Rider on Segway i2 Personal Transporter
The Segway PT is a two-wheeled, self-balancing electric vehicle invented by Dean Kamen and unveiled in December 2001. The Electric Vehicle was an American Automobile manufactured only in 1899 A dicycle is a Vehicle with two Wheels parallel to each other unlike the usual Motorbikes and Bicycles which have a wheel followed by another Dean L Kamen (born April 5, 1951) is an American Entrepreneur and Inventor from New Hampshire. A dicycle is a Vehicle with two Wheels parallel to each other unlike the usual Motorbikes and Bicycles which have a wheel followed by another The Electric Vehicle was an American Automobile manufactured only in 1899 Dean L Kamen (born April 5, 1951) is an American Entrepreneur and Inventor from New Hampshire. It is produced by Segway Inc. of New Hampshire. New Hampshire ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The name "Segway" is a homophone of "segue" (a smooth transition, literally Italian for "follows"). A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning A segue is a smooth transition from one topic or section to the next PT is an initialism for personal transporter while the old acronym HT was an initialism for human transporter. Acronyms, initialisms, and alphabetisms are Abbreviations that are formed using the initial components in a phrase or name Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another
Computers and motors in the base of the device keep the Segway PT upright when powered on with balancing enabled. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. Users lean forward to go forward, lean back to go backward, and turn by using a "Lean Steer" handlebar, leaning it left or right. Earlier HTs used a twist grip to steer by twisting the grip left and right. Segway PTs are driven by electric motors at up to 5. 6 m/s (12. 5 mph/20 km/h). (For the South African airport with IATA code "KMH" see Johan Pienaar Airport. Gyroscopic sensors (see vibrating structure gyroscope) are used to detect tilting of the device which indicates a departure from perfect balance. In Science, a vibrating structure gyroscope is a type of Gyroscope that functions much like the Halteres of insects Motors driving the wheels are commanded as needed to bring the PT back into balance. Segways do not have or need mechanical brakes; this makes their use illegal on public roads in jurisdictions which classify them as some form of motor vehicle. A brake is a device for slowing or stopping the motion of a Machine or Vehicle, or alternatively a device to restrain it from starting to move again
In laws that regulate it, the applicable category is sometimes called "electric personal assistive mobility device" (EPAMD). A niche that Segways have been often adopted into is transportation across military bases, warehouses, corporate campuses or industrial sites, or neighborhoods in place of walking or bicycles.
The Segway PT has been known by the names Ginger and IT in the past. The name Ginger followed the name of the project the Segway branched from: the inspiration behind the Segway PT came from the balancing technology of Kamen's innovative wheelchair, the iBOT, a wheelchair which can climb stairs, and prop itself up to balance on two wheels, thus raising the user up to an eye-level position. The iBOT is a very stable and mobile powered Wheelchair developed by Dean Kamen in a partnership between DEKA and Johnson and Johnson 's A wheelchair is a wheeled Mobility device in which the user sits The first iterations of balancing technology were done in early Segway models. It was called Fred Upstairs, after Fred Astaire — hence Ginger after Astaire's regular feature film partner, Ginger Rogers. Fred Astaire (born Frederick Austerlitz; May 10, 1899 &ndash June 22, 1987) was an American Academy Award Ginger Rogers ( July 16, 1911 &ndash April 25, 1995) was an Academy Award -winning American film and stage actress
The advance buzz about the then-unknown product was, at times, hyperbolic. Steve Jobs claimed that it would be "as big a deal as the PC". Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24 1955 is the Co-founder, Chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc and former CEO of Pixar Animation  Articles were written in major publications speculating on it being a Stirling engine or antigravity device. A Stirling engine is a closed-cycle regenerative Heat engine with a Gaseous working fluid Anti-gravity is the idea of creating a place or object that is free from the force of Gravity.  The product was unveiled December 3, 2001 on the ABC News morning program Good Morning America. Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Good Morning America ( GMA) is a morning news show that is broadcast on the ABC television network debuting on November 
In September 2003 the Segway PT was recalled because of the possibility of some PTs not being able to provide enough propulsive power to maintain balance while still in motion, particularly when the batteries are near the end of charge, allowing the rider to fall. With a new software patch to version 12. 0, the PT will automatically slow down and stop in response to detecting that the battery's power capability is low, thus allowing a rider to dismount safely.
In August 2006, Segway discontinued all previous models and announced new second generation designs that upgraded many elements of the previous transporters. The Gen II PT, marketed under the two product lines, i2 and x2, allows users to steer by leaning the handlebars to the right or left, which matches the intuitive nature of leaning forward and backward to accelerate and decelerate. Another feature is wireless InfoKey access. 
In September 2006, all 23,500 of the vehicles were voluntarily recalled. A glitch within the "speed limiter" created a risk of causing a rearward torque to be suddenly applied to the wheels, throwing off its rider.  Segway released a patch to its software (version 14. 2) to resolve the problem.
The invention, development, and financing of the Segway is the subject of a narrative nonfiction book, Code Name Ginger (in paperback as Reinventing the Wheel), by journalist Steve Kemper.
In 2003 the company sold 6,000 units, and by September 2006 approximately 23,500 had been sold.  In May 2006, Segway Inc. reported that the city of Chicago had signed a twenty-year, $580,000 contract to purchase 30 Segway GTs, associated accessories, replacement parts and service, for use in several city departments, including Police, Fire, Airport Operations and Emergency Management. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. It was the largest municipal contract the company had signed. 
The dynamics of the Segway PT are identical to a classic control problem, the inverted pendulum. An inverted pendulum is a Pendulum which has its mass above its pivot point The Segway PT has electric motors powered by batteries which can be charged from household current. An electric motor uses Electrical energy to produce Mechanical energy. In electronics a battery is a combination of two or more Electrochemical cells which store chemical Energy which can be converted into electrical energy It balances with the help of dual computers running proprietary software, two tilt sensors, and five gyroscopes. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of Angular momentum. (The gyroscopes do not affect the balance; they are merely used as sensors. ) The servo drive motors rotate the wheels forwards or backwards as needed for balance or propulsion. A servo drive is a special electric amplifier used to power electric Servo motors It monitors feedback signals from the motor and continually adjusts for deviation from expected The rider accelerates or decelerates by leaning forward or backwards in the direction they wish to travel. On older models, steering is controlled by a twist grip on the left handlebar, which simply varies the speeds between the two motors, rotating the Segway PT (a decrease in the speed of the left wheel would turn the Segway PT to the left). Newer models enable the use of "leaning" to steer as well as move forwards or backwards.
The Segway PT is built simply to stay balanced in one place. Designed to mirror the process of human walking, if the rider standing on an initially balanced Segway PT leans forward, therefore offsetting the balance, the PT moves forward to regain balance just as in walking a leg moves forward to retain balance. With the Segway PT, changes from a balanced status are first detected by the gyroscopes, and signals are passed on to the onboard computers which then direct motors to regain balance. This process occurs about 100 times per second, so small adjustments to maintain balance occur almost immediately after the balance is offset by the rider. 
The side effect of this balancing system is that as the Segway PT balances itself the entire unit changes position in the direction it has moved to restore balance. (For example, if the rider leans forward, the entire Segway PT will move forward from its original position, until the rider restores an upright position on the unit. ) This is precisely how the Segway PT is controlled - the balancing and movement is essentially one combined system.
The Segway PT features a governor (speed limiting) mechanism. A governor is a device used to measure and regulate the Speed of a Machine, such as an Engine. When the Segway PT approaches the maximum speed allowed by the software, it intentionally begins to tilt slightly backwards. This moves the platform out in front, and leans the handlebars backwards towards the rider, eventually nudging the rider to lean back slightly and slow the Segway PT down. If not for the governor, riders would be able to lean farther than the motor could ever compensate for. The Segway PT also slows or stops immediately if the handlebar of the unit (or forward bag) nudges into any obstacle.
The Segway PT is designed to be used on sidewalks, other pedestrian areas, as well as bicycle lanes and city streets depending on local laws. A sidewalk (chiefly North American English) pavement ( British English and Philadelphia dialect) footpath ( Australian English A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot whether Walking or Running. Its footprint is approximately half a square meter (or 4 square feet).
It is used in some theme parks by both visitors and employees. Theme park is the generic term for a collection of rides and other Entertainment attractions assembled for the purpose of entertaining a large group Some companies are known to organize guided group tours on Segway PTs in the USA, France, Thailand and other countries. Certain organizations have run pilot tests on Segway business use, among them police departments, post offices, warehouses, and utility companies.
Some disabled people (4,000-7,000, according to a group called Disability Rights Advocates for Technology) use Segways to enhance their mobility. Using a Segway PT instead of a traditional wheelchair or iBOT (which costs four to five times as much as a Segway PT) allows them to easily travel around the city, while easing social interactions. The iBOT is a very stable and mobile powered Wheelchair developed by Dean Kamen in a partnership between DEKA and Johnson and Johnson 's This has also been supported by a product called the SegSeat that adds a seat to the Segway PT for users with limited capacity to stand for long periods. Segways cannot be marketed in the US as medical devices, because they have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a medical device. Johnson & Johnson claim exclusive rights to the medical uses of the balancing technology found within the iBOT and Segway PT. Johnson & Johnson ( is a global American Pharmaceutical, Medical devices and consumer packaged goods Manufacturer founded in 1886
The Segway has also been used as a platform for movie camera tracking shots in films including Hot Fuzz. Hot Fuzz is a 2007 British action Comedy film written by Simon Pegg and Edgar Wright and starring Simon  It is also popular in the robotics community, and has been used for various purposes such as object retrieval and autonomous mapping. See also Robot Robotics is the science and technology of Robots and their design manufacture and application A model of the Segway exists in various 3D robot simulators, such as in the Player Project. The Player Project (formerly the Player/Stage Project or Player/Stage/Gazebo Project) is a project to create Free software for research into Robotics
Previous versions included (in order of release):
Top speed was 4. 5 m/s in the p-Series.
In 2006, series i2 and x2, were released, replacing the older lineup:
The Segway's i-Series model's maximum speed is 12. 5 mph (approximately 20 km/h). Maximum power is 2 horsepower (1500 watts) per servo motor. The watt (symbol W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one Joule of energy per Second. The i-Series is capable of covering 15–25 miles (25–40 km) on a fully charged lithium ion battery, depending on terrain, riding style, and the condition of the batteries.  It takes 8-10 hours to complete a full balancing and recharging cycle. For each 15 minutes of time re-charging, the batteries regain a mile of charge. The batteries also recharge while riding downhill. The p-Series is capable of covering 6–10 miles (10–16 km) on a fully charged nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery, depending on terrain. It takes 4–6 hours to recharge, and regains 1 mile for every 30 minutes charging.
The newer models i2 and x2 weigh 105 lb and 120 lb (48 and 54 kg) respectively.
In May 2008, Segway introduced it's i2 model in new "Metallic Sage" color.
The original Segway models were activated using one of three keys:
For the new i2 and x2, an InfoKey is used to control settings. The Infokey can turn on the PT from up to 15 feet away, as well as turn on beginner mode (the equivalent of the old Black Key) or advanced mode (the equivalent of the Red Key), show mileage and a trip odometer, as well as put the Segway into Security mode, which locks the wheels and will set off an alarm if moved.
