Sexology is the systematic study of human sexuality. Generally speaking human sexuality is how people experience and express themselves as sexual beings It encompasses all aspects of sexuality, including attempting to characterise "normal sexuality" and its variants. A sexual norm can refer to a Personal or a social norm Most cultures have social norms regarding sexuality, and define normal sexuality
Modern sexology is a multidisciplinary field which uses the techniques of fields including biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, epidemiology, pedagogics, sociology, anthropology, and sometimes criminology to bear on its subject. Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the Health and Illness of populations and serves as the foundation and Logic of interventions made in the Pedagogy (ˈpɛdəgɒdʒi or paedagogy is the Art or Science of being a Teacher. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of Schools of thought In the mid-18th century criminology arose as social philosophers gave thought to crime and concepts of law It studies human sexual development and the development of sexual relationships as well as the mechanics of sexual intercourse and sexual malfunction. Sexual development is the process by which an immature and sterile organism develops the capacity to reproduce Generally speaking human sexuality is how people experience and express themselves as sexual beings Sexual intercourse, in its biological sense is the act in which the male reproductive organ (in humans and other higher animals enters the female reproductive tract Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also Sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the Sexual act (which includes desire, It also documents the sexuality of special groups, such as handicapped, children, and elderly, and studies sexual pathologies such as sex addiction and child sexual abuse. Geriatric sexology is the systematic study of sexuality in the elderly Sexual addiction is a controversial term to describe sexual behaviour that is characterized at least by two key features recurrent failure to control the behavior and continuation of the Child sexual abuse is a form of Child abuse in which a child is abused for the sexual gratification of an adult or older adolescent
Note that sexology is considered descriptive, not prescriptive: it attempts to document reality, not to prescribe what behavior is suitable, ethical, or moral. Sexology has often been the subject of controversy between supporters of sexology, those who believe that sexology pries into matters held sacred, and those who philosophically object to its claims of objectivity and empiricism. SACRED was a Cubesat built by the Student Satellite Program of the University of Arizona. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language "n objective account is one which attempts to capture the nature of the object studied in a way that does not depend on any features of the particular subject who studies it In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience.
A number of ancient sex manuals exist, including Ovid's Ars Amatoria, the Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, the Ananga Ranga and The Perfumed Garden for the Soul's Recreation. Sex manuals are Books which explain how to perform Sexual intercourse and other Sexual practices They often also feature advice on Birth control Publius Ovidius Naso ( March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD was a Roman poet known to the English -speaking world as Ovid who wrote on many topics including The Kama Sutra ( Sanskrit: कामसूत्र (alternative spellings Kamasutram or simply Kamasutra) is an ancient Indian Mallanaga Vātsyāyana is the name of an Indian philosopher in the Vedic tradition who lived some time in the Gupta period ( 4th to 6th The Ananga Ranga ( Stage of Love) or Kamaledhiplava (Boat in the Sea of Love is an Indian love manual written by Kalyana malla in the The Perfumed Garden ( Arabic:الروض العاطر في نزهة الخاطر by Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Nafzawi is a Sex manual and work However, none of these treated sex as the subject of a formal field of scientific or medical research.
One of the earliest sex researchers prior to the 20th century sexology movement was Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing, whose book Psychopathia Sexualis, published in 1886, recorded a dizzying array of sexual anomalies. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing ( August 14 1840 &ndash December 22 1902) was an Austro-German sexologist and Psychiatrist Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing ( August 14 1840 &ndash December 22 1902) was an Austro-German sexologist and Psychiatrist Year 1886 ( MDCCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Sigmund Freud developed a theory of sexuality based on his studies of his clients. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded Wilhelm Reich and Otto Gross, were disciples of Freud, but rejected by him because of their emphasis of the role of sexuality for the revolutionary struggle for the emancipation of mankind. Wilhelm Reich ( March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian-American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. Otto Gross (1877–1920 was an Austrian Psychoanalyst. A maverick early disciple of Sigmund Freud, he later became an Anarchist and joined the utopian
Magnus Hirschfeld founded the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sexology) in Berlin in 1919. Magnus Hirschfeld ( May 14, 1868 - May 14, 1935) was a German- Jewish physician sex researcher, and early Gay rights The Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was an early private Sexology research institute in Germany from 1919 to 1933 Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common When the Nazis took power, one of their first actions, on May 6, 1933, was to destroy the Institute and burn the library.
In 1947, Alfred Kinsey founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University at Bloomington, now called the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction. Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Alfred Charles Kinsey (June 23 1894 &ndash August 25 1956 was an American Biologist and professor of Entomology and Zoology, who in 1947 The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex Gender and Reproduction, often shortened to The Kinsey Institute, exists "to promote interdisciplinary research and scholarship Indiana University is the flagship campus of the Indiana University system. Bloomington is a city and the County seat of Monroe County in the south central region of the U The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex Gender and Reproduction, often shortened to The Kinsey Institute, exists "to promote interdisciplinary research and scholarship
Masters and Johnson released their works Human Sexual Response in 1966 and Human Sexual Inadequacy in 1970. The Masters and Johnson research team, made up of William Masters and Virginia E Their books sold well, and they were founders of what became to be known as the Masters & Johnson Institute in 1978. Masters & Johnson Institute ( 1978 – 1994) was a clinical and research foundation created to study human sexuality with particular emphasis on the anatomy and physiology
Fritz Klein developed the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid a multi-dimensional system for describing complex sexual orientation, similar to the Kinsey scale, but measuring seven different vectors of sexual orientation and identity separately, and allowing for change over time. Fred (Fritz Klein ( December 27, 1932 May 24, 2006) was an American The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid attempts to further measure Sexual orientation by expanding upon the earlier Kinsey scale which categorizes sexual history from 0 The Kinsey scale attempts to describe a person's sexual history or episodes of their sexual activity at a given time Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes Sexual identity is a term that like sex, has two distinctively different meanings In 1978 Klein published The Bisexual Option, a groundbreaking psychological study of bisexuality and in 1998, he founded the American Institute of Bisexuality (AIB) to encourage, support and assist research and education about bisexuality. Fred (Fritz Klein ( December 27, 1932 May 24, 2006) was an American Bisexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of both sexes or to a bisexual orientation The American Institute of Bisexuality, Inc (AIB is a charity founded by Fritz Klein to promote research and education about Bisexuality. Bisexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of both sexes or to a bisexual orientation
The late Vern Bullough was a historian of sexology, as well as a researcher in the field. Vern Leroy Bullough ( July 24 1928 – June 21 2006) was an American Historian and Sexologist. A list of his books is provided. 
Sexology, as currently defined, is largely a 20th and 21st century phenomenon.
Sexology relates to a number of other fields of study:
Sexology also touches on public issues such as the debates over abortion, public health, birth control, sexual abuse and reproductive technology. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Schools of thought In the mid-18th century criminology arose as social philosophers gave thought to crime and concepts of law Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Ethology ( from Greek ἦθος ethos, "character" and λόγος logos, "knowledge") is the scientific study of Animal Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of Biology concerned with the origin of Species from a Common descent, and Descent of species Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the Health and Illness of populations and serves as the foundation and Logic of interventions made in the A sexually transmitted disease ( STD) or venereal disease ( VD) is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between Humans An Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society organisations Birth control, sometimes synonymous with contraception, is a regimen of one or more actions devices or Medications followed in order to deliberately prevent Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is the forcing of undesired sexual acts by one person upon another Reproductive technology encompases all current and anticipated uses of Technology in Human and Animal Reproduction, including Assisted reproductive
See also: Category:Sexologists
This is a list of sexologists and notable contributors to the field of sexology, sorted by the year of their birth: