|Headquarters||Sena Bhavan, Mumbai|
|Alliance||National Democratic Alliance|
|Political ideology||Hindutva (Hindu nationalism) and Bhumiputra|
|See also the politics of India series|
Shiv Sena (Devanāgarī: शिव सेना Śīv Senā), meaning Army of Shiva, referring to Shivaji, is a Hindu nationalist,  political party in India founded on June 19, 1966 by Bal Thackeray, who is currently the chief of the party, while son, Uddhav Thackeray, is president. Bal Keshav Thackeray (बाळ केशव ठाकरे (born January 23, 1926) popularly known as Balasaheb Thackeray is the founder and The National Democratic Alliance ( NDA) is a coalition of political parties in India. For Veer Savarkar's book see Hindutva (book. Hindutva (Devanagari हिन्दुत्व "Hinduness" a word coined by Vinayak The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Politics of India takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary multi-party representative democratic Republic modelled Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle ( Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजीराजे भोसले (Born February Hindu nationalism is a nationalist Ideology that sees the modern State of the Republic of India as a Hindu Polity A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Bal Keshav Thackeray (बाळ केशव ठाकरे (born January 23, 1926) popularly known as Balasaheb Thackeray is the founder and The Sena's ideology is based on the concepts of 'Bhumiputra' (Marathi for "Sons of the Soil") and Hindutva or Hindu nationalism. For Veer Savarkar's book see Hindutva (book. Hindutva (Devanagari हिन्दुत्व "Hinduness" a word coined by Vinayak The 'Bhumiputra' ideology refers to the Shiv Sena's belief that Maharashtrians (Marathi People) deserve more rights in Maharashtra than those who are not from Maharashtra.  However, in recent times, the Sena has laid more emphasis on Hindutva. For Veer Savarkar's book see Hindutva (book. Hindutva (Devanagari हिन्दुत्व "Hinduness" a word coined by Vinayak In the 13th Lok Sabha (1999-2004), it had 15 (out of 545) members. The Lok Sabha (also titled the House of the People, by the Constitution) is the directly elected Lower house of the Parliament of India During that period, the party was part of the National Democratic Alliance, which ruled at the national level. Manohar Joshi, a Shiv Sainik, was the Speaker of Lok Sabha 2002-2004. Manohar Gajanan Joshi, (मनोहर गजानन जोशी (born December 2, 1937) is an Indian politician from the state of Maharashtra The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the presiding officer of the upper house of Parliament of India. The Shiv Sena also ruled the Maharashtra state in its past and is one of the most influential Hindutva parties in the region. Maharashtra ( Marathi: mahārāṣṭra, IPA) is a state located on the western coast of India.
Bharatiya Kamgar Sena ("Indian Worker's Army"), a labour union, is affiliated to the Shiv Sena. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming The Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Sena ("All India Students' Army") is the student wing of Shiv Sena.
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Bombay was given to the British East India Company in 1666, having formed a part of Catherine of Braganza's dowry to Charles II of England. Hindu politics refers to the political movements professing to draw inspiration from Hinduism. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP (भारतीय जनता पार्टी, Translation: Indian People's Party) founded in 1980 is a major Political Akhil Bhāratīya Hindū Mahāsabhā (अखिल भारत हिन्दू महासभा All-Indian Hindu Assembly a Hindu nationalist organization was originally The Bharatiya Jana Sangh (abbreviated BJS and often known simply as the Jan Sangh existed from 1951 to 1980 whereupon it was succeeded by the Bharatiya Janata Party, one of Ram Rajya Parishad (Rām Rājya Pariṣad Sanskrit, Forum of Rama's Kingdom was a traditionalist Hindu party in India. Integral humanism is the Political philosophy practised by the Bharatiya Janata Party and the former Bharatiya Jana Sangh of India. Hindu nationalism is a nationalist Ideology that sees the modern State of the Republic of India as a Hindu Polity For Veer Savarkar's book see Hindutva (book. Hindutva (Devanagari हिन्दुत्व "Hinduness" a word coined by Vinayak Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak (बाळ गंगाधर टिळक ( July 23 1856 - August 1 1920) was an Indian nationalist Madan Mohan Malaviya (1861-1946 was an Indian politician notable for his role in the freedom struggle and his espousal of Hindu nationalism. Vināyak Dāmodar Sāvarkar (विनायक दामोदर सावरकर (born May 28, 1883 in Bhagur – February 26, Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar (माधव सदाशिव गोळवलकर (February 19 1906 - June 5 1973 popularly known as Golwalkar Guruji, was the second Keshava Baliram Hedgewar (केशव बळीराम हेडगेवार ( April 1, 1889 – June 21 1940) was the founder of the Syama Prasad Mookerjee (or Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, শ্যামা প্রসাদ মুখার্জী ( thumb|right|200px|An Indian postage stamp featuring Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya (पण्डित दीनदयाल उपाध्याय ( September 25, 1916 - February 11, 1968) along Bal Keshav Thackeray (बाळ केशव ठाकरे (born January 23, 1926) popularly known as Balasaheb Thackeray is the founder and Bankim Chandra Chatterjee ( 27 June[[ 838]] - 8 April[[ 894]] (বঙ্কিম চন্দ্র চট্টোপাধ্যায় Bôngkim Koenraad Elst (born 7 August 1959) is a Belgian Writer and Orientalist (without institutional affiliation François Gautier, born 1959 in Paris, is a writer and journalist based in India Sita Ram Goel (सीता राम गोयल Sītā Rām Goyal) (1921 – 2003 writer and publisher influential in late twentieth century Hindu nationalist Kishori Saran Lal (1920 &ndash 2002 was an Indian Historian. He wrote many historical books mainly on medieval India Harsh Narain is an Indian author He has a PhD from Lucknow University and was a professor at Benares Hindu University, Aligarh Muslim University and Yvette Rosser is an American author and scholar Yvette Rosser was born on January 31 1952. Arun Shourie (born 1941) is a prominent Indian Journalist, Author, and Politician. Ram Swarup (राम स्वरूप born Ram Swarup Agarwal ( 1920 - December 26, 1998) was an independent Hindu thinker and prolific author The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or Catherine Henrietta of Braganza (25 November 1638 &ndash 31 December 1705 was a Portuguese Infanta and the Queen consort of Charles II of Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. At this time it consisted of a series of islands inhabited by the Kolis, fishermen from whom the southernmost island of the Bombay peninsula, Colaba, took its name. The Koli community is found throughout India Kolis are found in Maharashtra Gujrat AndhraPradesh and rest of India Colaba (कुलाबा is a part of the city of Mumbai, India. With its establishment as a Presidency town in the later seventeenth century Bombay began to attract migrants in large numbers from the Mughal port of Surat and elsewhere, notably Parsis and Gujaratis, both Hindu and Muslim. Gujarati people ( Gujarati: ગુજરાતી લોકો Gujǎrātī loko ? By 1849 out of a total city population of 566,119, the British classified 296,931 as Hindus, with the remainder made up of Muslims, Parsis, Indian Christians, Jews, Anglo-Indians and Europeans.  Bombay boomed in the second half of the nineteenth century after the Governorship of Sir Bartle Frere, and became the most cosmopolitan city in India, with communities from every part of the subcontinent as well as Arabs and Baghdadi Jews. Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere 1st Baronet, GCB, GCSI, ( March 29, 1815 – May 29, 1884) was a British colonial administrator The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The Baghdadi Jews are one of the main Jewish communities of India. The party has also drawn a lot of inspiration from the activities of late medieval Maharashtrian warrior King Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle ( Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजीराजे भोसले (Born February
At the time of independence, marathi and konkani people formed the majority in Bombay. The state of Bombay of which the city of Bombay was the capital included the state of Gujarat. In 1961, state of Maharashtra and Gujarat were created with Bombay as the capital of state of Maharashtra. There were moves to have Bombay as a Union Territory along the lines of New Delhi, but this was defeated by the Samyukta Maharashtra movement. A Union Territory is a sub-national administrative division of India.   After the incorporation of the Bombay presidency in the Marathi-speaking state of Maharashtra migration to Bombay increased; non-Marathas, especially people belonging to the Parsis and Bagdad Jews communities, continued to dominate industry and trade in the city, whilst Marathis constituted much of the proletariat and lower middle-class.  At India level, the port city of Surat handled all export/import traffic,city of Calcutta was the financial capital of India and Madras was the industrial capital of India.
Maharashtra government in 1960s championed business friendly policies coupled with massive infrastructure investments to attract businesses into the state. While Maharashtra attracted businesses states like West Bengal and Tamil Nadu repelled businesses by pursuing communist and linguistic nationalism driven policies. Lack of investment in Surat's port infrastructure led to decline in traffic at the port. Gujarat invested all their scarce funds in creation of Gandhi Nagar, a brand new city, which is the state's capital. Financial services companies from Calcutta relocated to Bombay and Mazagaon port surpassed Surat as India business port. India PSU (Public Sector Units) opened their headquarters in Bombay. This created a mini-boom in Bombay and a large number people from all over India migrated to Bombay. As the PSUs were politically controlled the management in these organization were political appointees primarily from South India. Traders from Gujarat and Sindh migrated to Mumbai to open small businesses. The Shiv Sena was thus born out of a feeling of resentment about the 'marginalization' of Marathis in Bombay. 
The Shiv Sena attracted a large number of disgruntled and often unemployed Maharashtrian youth and white collar maharashtrian workers in PSUs, who were pulled towards Thackeray's charged and frank discussion of issues (nepotism in PSUs, uncontrolled migration of labour into Mumbai, Lack of credit to marathis to start small businesses etc. ) closer to economic life of marathi people. . In the early years of the Sena, the party's widely circulated Marathi language-weekly Marmik was instrumental in inflamming anti-migrant sentiment among Mumbai's Maharashtrians.  Thackeray, then a cartoonist for the Free Press journal, initially targeted the growing number of South Indians by inflammatory slogans like "lungi hatao pungi bajao" (referring to the lungi, a Marathi word for the traditional men's dress in South India), and "yendu gundu" (a derogatory description of the Dravidian languages spoken by the people from South India). South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages (including the four literary languages of Tamil, Telugu, Kannada  During this period, Shiv Sainiks launched a string of attacks on the South-Indian owned Udupi restaurants that were becoming popular in Mumbai. Udupi ( Kannada, Tulu: ಉಡುಪಿ Odipu, Konkani - उडुपी) is a city and the headquarters of the Udupi District in  In a similar manner, Thackeray later targeted Gujaratis, Marwaris, Biharis, and people from North Indian states like Uttar Pradesh ('UPites') through his speeches. Geography Northern India lies mainly on continental India and a very small part of it lies on the Indian peninsula Uttar Pradesh (उत्तर प्रदेश اتر پردیش pronounced, Translation: Northern Province) referred to as '''U .
The Sena started placing more weight on the Hindutva ideology in the 1970s as the hallmark 'sons of the soil' cause was weakening. For Veer Savarkar's book see Hindutva (book. Hindutva (Devanagari हिन्दुत्व "Hinduness" a word coined by Vinayak  With the shift to Hindutva, Thackeray increasingly made some controversial moves against Muslims and neighboring Pakistan. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and The party largely reformed its ideology from Maharashtrian ethnocentrism to Hindutva, extending their influence to South Indian States such as Karnataka. Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ pronounced) is a state in the southern part of India
The party has ruled the Maharastra State in coalition with the Bharatiya Janata Party. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP (भारतीय जनता पार्टी, Translation: Indian People's Party) founded in 1980 is a major Political The SS-BJP did however lose the 2004 state assembly election. The Sena is now the main opposition party in the state. The BJP-SS combine governs the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation. Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial Traditionally the main strongholds of SS have been Mumbai and the Konkan coastal areas. Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial The Konkan (Marathi कोकण also called the Konkan Coast or Karavali, is a rugged section of the western coastline of India from Raigad However, in the 2004 Lok Sabha elections the result was reversed. Legislative elections were held in India, the world's largest Democracy, in four phases between April 20 and May 10, 2004. The Shiv Sena made inroads in the interior parts of the state, while suffering losses in Mumbai. The Shiv Sena was successful in the 2006 Municipal Corporations elections.
