A security guard or security officer is usually a privately and formally employed person who is paid to protect property, assets, or people. Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual Often, security officers are uniformed and act to protect property by maintaining a high visibility presence to deter illegal and inappropriate actions, observing (either directly, through patrols, or by watching alarm systems or video cameras) for signs of crime, fire or disorder; then taking action and reporting any incidents to their client and emergency services as appropriate. A uniform is a set of standard Clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity An alarm (French À l'arme - "To the arms" gives an audible or visual Warning of a problem or condition Closed-circuit television ( CCTV) is the use of Video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place limited set of monitors In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment Emergency services are organizations which ensure Public safety by addressing different emergencies Since at least the Middle Ages in Europe, the term watchman was more commonly applied to this function. Watchmen were groups of men usually authorised by a state government or society to deter criminal activity and provide law enforcement
Many security firms and proprietary security departments practice the "detect, deter, observe and report" methodology. Security officers are not required to make arrests (but have the authority to make a citizen's arrest) or otherwise act as an agent of law enforcement at the request of a police officer, sheriff, and others. A citizen's arrest is an Arrest made by a Person who is not a sworn law enforcement official. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force SHERIFF is a telecom fraud detection and management system originally developed by BT and MCI.
In addition to the methodology mentioned above, a private security officer's primary duty is the prevention and deterrence of crime. Security personnel enforce company rules and can act to protect lives and property. In fact, they frequently have a contractual obligation to provide these actions. Security officers are often trained to perform arrest and control procedures (including handcuffing and restraints), operate emergency equipment, perform first aid, CPR, take accurate notes, write detailed reports, and perform other tasks as required by the contractee they are serving. First aid is the provision of initial care for an Illness or Injury. Many security officers are required to go through additional training mandated by the state for the carrying of weapons such as batons, firearms, and pepper spray (e. g. the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services in California has requirements that a license for each item listed must be carried while on duty).  Some officers are required to complete police certification for special duties. Positions are also set to grow in the U. S. , with 350,000 new security jobs expected over the next decade.  In recent years, due to elevated threats of terrorism, most security officers are required to have bomb-threat training and/or emergency crisis training, especially those located in soft target areas such as shopping malls, schools, and any other area where the general public congregate. Soft target is a military term referring to unarmored/undefended targets needing to be destroyed
One major economic justification for security personnel is that insurance companies (particularly fire insurance carriers) will give substantial rate discounts to sites which have a 24-hour presence; for a high risk or high value venue, the discount can often exceed the money being spent on its security program. Insurance, in Law and Economics, is a form of Risk management primarily used to hedge against the Risk of a contingent loss This is because having security on site increases the odds that any fire will be noticed and reported to the local fire department before a total loss occurs. Also, the presence of security personnel (particularly in combination with effective security procedures) tends to diminish "shrinkage," theft, employee misconduct and safety rule violations, property damage, or even sabotage. In financial accounting the term inventory shrinkage (sometimes truncated to shrink) is the loss of products between point of manufacture or purchase from Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy oppressor or employer through subversion obstruction disruption and/or destruction Many casinos hire security guards to protect money when transferring it from the casino to the casino's bank. A casino is in the modern sense of the word a facility that houses and accommodates certain types of Gambling activities
Security personnel may also perform access control at building entrances and vehicle gates; meaning, they ensure that employees and visitors display proper passes or identification before entering the facility. Access control is the ability to permit or deny the use of a particular resource by a particular entity In Architecture, Construction, Engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following Any man-made Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. Security officers are often called upon to respond to minor emergencies (lost persons, lockouts, dead vehicle batteries, etc. ) and to assist in serious emergencies by guiding emergency responders to the scene of the incident, helping to redirect foot traffic to safe locations, and by documenting what happened on an incident report. Armed security officers are frequently contracted to respond as law enforcement until a given situation at a client location is under control and/or public authorities arrive on the scene.
Patrolling is usually a large part of a security officer's duties. Often these patrols are logged by use of a guard tour patrol system, which require regular patrols. A Guard tour patrol system is a system for logging the rounds of employees in a variety of situations such as Security guards patrolling property technicians monitoring climate-controlled The most commonly used form used to be mechanical clock systems that required a key for manual punching of a number to a strip of paper inside with the time pre-printed on it. Recently, electronic systems have risen in popularity due to their light weight, ease of use, and downloadable logging capabilities . Regular patrols are, however, becoming less accepted as an industry standard, as it provides predictability for the would-be criminal, as well as monotony for the security officer on duty. Random patrols are easily programmed into these systems, allowing greater freedom of movement and unpredictability. Global positioning systems are also easing their way into the market as a more effective means of tracking officer movement and patrol behavior. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth
Although security officers differ greatly from police officers, military personnel, federal agents/officers, and the like, the United States has a growing proportion of security personnel that have former police or military experience, including senior management personnel. On the other hand, some security officers, young people in particular, use the job as practical experience to use in applying to law enforcement agencies.
Security personnel are classified as either of the following
Industry terms for various security personnel include: Security guards, security agents, watchmen, security officers, safety patrol, Armed Security, Private Police, Company police, Loss Prevention, Bodyguards, Executive Protection Agents, or Access Managers. A security guard or security officer is usually a privately and formally employed person who is paid to protect Property, assets or people A security guard or security officer is usually a privately and formally employed person who is paid to protect Property, assets or people A security guard or security officer is usually a privately and formally employed person who is paid to protect Property, assets or people A security guard or security officer is usually a privately and formally employed person who is paid to protect Property, assets or people Company police, also called Private Police, are Police officers who work for a private company rather than a government agency Company police, also called Private Police, are Police officers who work for a private company rather than a government agency Retail loss prevention (in some retailers known as Asset Protection) is a form of private investigation into Larceny or Theft. A bodyguard (or "close protection officer" is a type of Security guard or government agent who protects a person—usually a famous wealthy or politically Other job titles in the security industry include dispatcher, receptionist, driver, supervisor, alarm responder, mall security officer, private patrol officer, Private Patrol Operator, and manager. Dispatchers are communications personnel responsible for receiving and transmitting pure and reliable messages tracking vehicles and equipment and recording other important information A receptionist is a person in an Office /administrative support position A supervisor, foreman foreperson team leader overseer cell coach facilitator or area coordinator is a manager in business A security guard or security officer is usually a privately and formally employed person who is paid to protect Property, assets or people A security guard or security officer is usually a privately and formally employed person who is paid to protect Property, assets or people A private patrol operator operates a business that protects persons or property or prevents Theft.
State and local governments sometimes regulate the use of these terms by law -- for example, certain words and phrases that "give an impression that he or she is connected in any way with the federal government, a state government, or any political subdivision of a state government" are forbidden for use by California security licensees by Business and Professions Code Section 7582. 26. So the terms "private homicide police" or "special agent" would be unlawful for a security licensee to use in California. List of countries by homicide rate Homicide ( Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut kill refers to the act of killing another Similarly, in Canada, various acts  specifically prohibits private security personnel from using the terms Protection Officer, Security Officer, detective, private detective, law enforcement, police, or officer. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Recent changes to the act have also introduced restrictions on uniform and vehicle colours and markings to make private security personnel clearly distinctive from police personnel. Some sources feel that some of these restrictions are emplaced to satisfy the Canadian Police Association. The Canadian Police Association (CPA is an organization of Canadian police officers 
There is a marked difference between persons performing the duties historically associated with watchmen and persons who take a more active role in protecting persons and property. The former, often called "guards," are taught the mantra "observe and report," are minimally trained, and not expected to deal with the public or confront criminals. The latter are often highly trained, sometimes armed depending on contracts agreed upon with clientele, and are more likely to interact with the general public and to confront the criminal element. These employees tend to take pride in the title "Security Officer" or "Protection Officer" and disdain the label of "guard. The IFPO (International Foundation for Protection Officers Board of Directors established and maintains a voluntary certification process ( the Certified Protection Officers " Ironically enough, there may be no relationship between duties performed and compensation -- many mall "security officers" who are exposed to serious risks make less per hour than "industrial security guards" with less training and responsibility.  However, there are now more positions in the security role that separate not just the titles, but the job itself. The roles have progressed and so have the areas for which security people are needed. All security jobs vary in pay and duties at present.
The term "agent" is particularly problematic in the security industry because it can describe not only a civil legal relationship between an employee and their employer or contractor ("agent of the owner" in California PC 602), but also describes a person in government service ("Special Agent Jones of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Within the United States, the title of Special Agent is used to describe any federal criminal or non-criminal investigator or Detective in the 1811 1801 2501 or ") However we should then also consider the fact that this title is also made available to banking agents, loan agents and real estate agents. Security "agents" found in loss prevention and personal or executive protection (bodyguards) typically work in plainclothes, without a uniform, and are usually highly trained to act lawfully in direct defense of life and/or property. There is also confusion with bail enforcement agents, or as they are popularly known "bounty hunters," who are sometimes regulated by the same agencies which regulate private security.
Security personnel are essentially private citizens, and therefore are bound by the same laws and regulations as the citizenry they are contracted to serve, and therefore are not allowed to represent themselves as law enforcement under penalty of law. 
Most states require a license to work as a security officer. The verb license or grant license means to give permission The noun license is the document demonstrating that permission  This license may include a criminal background check and/or mandated training requirements. A background check or background investigation is the process of looking up public records commercial records and financial records (in certain instances such as employment Most security officers do not carry weapons and have the same powers of arrest as a private citizen, called a "private person" arrest, "any person" arrest, or "citizen's arrest. A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons A citizen's arrest is an Arrest made by a Person who is not a sworn law enforcement official. " If weapons are carried, additional permits and training are usually required. Armed security personnel are generally used to protect sensitive sites such as government and military installations, armored money transports, banks (or other financial institutions), nuclear power plants, etc. However, armed security is quickly becoming a standard for vehicle patrol officers and on many other non-government sites.
New Jersey As of 2006 all security personnel must undergo a state mandated certified training program. This law commonly referred to SORA is the state's effort to increase the quality of security personnel.
Armed private security are much rarer in Europe and some other countries (and nonexistent in some, such as the United Kingdom). The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In developing countries (with host country permission), an armed security force composed mostly of ex-military personnel is often used to protect corporate assets, particularly in war-torn regions.
As a requirement of the Private Security Industry Act 2001, the UK now requires all contract security guards to have a valid SIA (Security Industry Authority) license. Licenses are valid for three years and require the holders to undergo formal training, and are also to pass mandatory Criminal Records Bureau checks.
In Canada, private security falls under the jurisdiction of Canada's ten provinces and three territories. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page All ten of Canada's provinces and one of its territories (the Yukon) have legislation that regulates the contract security industry.  These eleven jurisdictions require that companies that provide security guard services and their employees be licensed. Most of them also require that, in order to be issued a licence, a security guard either have completed a training course or have previous experience as a peace officer (i. A law enforcement officer (also called peace officer) in North America, is any public-sector person charged with upholding the peace, mainly e. a police officer). As well, most provinces in Canada regulate the use of handcuffs and weapons (such as firearms and batons) by contract security companies and their employees, either banning such use completely or permitting it only under certain circumstances.
Canada's federal laws also restrict the ability of security guards to be armed. For example, section 17 of Firearms Act makes it an offence for any person, including a security guard, to possess prohibited or restricted firearms (i. e. handguns) anywhere outside of his or her home. There are two exceptions to this prohibition found in sections 18 and 19 of the Act. Section 18 deals with transportation of firearms while Section 19 deals with allowing persons to carry such firearms on their persons to protect their lives or the lives of other persons, or for the performance of their occupation (with the issuance of a Authorization to Carry (ATC) first being obtained).
In August 2007, Malaysia banned hiring of foreign security guards following a rape and murder of a student by a Pakistani security guard. Gun politics in Canada is controversial though less contentious than it is in the United States. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and 
Security guard companies need to apply to the Ministry of Internal Security.
Before 1st October,1996, the security service personnels are under management of "Watchmen Ordinary" (Chapter 299), but because many imperfect in the ordinary (for example: there is no any limit to set up a company that provides security service, and there is no limit to a person if he/she work as a security devices installer), and some employer hired "Caretakers" instead of Security Guards to avoid the responds to the law (because "Caretakers" is providing basically facilities management service,although security service to a residential property is a part of facilities services), so,Hong Kong Government enforce a new law - Security Guarding Personnel Ordinary (Chapter 460) to instead the old Watchmen Ordinary . According the law (Chapter 460, Security Guarding Personnel Ordinance): No individual shall do, agree to do, or hold himself/herself out as doing or as available to do, security work for another person unless he/she does so-
"security work" means any of the following activities-
"security device" means a device designed or adapted to be installed in any premises or place, except on or in a vehicle, for the purpose of detecting or recording- (Amended 25 of 2000 s. 2)
The applicant of Security Personnel Permit (SPP) must be:
Although The Security and Guarding Services Industry Authority ( SGSIA ) is the "in-charge" agency of the security service industry,but all applicants must submit their application and pay the fee by mail or in person to Hong Kong Police Force(License Section). The Hong Kong Police Force is the police force of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.
