|Regions with significant populations|
|Onan'dowa'ga, English, Other Iroquoian Dialects|
|Longhouse, Handsome Lake, Kai'hwi'io, Kanoh'hon'io, Kahni'kwi'io, other Christian denominations|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Onondaga Nation, Oneida Nation, Tuscarora Nation, Mohawk Nation, Cayuga Nation, other Iroquoian peoples, Wyandot Nation, Huron Nation, Neutral, Erie Nation, Lenape Nation, Shawnee Nation, Mingo Nation,|
other Iroquoian peoples
The Seneca are a group of indigenous people native to North America. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Seneca (in Seneca Onödowága or Onötowáka) is the language of the Seneca people, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The Longhouse Religion, refers to the religious movement founded in 1799 among peoples who formerly lived in longhouses Handsome Lake or Ganioda'yo ( Θkanyatararí•yau• in Tuscarora) (1735 – 10 August 1815) was a Seneca religious leader A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth The Onondaga ( Onöñda'gega' or the People of the Hills) are one of the original five constituent nations of the Iroquois ( Haudenosaunee) Confederacy The Oneida ( Onyota'aka or Onayotekaono, meaning the People of the Upright Stone or standing stone, Thwahrù•nęˀ in Tuscarora The Tuscarora ("hemp gatherers" are an American Indian tribe with members in New York, Canada, and North Carolina. Mohawk ( Kanienkeh, Kanienkehaka or Kanien’Kahake, meaning "People of the Flint" are an indigenous people of North America The Cayuga nation ( Guyohkohnyo or the People of the Great Swamp) was one of the five original constituents of the Haudenosaunee ( Iroquois) a confederacy The Iroquoian languages are a Native American Language family. The Neutrals, also known as the Attawandaron, were an Iroquoian nation of North American native people who lived near the shores of Lake Ontario The Erie (also Erieehronon, Eriechronon, Riquéronon, Erielhonan, Eriez, Nation du Chat) were an Iroquoian pre- The Shawnee, or Shaawanwaki, Shaawanooki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki, are a people native to North America. The Iroquoian languages are a Native American Language family. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. They are the westernmost nation within the Six Nations or Iroquois League. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse While exact population figures are unknown, approximately 15,000 to 25,000 Seneca live in Canada, near Brantford, Ontario, and in the United States, on and off reservations around Buffalo and in Oklahoma. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Brantford is a city located on the Grand River in south-western Ontario, Canada. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An Indian reservation is an area of land managed by a Native American Tribe under the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America.
The Seneca nation's own name is Onödowága', meaning "People of the Mountains", and is identical to the endonym used by the Onondagas. An exonym (from Greek el ἔξω exo = out el ὄνομα onoma = name is a name for a place that is not used within that place by the local The Onondaga ( Onöñda'gega' or the People of the Hills) are one of the original five constituent nations of the Iroquois ( Haudenosaunee) Confederacy With the formation of the Haudenosaunee ("People of the Longhouse") or the Iroquois Confederation in 1142, the Seneca became known as the "Keepers of the Western Door" because they settled and lived the farthest west of all the nations within the Haudenosaunee. Their name "Seneca" was designated by other nations, after the Seneca nation's principle village of Osininka. However, since "Osininka" sounds like the Anishinaabe word Asinikaa(n), meaning "[Those at the Place] Full of Stones", this gave rise to the confusion to non-Haudenosaunee nations in the Seneca nation's name with that of the Oneida nation's endonym Onyota'a:ka, meaning "People of the Standing Stone. The Oneida ( Onyota'aka or Onayotekaono, meaning the People of the Upright Stone or standing stone, Thwahrù•nęˀ in Tuscarora "
The Seneca traditionally lived in what is now New York between the Genesee River and Canandaigua Lake, with some recent archaeological evidence indicating that they lived all the way down to the Allegheny River into what is now northwestern Pennsylvania. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Genesee River's ( Čunehstí•yu• in Tuscarora) name is derived from the Seneca tribe word meaning good valley or pleasant valley Canandaigua Lake is the fourth largest of the Finger Lakes, in the U The Allegheny River is a principal Tributary of the Ohio River and is located in the Eastern United States. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The Senecas were by far the most populous of the Haudenosaunee Nations, with the ability to raise over ten thousand warriors by the seventeenth century. 
Traditionally, the Seneca Nation economy was based on the cultivation of corn, beans, and squash. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Bean is a common name for large plant Seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae used for human food or animal Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita native to the Mexico and Central America, also called marrows depending These vegetables were the staple of the Haudenosaunee diet and were called "the three sisters". The Three Sisters are the three main agricultural crops of some Native American groups in North America: squash, Maize, and climbing Beans Seneca women generally grew and harvested the three sisters, as well as gathered medicinal plants, roots, berries, nuts, and fruit. Seneca women held sole ownership of all the land and the homes, thus the women also tended to any domesticated animals like deer, dogs, and turkeys. Women were in charge of the kinship groups called clans. The woman in charge of a clan was called the "clan mother. " Despite the prominent position of women in Iroquois society, their influence on the diplomacy of the nation was limited. Although older women could lobby and pull some strings behind closed doors, the official decisions were made by the men (hence they were not matriarchical).
Seneca men were generally in charge of locating and developing the town sites including clearing the forest for the production of fields. Seneca men also spent a great deal of time hunting and fishing. This activity took them away from the towns or villages to well known and productive hunting and fishing grounds for extended amounts of time. These hunting and fishing locations were well maintained and not simply left to grow as "wild" lands.  Seneca men maintained the traditional title of War Sachems within the Haudenosaunee. A Seneca war sachem was in charge of gathering the warriors of the Haudenosaunee and leading them into battle.
Seneca people lived in villages and towns. A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet, but smaller than a Town or City. A town is a type of settlement ranging from a few to several thousand (occasionally hundreds of thousands inhabitants although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan Archaeological records indicate that some of these villages were surrounded by palisades because of warfare. palisade is a steel or wooden Fence or wall of variable height usually used as a defensive structure War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units These towns were relocated every ten to twenty years as soil, game and other resources were depleted. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Game is any Animal hunted for Food or not normally domesticated (such as Venison) During the ninteenth century, many Seneca adopted customs of their immediate American neighbors by building log cabins, practicing Christianity and participating in the local agricultural economy. A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated or generally accepted Standards norms social norms or criteria, often taking the form of A log cabin is a small house built from logs It is a fairly simple type of Log house. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
Notable Senecas in history include Deerfoot, Red Jacket, Sayenqueraghta, Cornplanter, Guyasuta, Handsome Lake, Ely S. Parker, Governor Blacksnake, Halftown, Half-King, Little Beard, Skunny Wundy, Mary Jemison, Arthur Parker, Isaac Newton Parker, Robert Hoag, Willam C. Deerfoot Trail is a freeway section of Highway 2 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Red Jacket (known as Otetiani in his youth and Sagoyewatha after 1780 (c Sayenqueraghta (c1707 &ndash 1786 was the war chief of the eastern Seneca tribe in the mid 18th century Gaiänt'wakê (c 1750&ndash1836 or Kaintwakon generally known as Cornplanter, was a Seneca war-chief Guyasuta (c1725&ndashc1794 was an important leader of the Seneca people in the second half of the eighteenth century playing a central role in the diplomacy and warfare Handsome Lake or Ganioda'yo ( Θkanyatararí•yau• in Tuscarora) (1735 – 10 August 1815) was a Seneca religious leader Ely Samuel Parker (1828 &ndash August 31, 1895) (born Hasanoanda, later known as Donehogawa) was an Iroquois of the Seneca Chainbreaker (c1760 - 1859 aka Governor Blacksnake and Tah-won-ne-ahs, was a Seneca warchief who along with other Iroquois leaders (most Tanacharison or Tanaghrisson (c 1700? &ndash 4 October 1754) was an American Indian leader who played a pivotal role in the beginning of the Little Beard, Si-gwa-ah-doh-gwih ("Spear Hanging Down" (died 1806 was a Seneca chief who participated in the American Revolutionary War on Mary Jemison (1743–1833 was an American frontierswoman and an adopted Seneca. Arthur Caswell Parker ( April 5 1881 – January 1 1955) was an Archaeologist, Historian Hoag, Frank Patterson, Cornelius Seneca, George Heron, Lionel R. John, Martin Seneca Sr. , Duwayne 'Duce' Bowen, Solomon McLane, Barry Snyder Sr. , William Seneca, and Catherine Montour. Madame Catherine (also Catharine) Montour, or Queen Catharine (1710&ndash1804 was born in New France and became a prominent woman among
During the colonial period they became involved in the fur trade, first with the Dutch and then with the British. The term colonial history of the United States refers to the history of the land that would become the United States from the start of European settlement to the time of independence The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal Fur. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands This served to increase hostility with other native groups, especially their traditional enemy, the Huron, an Iroquoian tribe in New France near Lake Simcoe. "Huron" redirects here For other uses see Huron (disambiguation. The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Lake Simcoe is a Lake in southern Ontario, Canada, the twelfth-largest lake in the province During the seventeenth century, attacks on Huron villages caused the destruction and dispersal of the Huron. Captives were often adopted into the tribe depending on the age and gender; however, slavery and execution were also possible, though this was usually limited to captured soldiers. Adoption is the act of legally placing a child with a Parent or parents other than those to whom they were born A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use
During the American Revolutionary War, some Senecas sided with the British and Loyalists and as a result, in 1779 came under attack by United States forces as part of the Sullivan Expedition. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" This article concerns Loyalists in the American Revolution. For information on the role of those Loyalists in Canadian history after their emigration see United Empire Background When the American Revolutionary War began British officials as well as the colonial Continental Congress sought the allegiance (or at least the neutrality On July 8, 1788, the Senecas (along with some Mohawk, Oneida, Onondagoes, and Cayogas tribes) sold rights to land east of the Genesee River in New York to Oliver Phelps and Nathaniel Gorham of Massachusetts. Events 939 - The Major Occultation or Ghaybat el-Kubra of Muhammad al-Mahdi 1099 - First Crusade: 15000 Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap The Phelps and Gorham Purchase was the purchase in 1788 of the pre-emptive right to some 6000000 Acres (24000 km² of land in western New York State for $1000000 Oliver Phelps (1749 - 1809 was born in Windsor Connecticut and moved to Suffield Connecticut, where he apprenticed to a local merchant Nathaniel Gorham (May 27 1738 – June 11 1796 was the eighth President of the United States in Congress assembled, under the Articles of Confederation. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States.  On November 11, 1794, the Seneca (along with the other Haudenosaunee nations) signed the Treaty of Canandaigua with the United States agreeing to peaceful relations. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Treaty of Canandaigua was signed at Canandaigua, New York on November 11, 1794, by fifty sachems and war chiefs representing the Grand Council On January 15, 1838, the Treaty of Buffalo Creek was signed relocating the Senecas to a tract of land west of Missouri. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1838 ( MDCCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The Treaty of Buffalo Creek (also known as the Treaty With The New York Indians 1838) was signed on January 15, 1838 (proclaimed on April 4, Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee The Seneca formed a modern government, the Seneca Nation of Indians, in 1848, but the traditional tribal government still governs the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A split between the Tonawanda Band and the remainder of the Seneca Nation occurred in the mid-1800s
While it is unknown exactly how many Seneca people there are, approximately ten thousand Seneca live near Lake Erie. Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally
About 7,800 Seneca people are citizens of the Seneca Nation of Indians. The Seneca Nation of Indians was established in 1848 by a Constitutional Convention of Seneca people residing on the Allegany and Cattaragus Territories These enrolled members live or work on five reservations in New York: the Allegany (which contains the city of Salamanca), the Cattaraugus near Gowanda, New York, the Buffalo Creek Territory located in downtown Buffalo, NY, the Niagara Falls Territory located due east of Niagara Falls, and the Oil Springs, near Cuba, New York. Allegany Reservation ( Uhì•yaˀ in Tuscarora) is an American Indian reservation in Cattaraugus County, New York, Salamanca is a Town in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. Cattaraugus Reservation is an Indian reservation of the Seneca Indian Nation of the Iroquois Confederacy located in New York. Gowanda is a Village in New York in the United States and lies partly in Erie County and partly in Cattaraugus County. Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. The Niagara Falls are massive Waterfalls on the Niagara River, straddling the international border separating the Canadian province of Ontario Oil Springs Reservation is an Indian reservation of the Seneca tribe located in New York, USA. Cuba New York is a Village and a Town in Allegany County New York. Few Seneca reside at the Oil Springs, Buffalo Creek, or Niagara Territories due to the small amount of land present-- in the case of the last two, because those territories are specifically laid out for casinos.
Another 1,200 or more Seneca people are citizens of the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians and live on the Tonawanda Reservation near Akron, New York. A split between the Tonawanda Band and the remainder of the Seneca Nation occurred in the mid-1800s Tonawanda Reservation is an Indian reservation of the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians located in Erie County, New York, United States Akron New York is a Village in Erie County, New York, United States.