As the president of the party Bal Thackeray takes all major decisions, and has claimed that he ran the Sena-Bharatiya Janata Party government of 1995 to 1999 with what he called a 'remote control. ' Activists and members of the Shiv Sena call themselves Shiv Sainiks, and carry out most of the party's grassroot work. In recent times, Thackeray does not concern himself with day-to-day activities of the party, which is run by his youngest son Uddhav Thackeray. Uddhav Thackeray (उद्धव ठाकरे (born July 27, 1960 is the Executive president of the Shiv Sena, a regional political party based
The recently refurbished Sena Bhavan located in the Dadar locality in Mumbai has served as the headquarters of the Sena since 1976. Dadar (दादर is a Place in Mumbai, and has a Railway station on the Mumbai Suburban Railway on both the Western Railway  The Sena's shakhas (local offices) spread throughout the state of Maharashtra as well as in selected locations in other states decide upon most of the local issues in their particular cities or towns. 
Industrialists were generally satisfied with the Sena's clout—since Sena leader Thackeray's draconian control over the employees would ensure a peaceful work environment .
Shiva Sena encourages maharashtrian business. Indian business communities operate in opaque ways. Communities control credit, market control by creation of unofficial langugage based cartels. Shiv Sena busts these community operated cartels by extending credit to maharashtrian businessman and enables access to markets and government contracts. Shiv Sena believes business is a learned skill and anybody can be a business man if the banking and markets are open and fair to all. Just like Indian government at the national level protects Indian businessman from international competition, maharashtrian government should protect maharashtrian business against business communities of India who operate in non-transparent ways. Under the shiv sena administration over 100,000 maharashtrian youths have started small businesses.
Supporters of the Sena have claimed that the party has benefited the Marathi Manus (Marathi man) in Mumbai, especially in the public sector.  However, the Sena has allegedly done little to solve the problem of unemployment facing a large proportion of Maharashtrian youth during its tenure, in contradiction to its ideological foundation of 'sons of the soil. '
Maharashtra government actively attracts domestic and international businesses to the state. The jobs created by these businesses that come to the state are mostly taken by people from other states due to lack of transparency in hiring practices in India. Shiv Sena runs an active campaign to make sure jobs created are offered to marathi people. Most of this is done through publicizing nepotism in corporations that operate in Maharashtra.
The Sena claims to have played a central role in the emancipation of 500,000 slum dwellers in the Dharavi area of Mumbai, the largest slum in Asia. Dharavi is a mega slum and administrative ward over parts of Sion Bandra(E Kurla and Kalina suburbs of Mumbai, India.  The state's policy of giving free houses to slum dwellers has been mired in controversy ever since it was introduced by the Shiv Sena-BJP government a decade ago  .
In addition, the Sena has been active in trying to improve infrastructure in Maharashtra, particularly in the financial capital of Mumbai. Nearly 55 flyovers in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai and the Mumbai-Pune Expressway were constructed under the Shiv Sena administration, which led to a significant infrastructural boom in Mumbai. The Mumbai Pune Expressway ( Marathi: मुंबई-पुणे द्रुतगती महामार्ग is India's first six-lane concrete high-speed access While successive State governments have been guilty of neglecting Mumbai's transport problems, the erstwhile Shiv Sena-BJP government drastically altered the course. Moreover, by initiating a range of road schemes, the Sena unequivocally opted for private, motorised transport in preference to public transport. . These moves have been a crucial factor in its increasing popularity within India and the promises of further improvement have boosted the Shiv Sena's campaigns.
In addition to improvements in transport infrastructure, the Shiv Sena has supported initiatives against proprietary technologies such as the "Conditional Access System" for television networks (which would have led to cable companies charging more for channels). The Shiv Sena has also questioned the government’s procedure of divesting equity in oil refining and marketing majors, effectively "selling" profitable oil companies out.
The women's front of the Shiv Sena, Mahila Aghadi, settles domestic disputes; from dowry demands to wife-beating, where they have taken a decidedly pro-Feminist stance. Through the use of aggressive tactics, they have reduced the instance of violence against women among the ranks of the Shiv Sena and their supporters.
Certain minority communities, such as Jews in India, are closely following the rise of Bal Thackeray, Shiv Sena and other Hindutva parties, since they see a possible supporters of Zionism in the Shiv Sena. Indian Jews are a religious minority of India. Judaism was one of the first non- Dharmic religions to arrive in India in recorded history Bal Keshav Thackeray (बाळ केशव ठाकरे (born January 23, 1926) popularly known as Balasaheb Thackeray is the founder and For Veer Savarkar's book see Hindutva (book. Hindutva (Devanagari हिन्दुत्व "Hinduness" a word coined by Vinayak History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the The affinities between Hindus and Jews go beyond their shared perception of a Muslim adversary, and while secularism has been in the interest of Jews in most nations of exile, it may be that the Indian case is a notable exception. .
The main controversy associated with Shiv Sena are media allegations of organized party violence against migrants to Maharashtra, Muslims and opposing parties/groups. The Shiv Sena protests have been known to occasionally break down into violence. The party has been involved in organized protests, pickets, market shutdowns and strikes that have been known to degenerate into violent clashes, such as their attack on the Zee TV channel on February 8, 2006 in response to their broadcasting of a play that satirized their party. Zee TV is an India -based Satellite television channel in the Zee Network umbrella which carries broadcasts in Hindi and other regional Events 421 - Constantius III becomes co- Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Until 1951 Marathi and Konkani-speakers were the majority group in Bombay, but the business class of the city was dominated by Parsis, Gujaratis and Marwaris. . Moreover, a large number people from South India migrated to Bombay and soon filled a number of white-collar jobs. Because of Bombay's special status as a city of migrants, there were moves to have it made a separate Union Territory along the lines of New Delhi when the states of India were reorganised on linguistic lines in the 1950s, and for Pune to be the capital of the new state of Maharashtra, but this was defeated by the Samyukta Maharashtra movement. A Union Territory is a sub-national administrative division of India. Pune (ˈpuːneɪ Marathi: पुणे Hindi: पूना formerly Poona, is the second largest city in the state of Maharashtra Maharashtra ( Marathi: mahārāṣṭra, IPA) is a state located on the western coast of India.  Bombay boomed in the second half of the nineteenth century after the Governorship of Sir Bartle Frere, and became the most cosmopolitan city in India, with communities from every part of the subcontinent as well as Arabs and Baghdadi Jews. Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere 1st Baronet, GCB, GCSI, ( March 29, 1815 – May 29, 1884) was a British colonial administrator The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The Baghdadi Jews are one of the main Jewish communities of India. - (for those with access to JSTOR)</ref>  After the incorporation of the Bombay presidency in the Marathi-speaking state of Maharashtra migration to Bombay increased; non-Marathas, especially people belonging to the Gujarati and Marwari communities, continued to dominate industry and trade in the city, whilst Marathas constituted much of the proletariat and lower middle-class. Gujarati people ( Gujarati: ગુજરાતી લોકો Gujǎrātī loko ?  The Shiv Sena was thus born out of a feeling of resentment about the 'marginalization' of Marathas in Bombay.  The Shiv Sena especially attracted a large number of disgruntled and often unemployed Maharashtrian youth, who were pulled towards Thackeray's charged anti-migrant oratory. In the early years of the Sena, the party's widely circulated Marathi language-weekly Marmik was instrumental in inflamming anti-migrant sentiment among Mumbai's Maharashtrians.  Thackeray, then a cartoonist for the Free Press journal, initially targeted the growing number of South Indians by inflammatory slogans like "lungi hatao pungi bajao" (referring to the lungi, a Marathi word for the traditional men's dress in South India), and "yendu gundu" (a derogatory description of the Dravidian languages spoken by the people from South India). South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages (including the four literary languages of Tamil, Telugu, Kannada  During this period, Shiv Sainiks launched a string of attacks on the South-Indian owned Udupi restaurants that were becoming popular in Mumbai. Udupi ( Kannada, Tulu: ಉಡುಪಿ Odipu, Konkani - उडुपी) is a city and the headquarters of the Udupi District in  In a similar manner, Thackeray later targeted Gujaratis, Marwaris, Biharis, and people from North Indian states like Uttar Pradesh ('UPites') through his speeches. Geography Northern India lies mainly on continental India and a very small part of it lies on the Indian peninsula Uttar Pradesh (उत्तर प्रदेश اتر پردیش pronounced, Translation: Northern Province) referred to as '''U .
In August 2001, the Sunitidevi Singhania Hospital in Thane was ransacked after Anand Dighe, the local Shiv Sena chief who was being treated in the hospital, died of a massive heart attack. The hospital building, ambulances, medical equipment and the bloodbank was reduced to rubble during three hours of rioting and mayhem. 
Doctors, nurses and patients scurried for their lives after 1,500 people, reported to be mainly Shiv Sainiks, attacked the hospital. A six-year old child with a respiratory problem and a 65 year old man with a kidney ailment died after their medical equipment was wrecked by rioters. The Shiv Sena cited negligence on behalf of the hospital staff as a reason for Anand Dighe's death, and stated that the riots were a response to the same. 
In another incident, on September 17, 2003, the Bhaktivedanta hospital was shut down briefly after an attack by Shiv Sainiks, due to a wage-compensation disagreement between the hospital and the hospital workers' Union 
In the 1970s, Shiv Sena members were accused as responsible for killing Krishna Desai, CPI MLA from the Parel neighbourhood in Central Mumbai. Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. CPI redirects here For other uses see CPI (disambiguation. A consumer price index ( CPI) is a measure of the average price of consumer A Member of the Legislative Assembly, or MLA, is a representative elected by the voters of an Electoral district to the Legislature or Legislative Parel is central part of Mumbai. It is also the name of a Railway station on the Mumbai suburban railway. However, the attackers were not indicted for murder. 
The Shiv Sena has also been accused of orchestrating violence against Muslims. The Sena is alleged by some to have played an active role in the riots in Mumbai following the demolition of the Babri Mosque in 1992 in the north-Indian holy city of Ayodhya. The Babri Mosque (بابری مسجد बाबरी मस्जिद or Mosque of Babur was a Mosque constructed by order of the first Mughal Ayodhya (अयोध्या IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district On 23 January 1993, the then Congress-led Government of Maharashtra appointed Justice B.N. Srikrishna (then a sitting Judge of the Bombay High Court) to head a one-man commission with the task of investigating the riots. Events 393 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine year old son Honorius co-emperor Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major Political party in India. Maharashtra ( Marathi: mahārāṣṭra, IPA) is a state located on the western coast of India. Justice BN Srikrishna (born May 21, 1941) is an Indian jurist and a retired Judge of the Supreme Court of India. History & Premises The Bombay High Court (मुंबई उच्च न्यायालय was inaugurated on August 14, 1862. The Commission indicted the Sena for its direct involvement in coordinating the anti-Muslim riots, and accused Thackeray of "commanding his loyal Shiv Sainiks to retaliate by organized attacks against Muslims. " However, Thackeray was absolved of all criminal charges in July 2000 after seven years of judicial proceedings. 
In an interview in 1998, Thackeray claims to have tempered his stance on many issues that the Shiv Sena had with Muslims, particularly regarding the Babri Mosque or Ramjanmabhoomi issue , saying: "We must look after the Muslims and treat them as part of us. The Babri Mosque (بابری مسجد बाबरी मस्जिद or Mosque of Babur was a Mosque constructed by order of the first Mughal Ram Janmabhoomi (राम जन्मभूमि refers to a tract of land in the North Indian city of Ayodhya which is claimed by Hindu nationalists " In addition, some members of the Sena claim that the party does not discriminate on the basis of religion and is based on pure nationalism.  He has since reiterated his desire to establish a "Hindustan for Hindus" and "bring Islam in this country down to its knees". 