Security Personnel Permit was separated to four types, A, B, C, and D: Type A permit holder was permitted to work in a "single-block" residential building,they are not allow to carry firearms . No maximum age limited . Type B permit holder was permitted to work in any type of properties, but also they are not allow carry firearms . The maximum age limit of this permit is 65 . Type C permit holder was permitted to work as an armed guard . ( Usually, they are members of the cash transport car crew ) The maximum age limit of this permit is 55 . Type D permit holder was permitted to design, install, and repair security device . No maximum age limited . The permit is valid for five years, holders must renew their permit before it is expire or they will lost their qualify for work as a security personnel until their permit is renewed .
Security Guards in Hong Kong didn't have special power,they only have citizen's arrest power, as known as the '101 power' in Hong Kong. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders A citizen's arrest is an Arrest made by a Person who is not a sworn law enforcement official. Under Hong Kong Laws. Chap 221 Criminal Procedure Ordinance, Section 101 Summary apprehension of offender in certain cases, subsection 2 "Any person may arrest without warrant any person whom he may reasonably suspect of being guilty of an arrestable offence. " Once made an arrest, the suspect must be delivered to a police office as soon as possible for court proceedings. "Arrestable offence" is defined as any crimes that can be sentenced for more than 12 months of jail time . But, in fact, because many security guards hasn't regarded as a law enforcer or a policy enforcer, many people won't obey their advise or guidelines, some people regarded security guards as a dog, or a beggar, so, security guards in Hong Kong is LESSER power and rights that ordinary people . Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders
Now,the type A and Type B security service are gradually combined with property management service; The boundary of those two industries are went confused . Property management is the operation of commercial industrial and/or residential Real estate.
Security personnel are not police officers, unless they are security police, but are often identified as such due to similar uniforms and behaviors, especially on private property. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force Security police are those persons employed by or for a governmental agency who provide police and security services to their properties A uniform is a set of standard Clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity Security personnel in the U. S. derive their powers not from the state, as public police officers do, but from a contractual arrangement that give them 'Agent of the Owner' powers. This includes a nearly unlimited power to question with the absence of probable cause requirements that frequently dog public law enforcement officers, provided that the security officer does not tread on the rights and liberties of others as guaranteed by the United States Constitution. This does not come without checks, however, as private security personnel do not enjoy the benefit of civil protection, as public law enforcement officers do, and can be sued directly for false arrests and illegal actions if they commit such acts.
Some jurisdictions do commission or deputize security officers and give them limited additional powers, particularly when employed in protecting public property such as mass transit stations. In Law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak" is the practical Authority This is a special case that is often unique to a particular jurisdiction or locale. Additionally, security officers may also be called upon to act as an agent of law enforcement if a police officer, sheriff's deputy, etc. is in immediate need of help and has no available backup.
Some security officers do reserve police powers and are typically employed directly by governmental agencies. Typically, these are sworn law enforcement personnel whose duties primarily involve the security of a government installation, and are also a special case. Other local and state governments occasionally enter into special contracts with security agencies to provide patrol services in public areas. These personnel are sometimes referred to as "private police officers. "
Sometimes police officers work as security personnel while not on duty. This is usually done for extra income, and work is particularly done in hazardous jobs such as bodyguard work and bouncers outside nightclubs. A bodyguard (or "close protection officer" is a type of Security guard or government agent who protects a person—usually a famous wealthy or politically A bouncer or doorman is an informal term for Security guards employed at venues such as bars, Nightclubs or Concerts to provide In some countries, including the United Kingdom, it is illegal for police officers to take private security work.
Except in these special cases, security personnel who misrepresent themselves as police officers are committing a crime. However, security personnel by their very nature often work in cooperation with police officials. Police are called in when a situation warrants a higher degree of authority to act upon reported observations that could not be directly acted upon safely by the security personnel.
In British Columbia, Canada contract Security Guards are NOT permitted to carry firearms (guns), batons, pepper spray, or handcuffs.  Violation of the act can carry a fine the possibility of losing their Security License. Provincial Inspectors, designated as Special Provincial Constables conduct inspections to ensure compliance with Provincial Regulations. "In-House" Security organizations, and their employees are currently exempt from Provincial Regulations. This means "In-House" Security Officers could, if permitted by their employer, carry and use handcuffs, and/or a baton. The Province of BC is currently re-drafting the provincial legislation to cover all security, and certain restrictions, as the current legislation was file on January 9, 1981. 
Some people fear that security guards are ex-cons. However, some jurisdictions do regulate who can work in the profession. Oregon, for example, has a list of disqualifiers that invalidate an ex-con's eligibility for the job for either seven years, ten years or life. 
In many locations, mall security personnel are largely discouraged from intervening with guests, but with some serious situations occurring, many in the industry are calling for a change, to get guards to be more proactive and discourage retailers from not wanting mall security in their stores at all. 
Economist Robert B. Reich, in his 1991 book The Work of Nations, stated that in the United States, the number of private security guards and officers was comparable to the number of publicly paid police officers. Robert Bernard Reich (born June 24, 1945) is an American politician academic writer and political commentator He used this phenomenon as an example of the general withdrawal of the affluent from existing communities where governments provide public services. Instead, the wealthy pay to provide their own premium services, through voluntary, exclusive associations. As taxpayer resistance has limited government budgets, and as the demand for secure homes in gated communities has grown, these trends have continued in the 1990s and 2000s. In its modern form a gated community is a form of Residential community containing controlled entrances for Pedestrians Bicycles and Automobiles
The trend in the UK at the time of writing (March 2008) is one of polarisation. The market in Manned Guarding (the correct security industry term for the security guards most people are familiar with) is diverging towards two opposite extremes; one typified by a highly trained and well paid security officer; the other with security officers on or about minimum wage with only the minimum training required by law. A minimum wage is the lowest hourly daily or monthly Wage that employers may legally pay to employees or workers Within the “in-house” sector, where security personnel are not subject to licensing under the Private Security Industry Act 2001, the same divergence can be seen; with some companies opting for in-house security to maintain control of their standards, whilst others use it as a route to cheaper, non-regulated, security.
The vigiles were soldiers assigned to guard the city of Rome, often credited as the origin of both security personnel and police, although their principal duty was as a fire brigade. The Vigiles or more properly the Vigiles Urbani ("watchmen of the City " or Cohortes Vigilum Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Firefighters are rescuers extensively trained primarily to put out hazardous Fires that threaten civilian populations and property to rescue people from car accidents collapsed There have been night watchmen since at least the Middle Ages in Europe; walled cities of ancient times also had watchmen. A special chair appeared in Europe sometime in the late Middle Ages, called the watchman's chair; this unupolstered wooden chair had a forward slanting seat to prevent the watchman from dozing off during his watch. A watchman's chair is a design of unupholstered wood construction featuring a slanted seat such that the watchman could not readily fall asleep without sliding downward
In June, 1947, the United States Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act placing many restrictions on labor unions. Section 9 (B) (3) of the act prevents the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) from certifying for collective bargaining any unit which mixes security employees with non-security employees. That restriction makes it illegal for security employees to join any union that also represents other types of employees. They may only be part of an independent, "security-only" union, not affiliated with any coalition of other types of labor unions such as the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO).
Two of the largest security unions are the Security, Police, and Fire Professionals of America (SPFPA) and the United Government Security Officers of America (UGSOA).
In 1948 with the Taft-Hartley restrictions well into effect, the Detroit, Michigan area security guards of United Auto Workers (UAW) Amalgamated Local 114 were forced to break away and start a separate "Plant Guards Organizing Committee". The NLRB ruled that as an affiliate of the CIO, the committee was indirectly affiliated with production unions and therefore ineligible for certification under the new restrictions. The committee was then forced to completely withdraw from the CIO and start the independent United Plant Guard Workers of America. By the 1990s, this union had evolved to include many other types of security officers and changed its name to the SPFPA.
In 1992, the USGOA was formed. It specializes in organizing federal, state, and local government security officers, but since May, 2000 has been open to representing other types of security personnel as well.
There is controversy surrounding recent efforts by certain unions to become involved in the security industry, such as the Service Employees International Union (SEIU) because it primarily represents janitors, trash collectors, and other building service employees.
Depending on individual locations & companies, Security Officers in Canada are part of the United Food and Commercial Workers Union (UFCW Local 333) or the United Steelworkers Union (the Canadian wing of the United Steelworkers Union of America (USWA)). The United Food and Commercial Workers International Union is a labor union representing approximately 1 Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The United Steel Paper and Forestry Rubber Manufacturing Energy Allied Industrial In contrast to the union restrictions in the United States, Canadian security officers may be in a Canadian Labour Congress (CLC)-affiliated union or in the same union with other classifications of employees.