A security clearance is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to classified information, e. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security A United Nations Security Clearance (SC is a required procedure and document for United Nations staff travelling to areas designated as Security phase g. state secrets. The term "security clearance " is also sometimes used in private organizations that have a formal process to vet employees for access to sensitive information. Broadly vetting is a process of examination and evaluation Specifically vetting often refers to performing a Background check on someone before offering them employment A clearance by itself is normally not sufficient to gain access; the organization must determine that the cleared individual needs to know the information. The term "need to know", when used by Government and other organizations (particularly those related to the Military or Espionage) describes No one is supposed to be granted access to classified information solely because of rank, position, or a security clearance.
Government classified information is governed by the Treasury Board Government Security Policy (GSP), the Security of Information Act and Privacy Act. In the Government of Canada, the Treasury Board is the only statutory Cabinet committee. See also [[Security clearance#Canada]] [[Security clearances in Canada]] See also [[Classified information#Canada]] [[Information classification in Canada]] In Only those who are deemed to be trustworthy and have been cleared are allowed to access sensitive information.
Checks includes basic demographic and criminal record check for all levels, and depending on individual appointment's requirement, credit checks, loyalty and field checks might be conducted by the RCMP and/or CSIS. The Canadian Security Intelligence Service ( CSIS) (Service canadien du renseignement de sécurité ( SCRS) is the primary Intelligence agency of the
Clearance is granted, depending on types of appointment, by individual Federal government departments/agencies or by private company security officers. Those who have contracts with Public Works and Government Services Canada are bound by the Industrial Security Program, a sub-set of the GSP. Public Works and Government Services Canada, also referred to as Department of Public Works and Government Services, is the department of the government of Canada
5 levels of clearances exist:
Individuals who need to have RS/ERS because of their job or access to federal government assets will be required to sign the Personnel Screening, Consent and Authorization Form (TBS/SCT 330-23e).
Individuals who need to have C/S/TS clearances because of their job or access to federal government assets will be required to sign the Security Clearance Form (TBS/SCT 330-60e).
In order to access protected information, one must have at least ERS, as of any Government of Canada employees, or those who have access to information or assets that are protected by the Federal Government. However, Government employees by Order-in-council are not subjected to this policy. An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in Commonwealth Realms. 
Clearances at the RS/ERS/C/S level are valid for 10 years while TS is valid for 5 years. Because security clearances are granted by individual departments instead of one government agency, clearances are revoked at the end of appointment or when an individual transfers out of the department.
Prior to granting access to information, an individual who has been cleared must sign a Security Screening Certificate and Briefing Form (TBS/SCT 330-47) indicating their willingness to be bound by several Acts of Parliament during and after their appointment finishes. An Act of Parliament is a Law enacted as Primary legislation by a national or sub-national Parliament. Anyone who have been given a security clearance and release protected/classified information without legal authority is in breach of trust under section 18(2) of the Security of Information Act with a punishment up to 2 years in jail. See also [[Security clearance#Canada]] [[Security clearances in Canada]] See also [[Classified information#Canada]] [[Information classification in Canada]] In Those who have access to Special Operational Information are held at higher standards. The release of such information is punishable by law, under section 17(2) of the Security of Information Act, liable to imprisonment for life. See also [[Security clearance#Canada]] [[Security clearances in Canada]] See also [[Classified information#Canada]] [[Information classification in Canada]] In 
The Criminal Code of Canada, Section 748 (3) states that no person convicted of an offence under Section 121 (frauds on the Government), Section 124 (selling or purchasing office), or Section 418 (selling defective stores to Her Majesty), has, after that conviction, the capacity to contract with Her Majesty or to receive any benefits under a contract between Her Majesty and any other person or to hold office under Her Majesty unless a pardon has been granted. The Criminal Code of Canada (long title An Act respecting the criminal law, R (This effectively prohibits granting of a Reliability Status to any such individual. ) 
Clearance is checked at four levels depending on the classification of materials that can be accessed — Counter-Terrorist Check (CTC), Baseline Check (BC), Security Check (SC), and Developed Vetting (DV). Classified information, now called Protectively Marked Information in the United Kingdom is a system used to protect information from intentional or inadvertent Security Check allows an individual long-term unsupervised access to protectively marked SECRET material, whilst for TOP SECRET Developed Vetting is required. All Officers within the British Armed Forces are cleared to SC by default. Those with security clearance must usually sign the Official Secrets Act. The Official Secrets Act is any of several Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the protection of official information mainly related to National
After America's entry into WWII, Britain changed its security classifications to match American classifications. Prior to the US coming into the war, the classifications included the top classification: "Most Confidential". Documents were then shared with the US, when they entered the war. Unfortunately these British classifications were not understood in the US and classified information appeared in the US press. This spearheaded the uniformity in classification between the UK and the US.
A security clearance is generally granted to a particular level of clearance. The United States government classification system is established under Executive Order 13292, the latest in a long series of executive The exception to this is levels above compartmentalized access, when an individual is given access to a particular type of data.
The simplest security clearance to get. This level typically requires a few weeks to a few months of investigation. A Confidential clearance requires a NACLC investigation and must be renewed (with another investigation) every 15 years. National Agency Check with Local Agency Check and Credit Check ( NACLC) is a type of Background check required in the United States for granting of Security clearances However, this level of clearance is no longer used in the US military and has been replaced with For Official Use Only (FOUO), which does not require a background check.
A Secret clearance, also known as Collateral Secret or Ordinary Secret, requires a few months to a year to fully investigate depending on the individual's background. Some instances where individuals would take longer than normal to be investigated are many past residences, having residences in foreign countries, or having relatives outside the United States, or significant ties with non-US citizens. Bankruptcy and unpaid bills as well as criminal charges will more than likely disqualify an applicant for approval. Poor financial history is the number one cause of rejection, and foreign activities and criminal record are also common causes for disqualification. A Secret clearance requires a National Agency Check, a Local Agency Check, and a Credit investigation; it must also be reinvestigated every 10 years.
Top Secret is a more stringent clearance. A Top Secret, or "TS", clearance, is often given as the result of a Single Scope Background Investigation, or SSBI. A Single Scope Background Investigation ( SSBI) is a type of United States Security clearance investigation required for Top Secret, SCI and Top Secret clearances generally afford one access to data that affects national security, counterterrorism/counterintelligence, or other highly sensitive data. National security is the entire scope of measures undertaken by the Governments of Nation-states in providing assurance of national Sovereignty Counter-terrorism or counterterrorism refers to the practices tactics, techniques and strategies that Governments militaries, Police departments This article is a subset article of Intelligence cycle security. There are far fewer individuals with TS clearances than Secret clearances. A TS clearance can take as little as 3-6 months to obtain, but more often takes 6-18 months, while sometimes taking up to 3 years to obtain. The SSBI must be renewed every 5 years.
As with TS clearances, Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI) or Special Access Program (SAP) clearances are assigned only after one has been through the rigors of a Single Scope Background Investigation and a special adjudication process for evaluating the investigation. The United States government classification system is established under Executive Order 13292, the latest in a long series of executive A Single Scope Background Investigation ( SSBI) is a type of United States Security clearance investigation required for Top Secret, SCI and SCI access, however, is assigned only in "compartments. " See Compartmentalization (intelligence). In matters concerning intelligence, whether public or private sector compartmentalization of information means to limit access to information to persons who directly need to These compartments are necessarily separated from each other organizationally, so an individual with access to one compartment will not necessarily have access to another. Each compartment may include its own additional special requirements and clearance process. An individual may be granted access, or 'read in' to a compartment for an extended or only short period of time.
A representative lists of kinds of information that may require compartmented access, without using specific national terminology, includes:
Such compartmentalized clearances may be expressed as "John has a TS/SCI", where all clearance descriptors are spelled out verbally. Cryptography (or cryptology; from Greek grc κρυπτός kryptos, "hidden secret" and grc γράφω gráphō, "I write" An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is an unpiloted Aircraft. UAVs can be remote controlled or fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic IMINT, short for IM agery INT elligence is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and Aerial photography A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. For example, The US National Security Agency used to use specialized terms such as "Umbra",    This classification is reported to be a compartment within the "Special Intelligence" compartment of SCI . The National Security Agency/ Central Security Service ( NSA/CSS) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States government The various NSA compartments have been simplified; all but the most sensitive compartments are marked "CCO", meaning "handle through COMINT channels only".
The US Department of Defense establishes, separately from intelligence compartments, special access programs (SAP) when vulnerability of specific information is exceptional and the normal criteria for determining eligibility for access applicable to information classified at the same level are not deemed sufficient to protect the information from unauthorized disclosure. The number of people cleared for access to such programs is typically kept low. Information about stealth technology, for example, often requires such access. Stealth technology also known as LOT (Low Observability Technology is a sub-discipline of military Electronic countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with
A common misconception is that security clearance holders work as spies or in intelligence fields. Anyone with access to classified data requires a clearance at or higher than the level the data is classified at. For this reason security clearances are required for a wide range of jobs, from senior management to janitor.
Jobs that require a security clearance can be found either as positions working directly for the Federal government or authorized Federal contractors. Over time, more clearance jobs are being outsourced to contractors.  Due to an overall shortage in security-cleared candidates and a long time frame to obtain the credentials for an uncleared worker, those with clearance are often paid more than their non-cleared equivalent counterparts. 
The vetting process for a security clearance is usually undertaken only when someone is hired or transferred into a position that requires access to classified information. Broadly vetting is a process of examination and evaluation Specifically vetting often refers to performing a Background check on someone before offering them employment The employee is typically fingerprinted and asked to fill out a detailed life history form, including all foreign travel, which becomes a starting point for an investigation into the candidate's suitability. A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges of all or any part of the finger This process can include several types of investigations, depending on the level of clearance required:
If issues of concern surface during any phase of security processing, coverage is expanded to resolve those issues. At lower levels, interim clearances may be issued to individuals who are presently under investigation, but whom have passed some preliminary, automatic process. Such automatic processes include things such as credit checks, felony checks, and so on. In the United States a credit score is a number that is based on a statistical analysis of a person's credit report and is used to represent the Creditworthiness of that person—the In Common law legal systems a felony is a serious Crime, often contrasted with a Misdemeanor. An interim clearance may be denied (although the final clearance may still be granted) for having a large amount of debt or having admitted to seeing a doctor for a mental health condition. Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or Emotional wellbeing or an absence of a Mental disorder.
Investigations conducted by one federal agency are no longer supposed to be duplicated by another federal agency when those investigations are current within 5 years and meet the scope and standards for the level of clearance required. The high level clearance process can be lengthy, sometimes taking a year or more. The long time needed for new appointees to be cleared has been cited as hindering U. S. presidential transitions.
The security clearance forms are available at http://www.gsa.gov/Portal/gsa/ep/formslibrary.do?formType=SF by searching for SF86 and SF85.
In the U. S. , once the clearance is granted the candidate is briefed on "the proper safeguarding of classified information and on the criminal, civil, and administrative sanctions that may be imposed on an individual who fails to protect classified information from unauthorized disclosure. " He or she is also required to sign an approved non-disclosure agreement (e. A non-disclosure agreement (NDA also known as a confidentiality agreement, confidential disclosure agreement (CDA proprietary information agreement g. form SF-312). Standard Form 312 (SF 312 is a Non-disclosure agreement required under Executive Order 13292 to be signed by employees of the U High level clearances are reviewed periodically and any "adverse information" reports received at any time can trigger a review. When a cleared person leaves their job they are often "debriefed" -- reminded of their ongoing obligations to protect the information they were allowed to see.
In the post World War II era there have been several highly publicized, and often controversial, cases of government officials having their security clearances revoked. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including These officials include: