Shampoo is a hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. Hair care is an overall term for parts of Hygiene and Cosmetology involving the Hair on the human head The sebaceous glands are Glands found in the Skin of Mammals Locations and morphology A branched type of Acinar gland, these Dandruff (also called scurf and historically termed Pityriasis capitis) is due to the excessive shedding of dead skin cells from the Scalp. Hair is a keratinised protein filament that grows through the epidermis from follicles deep within the Dermis. The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much as to make hair unmanageable.
Shampoo, when lathered with water, is a surfactant, which, while cleaning the hair and scalp, can remove the natural oils (sebum) which lubricate the hair shaft. Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the Surface tension of a liquid allowing easier spreading and lower the Interfacial tension between two liquids The sebaceous glands are Glands found in the Skin of Mammals Locations and morphology A branched type of Acinar gland, these
Shampooing is frequently followed by conditioners which increase the ease of combing and styling. Hair conditioner is a Hair care product that alters the Texture and appearance of human Hair.
People used to use regular soap to wash their hair. However, the dull film soap left on the hair made it uncomfortable, irritating, and unhealthy looking. According to Shobhana, the word shampoo in English usage dates back to 1762, with the meaning "to massage". English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Year 1762 ( MDCCLXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The word was a loan from Anglo-Indian shampoo, in turn from Hindu chāmpo (चाँपो /tʃãːpoː/), imperative of chāmpnā (चाँपना /tʃãːpnaː/), "to smear, knead the muscles, massage". A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one Language from another with little or no translation A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical The imperative mood is a Grammatical mood that expresses direct commands or requests It itself comes from Sanskrit/Hindi word "champā" (चम्पा /tʃəmpaː/), the flowers of the plant Michelia champaca which have traditionally been used to make fragrant hair-oil. Michelia champaca is an evergreen tree native to South Asia and Southeast Asia.
The term and service was introduced by a Bengali entrepreneur Sake Dean Mahomed, who opened a shampooing bath known as 'Mahomed's Indian Vapour Baths' in Brighton, England in 1759. The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between Bangladesh and India) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating Sake Dean Mahomet (also Sake Dean Mahomed or in Arabic, Shaykh Din Muhammad) (শেখ দীন মহাম্মদ (1759–1851 was Brighton ( is a town on the south coast of England and with its neighbour Hove, forms the city of Brighton and Hove. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Year 1759 ( MDCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year His baths were like Turkish baths where clients received an Indian treatment of champi (shampooing) or therapeutic massage. The Turkish bath (hamam from حمّام) is the Middle Eastern variant of a steam bath, which can be categorized as a wet relative of the His service was appreciated; he received the high accolade of being appointed ‘Shampooing Surgeon’ to both George IV and William IV. William IV (William Henry 21 August 1765 &ndash 20 June 1837 was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until
During the early stages of shampoo, English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water and added herbs to give the hair shine and fragrance. SOAP (see below for name and origins is a protocol for exchanging XML -based messages over Computer networks normally using Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. A(n herb (ˈhɝb or /ˈɝb/ see pronunciation differences) is a plant that is valued for qualities such as medicinal properties flavor scent or the like Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living Kasey Hebert was the first known maker of shampoo, and the origin is currently attributed to him.
Originally, soap and shampoo were very similar products; both containing surfactants, a type of detergent. Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the Surface tension of a liquid allowing easier spreading and lower the Interfacial tension between two liquids A detergent (as a noun is a material intended to assist Cleaning. Modern shampoo as it is known today was first introduced in the 1930s with Drene, the first synthetic (non-soap) shampoo. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. 
From ancient times to this day, Indians have been using different formulations of shampoos using herbs like neem, shikakai or soapnut, henna, bael, brahmi, fenugreek, buttermilk, amla, aloe, and almond in combination with some aromatic components like sandalwood, jasmine, turmeric, rose, and musk. Neem ( Azadirachta indica, syn Melia azadirachta L Antelaea azadirachta (L Shikakai means "fruit for hair" and is a traditional Shampoo used in India. Henna or Hina ( Lawsonia inermis, syn L alba) is a Flowering plant, the sole species in the genus Lawsonia Bael ( Aegle marmelos) is a fruit-bearing Tree indigenous to dry forests on hills and plains of central and southern India, southern Nepal Bacopa monnieri is a perennial, creeping Herb whose habitat includes wetlands and muddy shores Fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a plant in the family Fabaceae. Buttermilk is a Fermented dairy product produced from Cow's milk with a characteristically sour taste Aloe, also written Aloë, is a Genus containing about four hundred Species of flowering succulent Plants The Almond ( Prunus dulcis, syn Prunus amygdalus Batsch Amygdalus communis L for the film industry in India see Cinema of Karnataka Sandalwood is the name for several fragrant Woods and their Essential Jasmine or Jessamine ( Jasminum) (from Persian yasmin, ie "gift from God" via Arabic) is a Genus of Shrubs Turmeric ( Curcuma longa) is a Rhizomatous Herbaceous Perennial plant of the Ginger family Zingiberaceae A rose is a perennial flowering Shrub or vine of the Genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae, that contains over 100 species Musk is the name originally given to a substance with a penetrating Odor obtained from a Gland of the male Musk deer, which is situated between its
Shampoo cleans by stripping sebum from the hair. The sebaceous glands are Glands found in the Skin of Mammals Locations and morphology A branched type of Acinar gland, these Sebum is an oil secreted by hair follicles that is readily absorbed by the strands of hair, and forms a protective layer. An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is A hair follicle is part of the Skin that grows Hair by packing old cells together Sebum protects the protein structure of hair from damage, but this protection comes at a cost. It tends to collect dirt, styling products and scalp flakes. Surfactants strip the sebum from the hair shafts and thereby remove the dirt attached to it.
