Shi (詩) is the Chinese word for "poetry" or "poem". It can be used as an umbrella term to mean Chinese poetry in any form, including ci and qu, but it is most commonly used to refer to the classical form of poetry which reached its zenith in the Tang Dynasty. Chinese Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in China. Ci ( interchangeable with 辭 is a kind of lyric Chinese poetry. In Chinese literature, qu (曲 or yuanqu (元曲 consists of sanqu (散曲 and zaqu (雜劇 The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by To distinguish the classical form from the vers libre developed in the 20th century, the former is known as jiushi (舊詩 "old poetry", not to be confused with gushi 古詩) and the latter xinshi (新詩 "new poetry", not to be confused with jintishi 近體詩).
Shi Jing (詩經 "Classic of Poetry") was the first major collection of Chinese poems, collecting both aristocratic poems (the "Odes") and more rustic poems, probably derived from folksongs (the "Songs"). Shi Jing ( translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the earliest They are mostly composed of four-character (四言) lines.
A second, more lyrical and romantic anthology was Chu Ci (楚辭 "Songs of Chu"), made up primarily of poems ascribed to Qu Yuan and his follower Song Yu. Chu Ci ( also known as Songs of the South or Songs of Chu, is an anthology Biography Qu Yuan born in the Xiling Gorge area of what is today western Hubei province was a minister in the government of the state of Chu descended from nobility Song Yu ( fl 3rd century BCE) was a well-known Chinese poet in the State of Chu. These poems are composed of lines of irregular lengths.
From the Han Dynasty onwards, a process similar to the origins of Shi Jing produced the yue fu (樂府 "Music Bureau") poems. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. Yue fu ( Traditional Chinese: 樂府 Simplified Chinese: 乐府 Hanyu Pinyin: yuèfǔ are Chinese poems composed in a Folk song Many of them are composed of lines of five-character (五言) or seven-character (七言) poems. These two forms were to dominate Chinese poetry until the modern era. They are divided into the original gushi (old poems) and jintishi. Shi ( is the Chinese word for " Poetry " or "poem" Shi ( is the Chinese word for " Poetry " or "poem" The latter is a stricter form developed in the early Tang Dynasty with rules governing the structure of a poem. The greatest writers of gushi and jintishi are often held to be Li Bai and Du Fu respectively. Du Fu ( 712–770 was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty.
The term gushi (古詩 "old poetry") can refer either to the first, mostly anonymous shi poems, or more generally to the poems written in the same form by later poets. Gushi in this latter sense are defined essentially by what they are not: i. e. , they are not jintishi (regulated verse). The writer of gushi was under no formal constraints other than line length and rhyme (in every second line). This article is about the poetic technique For the form of ice see Rime ice. The form was therefore favoured for narrative works and by writers seeking a relaxed or imaginative style; Li Bai is the most prominent of these, but most major poets wrote significant gushi. A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of
Jintishi (近體詩 "modern-form poetry"), or regulated verse developed from the 5th century onwards. Constrained writing is a Literary technique in which the writer is bound by some condition that forbids certain things or imposes a pattern The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. By the Tang Dynasty, a series of set tonal patterns had been developed, which were intended to ensure a balance between the four tones of classical Chinese in each couplet: the level tone, and the three deflected tones (rising, falling and entering). Tone is the use of pitch in Language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning—that is to distinguish or inflect words In Chinese and Vietnamese, tone names are the names given to the tones these languages use Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of Written Chinese based on the Grammar and Vocabulary of ancient Chinese A couplet is a pair of lines of verse. It usually consists of two lines that rhyme and have the same meter The Tang Dynasty was the high point of the jintishi. Wang Wei and Cui Hao were notable pioneers of the form, while Du Fu was its most accomplished exponent. Wang Wei can refer to Wang Wei (Liang Dynasty (王偉 an official under Hou Jing Cui Hao ( 704 &ndash 754) was a Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty in China. Du Fu ( 712–770 was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty.
The basic form of jintishi is lüshi (律詩), with eight lines. In addition to the tonal constraints, this form required parallelism between the lines in the second and third couplets. The lines in these couplets had to contain contrasting content, with the characters in each line usually in the same part of speech. In Grammar, a lexical category (also word class, lexical class, or in traditional grammar part of speech) is a linguistic category of words (or
Another form is the jueju (絕句), or quatrain which followed the tonal pattern of the first four lines of the lüshi. This form does not require parallelism.
The last form is pailü (排律), which extended lǜshi to unlimited length by repeating the tonal pattern and the required parallelism of the second and third couplets. Parallelism is not required for the first and the last couplets.
All forms of jintishi could be written in five- or seven- character lines. The six character-line form (六言) can be seen occasionally, but is not common. The rules on tones and parallelism are not strictly followed in all cases: when classifying poems as gushi or jintishi, commentators traditionally placed greater emphasis on following the tonal rules than on parallelism.