adopted the "middle way. In general the Middle Way or Middle Path ( madhyamā-pratipad; ṭṭipadā) is the Buddhist practice of non-extremism " Devadatta, a cousin of Gautama, caused a split in the Buddhist saṅgha by demanding more rigorous practices. Devadatta (देवदत्त was a Buddhist monk as well as the cousin of Gautama Buddha, who was recorded as having created a schism in the Sangha This article concerns the concept of Sangha in Buddhism. For information on other senses see Sangha (disambiguation. Followers of Mahāvīra also continued to practice asceticism. Mahavira (महावीर lit Great Hero) (599 – 527 BCE is the name most commonly used to refer to the Indian sage Vardhamana ( Sanskrit: वर्धमान
The śramaṇa idea of wandering began to change early in Buddhism: The bhikṣu started living in monasteries (Pali, Skt. A Bhikkhu ( Pāli) or Bhiksu ( Sanskrit) is a fully ordained male Buddhist Monastic. vihāra), at first during the rainy seasons, but eventually permanently. In medieval Jainism also, the tradition of wandering waned, but it got revived in the 19th century. Similar changes have regularly occurred in Buddhism.
Indian philosophy is a confluence of Śramaṇic and Vedic streams that co-existed and influenced each other. The term Indian philosophy (Sanskrit Darshanas) may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought that originated in the Indian subcontinent  Śramaṇas held a pessimistic world view of samsara as full of suffering. They believed in Ahimsa and rigorous ascetic practices. Ahimsa ( Devanagari: sa अहिंसा IAST ahiṃsā is a Sanskrit term meaning Non-violence (literally the avoidance of violence - They believed in Karma and Moksa and viewed re-birth as undesirable. Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म, kárman - "act action performance" Pali: kamma) is the concept of "action" In Indian religions, Moksha ( Sanskrit: sa मोक्ष mokṣa) or Mukti ( Sanskrit: sa मुक्ति literally "release" As opposed to Śramaṇas, Vedics held an optimistic world view of the richness in worldly life. They believed in efficacy of rituals and sacrifices, performed by a privileged group of people, who could improve their life by pleasing certain Gods. The Sramanic ideal of mendicancy and renunciation, that the worldly life was full of suffering and that emancipation required giving up of desires and withdrawal into a lonely and contemplative life, was in stark contrast with the Brahminical ideal of an active and ritually punctuated life. Traditional Vedic belief held that a man is born with an obligation to study the Vedas, to procreate and rear male offspring and perform sacrifices. Only in his later life he may meditate on the mysteries of life. The ideal of devoting whole life to mendicancy disparaged the whole process of social life and obligations. The rejections of Vedas, resulted in Sramana philosophy as being labeled as nastika darsana or heterodox philosophy. "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation.
The following beliefs and concepts formed the common basis of all Śramaṇa philosophies:-
Ultimately, the sramana philosophical concepts like – Ahimsa, Karma, re-incarnation, renunciation, samsara and moksa – were accepted and incorporated by the Brahamanas in their beliefs and practices. . According to Gavin Flood, concepts like karmas and reincarnation entered the mainstream brahaminical thought from the sramana or the renouncer traditions.  according to D. R. Bhandarkar, Ahimsa dharma of sramanas were producing an impression on the followers of Brhamanism and their law books and practices. 
Following are the two main schools of Sramana Philosophy that have continued since ancient times in India:
The Jainism derives its philosophy from the teachings and lives of the twenty-four Tirthankaras, of which, Mahavira was the last Tirthankara. Jain philosophy ( Sanskrit: Jain darsana; sa जैन दर्शन deals extensively with the problems of Metaphysics, Reality, Cosmology Anekāntavāda (Devanagari sa [[wiktअनेकान्तवाद अनेकान्तवाद]] is one of the most important and basic doctrines of Jainism. Syādvāda ( Devanagari: स्यादवाद is the Doctrine of Postulation of Jainism. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. In Jainism, a Tirthankar (" Fordmaker " (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a Human being who achieves enlightenment (perfect Jain Acaryas - Umasvati (Umasvami), Kundakunda, Haribhadra, Yasovijaya and others – further developed and reorganized the Jain philosophy in its present form. An acharya ( acariya in Pali) is an important religious teacher ( Guru) who teaches by his own example (from Sanskrit 'achara' behavior Acharya Umaswati is the author of Tattvartha Sutra, the best known Jaina text Kundakunda (also Kundkund is a celebrated Jain Acharya, Jain scholar monk 2nd century CE composer of spiritual classics such as Samayasara, Haribhadra Suri (c700-c770 or 459-529 traditional was a Svetambara Mendicant Jain leader and author Jain philosophy ( Sanskrit: Jain darsana; sa जैन दर्शन deals extensively with the problems of Metaphysics, Reality, Cosmology The distinguishing features of Jain philosophy are its belief on independent existence of soul and matter, denial of creative and omnipotent God, eternal and uncreated universe, a strong emphasis on non-violence, accent on relativity and multiple facets of truth, and morality and ethics based on liberation of soul. Jainism does not support belief in a Creator deity. According to Jain doctrine the Universe and its constituents - soul matter space time and principles The Jain philosophy of Anekantavada and Syadvada which posits that the truth or the reality is perceived differently from different points of view, and that no single point of view is the complete truth, have made most important contributions to the ancient Indian philosophy, especially in the areas of skepticism and relativity. Anekāntavāda (Devanagari sa [[wiktअनेकान्तवाद अनेकान्तवाद]] is one of the most important and basic doctrines of Jainism. Syādvāda ( Devanagari: स्यादवाद is the Doctrine of Postulation of Jainism. The term Indian philosophy (Sanskrit Darshanas) may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought that originated in the Indian subcontinent 