While both soaps and shampoos contain surfactants, soap bonds to oils with such affinity that it removes too much if used on hair. Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the Surface tension of a liquid allowing easier spreading and lower the Interfacial tension between two liquids Shampoo uses a different class of surfactants balanced to avoid removing too much oil from the hair.
The chemical mechanisms that underlie hair cleansing are similar to that of traditional soap. Undamaged hair has a hydrophobic surface to which skin lipids such as sebum stick, but water is initially repelled. In Chemistry, hydrophobicity (from the combining form of water in Attic Greek hydro- and for fear phobos) refers to the physical property of Lipids are broadly defined as any fat- Soluble ( lipophilic) naturally-occurring Molecule, such as fats oils waxes cholesterol sterols fat-soluble The lipids do not come off easily when the hair is rinsed with plain water. The anionic surfactants substantially reduce the interfacial surface tension and allow for the removal of the sebum from the hair shaft. An ion is an Atom or Molecule which has lost or gained one or more Valence electrons giving it a positive or negative electrical charge Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the Surface tension of a liquid allowing easier spreading and lower the Interfacial tension between two liquids The non-polar oily materials on the hair shaft are solubilised into the surfactant micelle structures of the shampoo and are removed during rinsing. A micelle (rarely micella, plural micelles) is an aggregate of Surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid Colloid. There is also considerable removal through a surfactant and oil "roll up" effect. The foamy effect achieved by massaging shampoo into the hair is purely aesthetic.
Shampoo formulations seek to maximize the following qualities:
Many shampoos are pearlescent. Iridescence is an Optical phenomenon in which Hue changes with the angle from which a surface is viewed This effect is achieved by addition of tiny flakes of suitable materials, eg. glycol distearate, chemically derived from stearic acid, which may have either animal or vegetable origins. Stearic acid (first syllable rhymes with either bear or gear) ( IUPAC Systematic name: octadecanoic acid) is a saturated Glycol distearate is a wax.
In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates that shampoo containers accurately list ingredients. The government further regulates what shampoo manufacturers can and cannot claim as any associated benefit. Shampoo producers often use these regulations to challenge marketing claims made by competitors, helping to enforce these regulations. While the claims may be substantiated however, the testing methods and details of such claims are not as straightforward. For example, many products are purported to protect hair from damage due to ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays While the ingredient responsible for this protection does block UV, it is not present in a high enough concentration to be effective. Shampoos made for treating medical conditions such as dandruff are regulated as OTC drugs in the US marketplace. Dandruff (also called scurf and historically termed Pityriasis capitis) is due to the excessive shedding of dead skin cells from the Scalp. Over-the-counter (OTC drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to Prescription drugs The name "over-the-counter" In other parts of the world such as the EU, there is a requirement for the anti-dandruff claim to be substantiated, but it is not considered to be a medical problem.
The effectiveness of vitamins, amino acids and "pro-vitamins" to shampoo is also largely debatable. A vitamin is an Organic compound required as a Nutrient in tiny amounts by an Organism. Vitamins and amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and enzymes within the body. While vitamins may be able to penetrate cells through the skin, amino acids and proteins are too large to enter a cell outside the bloodstream, and they can have no effect on dead tissue. Proteins are constructed from amino acids following an RNA blueprint inside the cell. A strand of hair is a long protein chain continually being added to at the root. The only way for an amino acid to be of any use is to be intentionally bound to other amino acids in a specific fashion by a living cell. Hair is not alive, and there is no possibility for an amino acid or protein to have any permanent effect on the health of the strand.
The case for vitamins is not as well understood. Some have demonstrated a moderate effectiveness in improving the health of skin, but most likely the benefit is derived from the effect of vitamins on living cells below the epidermis. Extending this benefit to hair, the vitamins and minerals could improve the health of new hair growth, but the benefit to existing hair is unsubstantiated. However, the physical properties of some vitamins (like vitamin E oil or panthenol) would have a temporary cosmetic effect on the hair shaft while not having any bioactivity. See also Tocopherol, Tocotrienol Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of 8 related Tocopherols and Tocotrienols which are fat-soluble Panthenol is the Alcohol analog of Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5 and is thus the Provitamin of B5
Cosmetic companies have developed shampoos specifically for those who have dandruff. Dandruff (also called scurf and historically termed Pityriasis capitis) is due to the excessive shedding of dead skin cells from the Scalp. These contain fungicides such as ketoconazole, zinc pyrithione and selenium sulfide which reduce loose dander by killing Malassezia furfur. Fungicides are Chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores Ketoconazole is a synthetic Antifungal drug used to prevent and treat skin and fungal infections especially in immunocompromised patients such as those Zinc pyrithione is a coordination complex of Zinc. This colourless solid is used as an Antifungal and Antibacterial agent Selenium(IV sulfide (also selenium(IV sulphide; see spelling) selenium disulfide loose name: selenium sulfide. Malassezia (formerly known as Pityrosporum) is a genus of related Fungi, classified as Yeasts naturally found on the skin surfaces of many Coal tar and salicylate derivatives are often used as well. Coal tar is a brown or black liquid of high Viscosity, which smells of Naphthalene and Aromatic hydrocarbons Coal tar is among the by-products when coal Salicylic acid (from the Latin word for the willow tree Salix, from whose bark it can be obtained is a Beta hydroxy acid (BHA with the formula
Some companies use "all-natural", "organic", "botanical", or "plant-derived" ingredients (such as plant extracts or oils), combining these additions with one or more typical surfactants. The effectiveness of these organic ingredients is disputed.
Alternative shampoos, sometimes marketed as SLS-free, claim to have fewer harsh chemicals - typically none from the sulfate family. Sodium lauryl sulfate ( SLS) or sodium dodecyl sulfate ( SDS or NaDS ( C 12 H 25 S[[oxygen O]]4 They are sometimes claimed to be gentler on human hair.
Shampoo for infants and young children is formulated so that it is less irritating and usually less prone to produce a stinging or burning sensation if it were to get into the eyes. This is accomplished by one or more of the following formulation strategies:
The distinction in 4 above does not completely surmount controversy over the use of shampoo ingredients to mitigate eye sting produced by other ingredients, or of use of the products so formulated.
The considerations in 3 and 4 frequently result in a much greater multiplicity of surfactants being used in individual baby shampoos than in other shampoos, and the detergency and/or foaming of such products may be compromised thereby. The monoanionic sulfonated surfactants and viscosity-increasing or foam stabilizing alkanolamides seen so frequently in other shampoos are much less common in the better baby shampoos. 
Shampoo for animals (such as for dogs or cats) should be formulated especially for them, as their skin has fewer cell layers than human skin. The dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated Subspecies of the gray wolf, a Mammal of the Canidae family of the order WikipediaManual of Style (spelling, articles should conform to one overall spelling style of English typically the one most linked to the article topic (if it is geographic Cats' skin is 2-3 cell layers thick, while dogs' skin is 3-5 layers. Human skin, by contrast, is 10-15 cell layers thick. This is a clear example of why one should never use even something as mild as baby shampoo on a cat, dog, or other pet.
Shampoo intended for animals may contain insecticides or other medications for treatment of skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas or mange. An insecticide is a Pesticide used against Insects in all developmental forms Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between Organisms of different Species. Flea is the Common name for any of the small wingless Insects of the order Siphonaptera (some authorities use the name Aphaniptera Mange (from Middle English manjeue, from Old French manjue, from mangier, meaning to eat is a parasitic infestation of These must never be used on humans. It is equally important to note that while some human shampoos may be harmful when used on animals, any haircare products that contain active ingredients/drugs (such as zinc in antidandruff shampoos) are potentially toxic when ingested by animals. Special care must be taken not to use those products on pets. Cats are at particular risk due to their instinctive method of grooming their fur with their tongues.
Shampoo is also a cat from the cartoon,"Animal Run".
Solid shampoos or shampoo bars use as their surfactants soaps and/or other surfactants conveniently formulated as solids. They have the advantage of being spill-proof, and the disadvantage of being slowly applied, needing to be dissolved in use.
Stiff, non-pourable clear gels to be squeezed from a tube were once popular forms of shampoo, and can be made by an increase of the method used to increase viscosity of liquid products. Their containers could not be spilled, but unlike solids, they could still be lost down the drain by sliding off wet skin or hair. Formerly soap jelly was made at home by dissolving sodium soap in hot water ahead of the time it would be used for shampooing or other purposes, to avoid problem of slow application of solids noted above.
Shampoos in the form of pastes or creams were formerly marketed in jars or tubes. The contents were wet but not completely dissolved. They would apply faster than solids and dissolve quickly. Jar contents were prone to contamination by users and hence had to be very well preserved.
Powdered shampoos designed to work without water. They are typically based on powders such as starch or talc, and are intended to absorb excess sebum from the hair before being brushed out
Early shampoos used in Indonesia were made from the husk and straw (merang) of rice. Husk (or hull) in botany is the outer shell or coating of a seed Straw is an agricultural By-product, the dry stalk of a Cereal plant after the Grain or Seed has been removed Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many The husks and straws were burned into ash, and the ashes (which have alkaline properties) are mixed with water to form lather. In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal The most general definition of foam is a substance that is formed by trapping many gas Bubbles in a Liquid or Solid. The ashes and lather were scrubbed into the hair and rinsed out, leaving the hair clean, but very dry. Afterwards, coconut oil was applied to the hair in order to moisturize it. Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil with many applications