Thackeray added, "Maharashtra cannot fight Islam alone. We need the Hindu community to unite and fight Islam. " However, he has also expressed admiration for Muslims in Mumbai in the wake of the 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings allegedly perpetrated by Islamic Fundamentalists. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Islamic fundamentalism Arabic: usul (from usul the "fundamentals"] is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the In response to threats made by the leader of the communist Samajwadi Party that accusations of terrorism directed at Indian Muslims would bring about violence from them, Thackeray said that the unity of Mumbaikars (residents of Mumbai) in the wake of the terrorist attacks was "a slap to fanatics of Samajwadi Party leader Abu Asim Azmi" and that Thackeray "salute(s) those Muslims who participated in the two minutes' silence on July 18 to mourn the blast victims"On February 8, 2007, a Mumbai court issued a bailable warrant against Bal Thackeray for the statements he made during the anniversary celebrations of his party the year before. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Samajwadi Party (literally Socialist Party) is a Political party in India. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, 
Additionally, as part of their efforts to hamper any collaboration between India and its nuclear rival Pakistan, Shiv Sainiks have damaged cricket pitches in stadiums where the Indian and Pakistani cricket team were scheduled to play. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries A Cricket pitch is the central strip of the Cricket field between the Wickets The pitch is 1 chain or 22 yards (20 The two instances of the Sena's targeting pitches are the damage of the pitch at Mumbai's Wankhede Stadium in 1991 and the vandalizing of the Feroz Shah Kotla Grounds pitch in national capital Delhi in 1999. Ground Facts and Figures Capacity 40000 Floodlights Yes End names Garware Pavilion End Tata End Curator Sudhir Delhi (दिल्ली ਦਿੱਲੀ دلی d̪ɪlːiː sometimes referred to as Dilli) is the second largest metropolis of India, with a population  The Sena orchestrated these activities in an atmosphere of growing tensions between the two nations.
In November 1998, Shiv Sena staged protests against the film Fire. Fire ( Hindi: फायर is a 1996 film directed and written by Deepa Mehta, starring Shabana Azmi and Nandita Das. The media alleged that Shiv Sena's protests were because the film depicted a lesbian relationship, which the Sena deemed inappropriate. However, Sena's position was that the film denigrated Hinduism by associating Hindu goddesses with lesbianism.  The film was criticized by feminist Madhu Kiswar for denigrating Indian culture. 
The matinee show of Fire was almost halfway through in a packed house when a group of women belonging to the Shiv Sena Mahila Aghadi -- the women's wing of the Sena -- barged into the theatre. Accompanied by MLA R. Mirlekar, they smashed glass panes, burnt posters and shouted slogans. However, no crimes were committed other than property destruction . Shiv Sena also protested outside the home of the legendary Indian actor Dilip Kumar for defending the film. These protests prompted the Indian Supreme Court to issue orders to the government to provide full protection to the supporters of the movie and the leading filmmakers. 
On July 9, 2006, after some unidentified miscreants desecrated the statue of Meenatai (the late wife of Bal Thackeray), Shiv Sainiks blocked roads at Dadar in central Mumbai, set fire to a tourist bus and damaged a police outpost. Events 455 - Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Activists forcibly shut shops and staged traffic blockades in other parts of the city, as well. , and later launched statewide protests mired with isolated incidences of violence in Nagpur, Pune, Nashik and other cities in Maharashtra. Nāgpur ( Marathi: नागपुर is the largest city in central India (2001 Census and the second capital of the state of Maharashtra. Pune (ˈpuːneɪ Marathi: पुणे Hindi: पूना formerly Poona, is the second largest city in the state of Maharashtra http//wwwmapsofindiacom/maps/maharashtra/roads/nashik_roadjpg Nashik (नाशिक  
On October 10, 2006 clashes erupted between supporters of Shiv Sena and Maharastra Navnirman Sena headed by Raj Thackeray. Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Raj Thackeray ( राज ठाकरे) (born June 14, 1968) is the founder and president of Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (Maharashtra Renaissance It was alleged that workers of MNS had tore the posters bearing the photographs of Shiv Sena Supremo Bal Thackeray near the SIES college in Mumbai. Later as retaliation it was alleged that Shiv Sena workers brought down the hoardings with Raj Thackeray's photo near the Sena Bhavan at Dadar.
As the news spread about the incident groups gathered near the Sena Bhavan and started pelting stones at each other. In this incident a policeman was injured and many supporters of both parties were injured. To restore normalcy in the situation the police fired tear gas shells at the mob.
Normalcy was eventually restored following police action and the appearance of Uddhav Thackeray and his cousin Raj Thackeray on the spot. Uddhav appealed to Sena workers to go back home , saying "The police will take necessary action. This is happening because many people are joining us from MNS. The defections have started and that is why they are resorting to such actions". Raj Thackeray asserts that MNS could not have vandalized the pictures, seeing as how he and his members revere Bal Thackeray.
The novelist and Nobel laureate V. S. Naipaul mentioned the Shiv Sena in his book India: A Wounded Civilization: "There was one portrait. This is a list of Nobel Prize Laureates awarded for their outstanding contributions to Humanitarian causes for Peace, work in Literature Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul Kt, TC (born August 17, 1932 in Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago) better known India A Wounded Civilization, by V S Naipaul, is the second book of his "India" trilogy after An Area of Darkness, and before And interestingly, it was not of the leader of the Shiv Sena or of Shivaji, the 17 th century Maratha King, but of the long-dead Dr. Ambedkar. . . Popular-and near-ecstatic-movements like the Shiv Sena ritualize many different needs. The Sena here, honouring an angry and (for all his eminence) defeated man, seemed quite different from the Sena the newspapers wrote about. " Naipaul asserts that there is a consistent media bias against Shiv Sena, expresses empathy with them and sees them as the only party who care about hygiene and health of the poor in the region. Media bias in the United States In an interview with Tehelka, Naipaul stated that Indian writers are out-of-touch with the ground realities of Shiv Sena and their activities with the lower classes of the region. Tehelka is an Indian Weekly Magazine under the editorship of Tarun Tejpal
Writer Suketu Mehta discussed the Shiv Sena in Maximum City, his 2004 book on Mumbai. Suketu Mehta (born 1963) is a writer based in New York City. He was born in Calcutta, India, and raised in Mumbai where he lived until Maximum City Bombay Lost and Found is a narrative nonfiction book by Suketu Mehta, published in 2004 about the Indian city of Mumbai ("Bombay" Mehta interviewed Bal Thackeray and a number of street-level Shiv Sena members, and claims that they admitted to "gang violence on Muslims. "
The Shiv Sena achieved electoral victories in local Maharashtra elections on February, 2007, together with their partner the Bharatiya Janata Party in the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation, and are set for another five year term. Maharashtra ( Marathi: mahārāṣṭra, IPA) is a state located on the western coast of India. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP (भारतीय जनता पार्टी, Translation: Indian People's Party) founded in 1980 is a major Political The Brihan Mumbai Mahanagarpalika ( Marathi: बृहन्मुंबई महानगर पालिका) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation They have achieved this on the platform of preference to Maharashtrians, which appealed to their vote bloc. The Marathi people or Maharashtrians ( Marathi: मराठी माणसं or महाराष्ट्रीय are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group The victory was noteworthy for reasons more than one. It means that by 2012, when the next BMC elections are due, the Shiv Sena would have ruled over Mumbai for an uninterrupted spell of 20 years. It was also a relief to the Junior Thackeray who personally supervised the campaign strategy. .
The Sena-led combine, which had suffered serious reverses in all the assembly by-elections in the past two years got 111 of the 227 seats. Out of the declared 226 seats, the Sena has won 83 seats, BJP 28, the left-wing opponents, the Indian National Congress won 71, and other opposition groups NCP won 14 while MNS won 7. Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major Political party in India.
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