In New South Wales, Australia, the Segway has been confirmed by the Roads and Traffic Authority as being illegal on both roads and footpaths. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA is a New South Wales ( Australia) government agency responsible for major Road infrastructure licensing of drivers "In simple terms, riders are way too exposed to mix with general traffic on a road and too fast, heavy and consequently dangerous to other users on footpaths or cycle paths. "
In April 2008, the Dutch Government announced that it would ease the ban it had imposed in January 2007 that made illegal to use a Segway on public roads in the Netherlands.  Until recently, a tolerance policy was in place due to the inability of the authorities to classify the Segway as a vehicle.  However, certain handicapped people, primarily heart and lung patients, are allowed to use the Segway, but only on pavement. From the summer of 2008 anyone over the age of 16 will be able to use a Segway on Dutch roads but users will need to buy custom insurance. A 25km/h speed limit is imposed. 
In the UK it is unlawful to use a Segway anywhere other than on private property and only with the owners permission. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  Britain's two largest opposition political parties, the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats, have lobbied the Government to change the law to allow Segways to use public cycle lanes. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal Political party in the United Kingdom, formed in 1988 by merging the 
In Denmark the Segway is classified as a moped, requiring it to be fitted with lights, license plates and mechanical brakes, effectively banning it from public roads. Mopeds are a class of low-powered (typically under 50 cc displacement) motorized vehicle generally two or three wheeled 
In Germany the use of a Segway is only allowed on private grounds except for some city tours that require a special permit. On 25 April 2007 the use of a Segway on public bicycle paths, sidewalks and roads within city limits was allowed in the state of Saarland after local police tested it. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Saarland (ˈzaːɐ̯lant in German; French: Sarre) is one of the 16 federal states (German Bundesländer) of Germany.
In Italy it's used by polizia ferroviaria (railway police)in Termini station of Rome. Roma Termini (in Italian, Stazione Termini or Stazione di Roma Termini) is the main train station of Rome.
In Japan, the Segway is treated as a motorcycle with an engine displacement between 50 cc and 125 cc. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. As such, the vehicle must be equipped with brakes and signal lights, and must register for a license plate, making it virtually impossible to lawfully use Segway on public roads. 
The company has challenged bans and sought exemption from pavement restrictions in over 30 states. The Segway PT has been banned from use on sidewalks and in public transportation in a few municipalities, often because it is not classified as a medical device. A sidewalk (chiefly North American English) pavement ( British English and Philadelphia dialect) footpath ( Australian English A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or Advocacy groups for pedestrians and the blind in the US have been critical of Segway PT use: America Walks and the American Council of the Blind oppose allowing the PT to be driven on sidewalks, even for those with disabilities, and have actively lobbied against any such legislation. The American Council of the Blind (ACB is a nation wide organization in the United States America Walks' official position is:
|“||Nothing that moves faster than walking speed belongs in the space intended for walking.||”|
The American Council of the Blind's official position is:
|“||The Segway may well have a good use and place in our environment, but it is clear [. . . ] that insufficient attention is being paid to pedestrian safety and injuries and deaths are not the price we should be paying for innovation.||”|
In the US the price (MSRP, August 2007) of the various Segway models ranges from $5,145 to $6,175. 
In France a Segway sells at between 6400€ and 7200€. Their legal status is still uncertain.
Segways can be rented in some American and European cities for around €70 ($110 USD) per day.
When it was launched in December 2001 the annual sales target was 40,000 units,  and the company expected to sell 50,000 to 100,000 units in the first 13 months. Segway Inc's investors were optimistic. Inventor Dean Kamen predicted that the Segway "will be to the car what the car was to the horse and buggy" and John Doerr, a venture capitalist who invested in the company, predicted that Segway Inc would be the fastest company to reach $1 billion in sales. Dean L Kamen (born April 5, 1951) is an American Entrepreneur and Inventor from New Hampshire. L John Doerr (born June 29, 1951 in St Louis Missouri) is an American Venture capitalist at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers Venture capital (also known as VC or Venture) is a type of Private equity capital typically provided to immature high-potential growth companies  In fact only about 30,000 Segways were sold from 2001 to 2007. 
Critics point to Segway Inc's silence over its financial performance as an indication that the company is still not profitable, as about $100 million was spent developing the Segway.