Buddhist philosophy is a system of beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, an Indian prince later known as the Buddha. Buddhist philosophy deals extensively with problems in Metaphysics, phenomenology, Ethics, and Epistemology. Buddhist philosophy deals extensively with problems in Metaphysics, phenomenology, Ethics, and Epistemology. Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Buddhism is a non-theistic philosophy, one whose tenets are not especially concerned with the existence or nonexistence of a God or gods. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Nontheism is a term that covers a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of&mdashor the rejection of&mdash Theism or any belief in a The question of God is largely irrelevant in Buddhism, though some sects (notably Tibetan Buddhism) do venerate a number of gods drawn in from local indigenous belief systems. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including In Christianity, veneration ( Latin veneratio, Greek &delta&omicron&upsilon&lambda&iota&alpha dulia) or veneration of saints The Buddha criticized all concepts of metaphysical being and non-being. Disambiguation For the Wigwam album see Being (album, for spiritual or religious beingness, see Ego (spirituality A major distinguishing feature of its philosophy is the rejection of a permanent, self-existent soul (atman).
In Jainism the monks and ascetics are known as Śramaṇas , while the Jain laymen are called as Sravakas. Buddhist references In Nikaya Buddhism, sāvaka ( m) or sāvikā ( f The religion or code of conduct of the monks is known as Śramaṇa Dharma. Jain canons like Ācāranga Sūtra and other later texts contain a multitude of references to Sramanas with one of the verse defining a good Sramana :
The chapter on renunciation contains references to vow of non-possession by the Sramanas :
In one of the disputations with other heretical teachers, prince Ardraka, who became a disciple of Mahavira, tells Makkhali Gosala the qualities of Sramanas :
Various references to śramaṇas, with the name more or less distorted, have been handed down in Western literature about India.
Nicolaus of Damascus is famous for his account of an embassy sent by an Indian king "named Pandion (Pandyan kingdom?) or, according to others, Porus" to Caesar Augustus around 13 CE. Nicolaus of Damascus ( Greek, Nikolāos Damaskēnos) was a Syrian Historian and Philosopher who lived during the Augustan A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one State or an international Inter-governmental organization (such as the United Nations) present in Origin The origin of the word “Pandya” has been a subject of much speculation Conflict alliance and comradeship with Alexander Unlike his neighbour Ambhi (in Greek Omphis, King Porus chose to fight Alexander the Great in Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was He met with the embassy at Antioch. Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also The embassy was bearing a diplomatic letter in Greek, and one of its members was a "Sarmano" (Σαρμανο) who burnt himself alive in Athens to demonstrate his faith. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's The event made a sensation and was quoted by Strabo and Dio Cassius. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus ( Greek:) (c 155 or 163/164 to after 229 known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio was A tomb was made to the "Sarmano", still visible in the time of Plutarch, which bore the mention "ΖΑΡΜΑΝΟΧΗΓΑΣ ΙΝΔΟΣ ΑΠΟ ΒΑΡΓΟΣΗΣ" (Zarmanochēgas indos apo Bargosēs – The sramana master from Barygaza in India). Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> History Bharuch was once but a small village on the banks of the Narmada River but that rivers inland India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
Clement of Alexandria makes several mentions of the Sramanas, both in the context of the Bactrians and the Indians:
To Clement of Alexandria, "Bactrians" apparently means "Oriental Greek", as in a passage of the Stromata:
Porphyry extensively describes the habits of the Sramanas (whom he calls Samanaeans) in his "On abstinence from animal food" Book IV . Porphyry of Tyre ( Greek:, c AD 233&ndashc 309 was a Phoenician Neoplatonic philosopher He says his information was obtained from "the Babylonian Bardesanes, who lived in the times of our fathers, and was familiar with those Indians who, together with Damadamis, were sent to Caesar":
On entering the order:
On life and death:
German novelist Hermann Hesse, long interested in Eastern, especially Indian, spirituality, wrote Siddhartha, in which the main character becomes a Samana upon leaving his home (where he was a Brahmin). Hermann Hesse (ˈhɛʀman ˈhɛsə ( 2 July, 1877 — 9 August, 1962) was a German - Swiss poet novelist and painter Siddhartha is an allegorical Novel by Hermann Hesse which deals with