Other Seneca descendants are members of the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma near Miami, Oklahoma, plus a considerable number are citizens of Six Nations and reside on the Grand River Territory near Brantford, Ontario, Canada. The Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma enjoys the same Tribal sovereignty as all recognized Indian tribes in the United States. See also Miami (disambiguation Miami is a city in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, United States. Six Nations of the Grand River is the name applied to two contiguous Indian reserves southeast of Brantford Ontario, Canada &ndash Six Nations reserve Brantford is a city located on the Grand River in south-western Ontario, Canada. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
Other enrolled members of the Seneca Nation live throughout the United States.
The Seneca commenced an action to reclaim land that allegedly was taken from it without the approval of the United States on August 25, 1993, in the United States District Court for the Western District of New York. Events 1248 - The Dutch city of Ommen receives city rights and fortification rights from Otto III the Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) The United States District Court for the Western District of New York is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties Allegany, The lands consisted of several islands. In November 1993, the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians moved to join the claim as a plaintiff which was ultimately granted. A split between the Tonawanda Band and the remainder of the Seneca Nation occurred in the mid-1800s In 1998, the United States intervened in the lawsuits on behalf of the plaintiffs in the claim in order for the claim to proceed against New York in light of its assertion of it immunity from suit under the Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Eleventh Amendment ( Amendment XI) of the United States Constitution was passed by the U  After extensive negotiations and pre-trial procedures all parties to the claim moved for judgment as a matter of law. By decision and order dated June 21, 2002, the trial court held that the subject lands were ceded to Great Britain in the 1764 treaties of peace and that the subject lands were not owned by the Seneca at the time of the 1794 Treaty of Canandaigua and that New York's "purchase" of them in 1815 was intended to avoid conflict with the Senecas over land it already owned. Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The Treaty of Canandaigua was signed at Canandaigua, New York on November 11, 1794, by fifty sachems and war chiefs representing the Grand Council  This decision was appealed and the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit affirmed the trial court's decision on September 9, 2004. The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals. Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "  The Senecas then sought review of this decision by the Supreme Court of the United States which was denied on June 5, 2006. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
On April 18, 2007, the Seneca Nation laid claim to a stretch of Interstate 90 that crosses the Cattaraugus Reservation by revoking the 1954 agreement that granted the Interstate Highway System and New York State Thruway Authority permission to build the highway through the territory. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Interstate 90 (I-90 is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3100 miles (5000 kilometers The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System) The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll Highway in the U The move was a direct shot at New York Governor Eliot Spitzer's attempts to collect taxes on Seneca territory. Eliot Laurence Spitzer (born June 10, 1959) is an American lawyer and former politician of the Democratic Party.  The Senecas had previously made the same claim in a lawsuit which they lost because of the state's assertion of sovereign immunity.  In Magistrate Heckman's Report and Recommendation it was noted that the State of New York asserted its immunity from suit against both counts of the complaint (one count was the challenge regarding the state's acquisition of Grand Island and other smaller islands in the Niagara River and another count challenging the thruway easement). Grand Island is a Town and an Island in Erie County, New York, USA. The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The United States was permitted to intervene on behalf of the Seneca Nation and the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians. A split between the Tonawanda Band and the remainder of the Seneca Nation occurred in the mid-1800s The United States was then directed to file an amended complaint that "clearly states the relief sought by the United States in this action. " In this amended complaint the United States did not seek any relief on behalf of the Seneca Nation relative to the thruway easement. By not seeking such relief in its amended complaint the United States permitted the action relative to the thruway easement to be subject to dismissal based on New York's immunity from suit under the Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution.  On May 4, the Seneca Nation threatened to do the same with Interstate 86. Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV Interstate 86 was once assigned to what is now Interstate 84 east of East Hartford, Connecticut. 
The Senecas have a diversified economy that relies on construction, recreation, tourism, retail sales, and have recently become involved in the gaming industry.
Several large construction companies are located on the Cattaraugus and Allegany Territories. There are also many smaller construction companies that are owned and operated by Seneca people. A considerable number of Seneca men work in some facet of the construction industry.
Recreation is one component of Seneca enterprises. The Highbanks Campground plays host to several thousand visitors every summer, as people take in the scenic vistas and enjoy the Allegheny Reservoir. The Allegheny River is a principal Tributary of the Ohio River and is located in the Eastern United States. Several thousand fishing licenses are sold each year to non-Seneca fishermen. Many of these customers are tourists to the region. Tourism in the area often comes as a direct result of several major highways adjacent or on the Seneca Nation Territories that provide ready accessiblity to local, regional and national traffic. Many tourists visit the region during the autumn for the fall foliage.
A substantial portion of the Seneca economy revolves around retail sales. From sports apparel to candles to artwork to traditional crafts, the wide range of products for sale on Seneca Nation Territories reflect the diverse interest of Seneca Nation citizens.
The price advantage of the Senecas' ability to sell tax-free gasoline and cigarettes has created a boom in their economy, including many service stations along the state highways that run through the reservations as well as many internet cigarette stores. A cigarette ( French "small Cigar " from cigar + -ette) is a product consumed through Smoking and manufactured This, however, has raised the ire of two groups: non-Indian service stations that cannot compete because of New York's high cigarette and gasoline taxes, and the State of New York, who believes that the internet cigarette sales are illegal and that the state still has authority to tax non-Indians who patronize Seneca businesses, a principle that the Senecas vehemently reject. Seneca President Barry Snyder has defended the price advantage as an issue of sovereignty and cited the Treaty of Canandaigua and Treaty of Buffalo Creek that suggest that Indians are tax exempt. The Treaty of Canandaigua was signed at Canandaigua, New York on November 11, 1794, by fifty sachems and war chiefs representing the Grand Council The Treaty of Buffalo Creek (also known as the Treaty With The New York Indians 1838) was signed on January 15, 1838 (proclaimed on April 4,  This position was rejected by the Appellate Division of the New York Supreme Court, Third Department.  In that decision the court held that the provisions of that treaty regarding taxation was only with regard to property taxes. Property tax, or millage tax, is an Ad valorem tax that an owner pays on the value of the property being taxed This decision was affirmed by the New York Court of Appeals on December 1, 1994. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) 
In 1997, New York State attempted to enforce taxation of Indian gasoline and cigarettes. The attempt was thwarted after a large number of Senecas set fire to tires and cut off traffic to Interstate 90 and New York State Route 17 (the future Interstate 86). Interstate 90 (I-90 is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3100 miles (5000 kilometers Interstate 86 was once assigned to what is now Interstate 84 east of East Hartford, Connecticut. 
Attorney General Eliot Spitzer attempted to cut off internet cigarette sales, including negotiating deals with credit card companies and delivery services to not handle cigarette purchases to consumers. Eliot Laurence Spitzer (born June 10, 1959) is an American lawyer and former politician of the Democratic Party.  Another attempt at collecting taxes on gasoline and cigarettes sold to non-Indians was set to begin March 1, 2006; but it was tabled, much to the chagrin of Spitzer and the state legislature, by the State Department of Taxation and Finance. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
Shortly after March 1, 2006, a couple of proceedings were commenced to compel the State of New York to enforce its tax laws on sales to non-Indians on Indian land. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. One proceeding was commenced by Seneca County, New York which was dismissed. Seneca County is a County located in the US state of New York.  The other was commenced by the New York State Association of Convenience Stores and this proceeding was also dismissed.  Based on the dismissal of these proceedings, Daniel Warren, a member and officer of Upstate Citizens for Equality, has moved to vacate the judgment dismissing his 2002 state court action that was dismissed because of his lack of standing. The Upstate Citizens for Equality (UCE is a group based in Verona New York that opposes the Indian Land Claim and what they see as flawed Federal Indian Policy 
The Seneca Nation began to develop its gambling industry during the 1980s when bingo was introduced. Bingo is a Game of chance in which randomly selected numbers are drawn and players match those numbers to those appearing on 5x5 matrices which are printed or electronically In 2002, the Seneca Nation of Indians signed a Gaming Compact with the State of New York to cooperate in the establishment of three class III gambling facilities (casinos). Currently the Seneca Nation of Indians owns and operates two casinos: one in Niagara Falls, New York called Seneca Niagara and the other in Salamanca called Seneca Allegany. The Seneca Nation of Indians was established in 1848 by a Constitutional Convention of Seneca people residing on the Allegany and Cattaragus Territories Niagara Falls is a City in Niagara County, New York, United States. Seneca Niagara Casino & Hotel is a Casino located in Niagara Falls, New York and was built to compete with Casino Niagara and Niagara Fallsview Salamanca is a Town in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. The third, the Seneca Buffalo Creek Casino, is under construction in downtown Buffalo. Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. There are groups that are opposing the Seneca Nation's establishment of the Seneca Buffalo Creek Casino. They include Upstate Citizens for Equality and Citizens for a Better Buffalo, who recently won a lawsuit challenging the legality of the proposed casino in Buffalo.
Many Seneca people are employed in the local economy of the region as professionals, including; lawyers, professors, physicians, police officers, teachers, social workers, nurses, and managers.