In France, secondary education is in two stages:
French students usually spend seven years in secondary education, from age 11 to age 18. The word student is etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation Verb "studēre" The collèges and lycées normally are separate institutions in different buildings.
The school year starts in early September and ends in mid-June. French school holidays are scheduled by the Ministry of Education, by dividing the country in three zones (A, B and C) to prevent holiday-makers from crowding tourist resorts such as the Mediterranean
coast and the ski resorts, e. French school holidays are the periods when schools and all the pupils at them have a Holiday. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel g. Paris and Bordeaux are in zone C while Lyon is in zone A, and Marseille in zone B. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city ( Gascon: Bordèu) is a port city in southwest France, with one million inhabitants in its metropolitan area at a 2008 estimate ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ
In contrast with most other education systems, the French use a decreasing numerical system in naming the various school years. Pupils begin their secondary education in the sixième (form 6), and transfer to a lycée in the seconde (form 2), while the final year is the terminale.
In French, the word for student (étudiant) usually is reserved for university-level students, whereas, in collège and lycée students are élèves (pupils and students, in English translation). The word student is etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation Verb "studēre" A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects
The curriculum (le programme officiel) is standardised in all French public institutions. Changes to the programme are made every year by the French Ministry of Education and are published in the Ministry's Bulletin Officiel de l'Éducation Nationale (BO), the official reference bulletin for educators.
The collège is the first level of secondary education in the French educational system. Australia See also Education The French educational system is highly centralized organised and ramified A pupil attending collège is called collégien (boy) or collégienne (girl). Men and women teachers at the collège- and lycée-level are called professeur (no official feminine professional form exists in France). This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Entry in sixième occurs directly after the last year of primary school, called cours moyen deuxième année (CM2). The French educational system is highly centralized organised and ramified There is no entrance examination into collège, yet administrators have established a comprehensive academic examination of students starting sixième. To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person The purpose of the examination is evaluating the pupil's level on being graduated from primary school.
|Humanities & Languages|
|French Language and Literature||Features French and translated foreign works; concentrates on grammar and spelling||6e|
|History & Geography||French-based, but includes foreign history and geography||6e|
|A first foreign language1||Known as Première langue vivante étrangère (LV1)||6e|
|A second foreign language1 or a French regional language||Deuxième langue vivante étrangère (LV2)||4e|
|Arts & Crafts||6e|
|Civics||Éducation civique, juridique et sociale (ECJS)||6e|
|1Available foreign languages include: English, German, Arabic, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, and Russian; other languages available per locale. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena There are a number of languages of France. The French language is by far the most widely spoken and the only Official language of France, but several Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with one's own hands and skill Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Civics is the study of citizenship and government with particular attention given to the role of citizens― as opposed to external factors― in the operation and oversight of government English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Most pupils study English as the foreign language, either first or second.|
|Natural & Applied Sciences|
|Biology & Geology||Sciences de la vie et de la Terre (SVT)||6e|
|Physics & Chemistry||5e|
|Technology||Extra hours in smaller groups||6e|
The table at the right details the French curriculum. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Along with three-to-four weekly hours of physical education, a typical school week consists of some twenty-six (26) hours of schooling. French language and literature occupy the most time, 4-5 hours per week, followed by mathematics, 4 hours per week; other subjects occupy some 1. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and 0-3. 5 hours per week.
The curriculum is devised by the French Ministry of National Education and applies to all collèges in France and also for AEFE-dependent institutions. The Ministry of National Education Advanced Instruction and Research (Ministre de l'Éducation nationale de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche or simply "Minister of Agence pour l’enseignement français à l’étranger (AEFE or the Agency for French Teaching Abroad is a national public agency under the administration of the Ministry of Foreign Académies and individual schools have little margin for curriculum customisation. Teachers compose syllabi per precise government educational regulations, and choose textbooks accordingly; every major French publishing house has a textbook branch. A syllabus is an Outline and Summary of topics to be covered in a course. A textbook is a manual of instruction or a standard book in any branch of study
Each subject usually is taught by a different professeur; most professeurs teach different age groups. Collège pupils sit with the same group of students throughout the school year, and in every subject (except optional courses, e. g. foreign languages, students from several groups mix). Therefore, in each grade, pupils are divided into as many classes as necessary, because there exists the strong pedagogical belief in mixed-ability classes; streaming is rare.
Class size varies from school to school, but usually ranges between 20-35 pupils. Each classe has a professeur principal (principal professor) who is the link among the faculty, the administration, and the pupils. Early in the school year, the pupils elect two délégués (delegates) and two suppléants (substitutes) from their own classes. They represent the pupils in the class council, acting as links between the students and the principal professor (head teacher).
Teachers, administrators, and delegates of each grade meet thrice yearly in conseil de classe (class council). In Education, a teacher is one who helps Students or pupils often in a School, as well as in a Family, religious or In those meetings are discussed the individual level of each student, and of the class, and matters of logistics and discipline inherent to the group of pupils. Logistics is the management of the flow of Goods, Information and other resources including Energy and people between the point of origin and the point School discipline is a form of Discipline appropriate to the regulation of Children and the maintenance of order in Schools The term refers to  It is during those meetings that the conseil de classe bestows either honours or warnings on the bulletin de note (report card).
Ultimately, the role of the collège is to prepare students for the advanced subjects of the lycée. At the end of troisième, students sit for le diplôme national du Brevet, an end-of-collège examination; The brevet is not required for entrance to the lycée, nor does passing it guarantee that a pupil will progress to the higher-level school. To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person
During the last conseil de classe of the year, held in June, the professeurs and administrators decide whether or not a pupil can progress to the next grade. In deciding, they evaluate the student's skills, participation, and behaviour. A skill is the learned capacity or talent to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time energy or both. Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or Reactions of an object or Organism, usually Three outcomes are possible:
A student asked to repeat a grade can appeal said decision for review, yet the decision of the appeals council is final. In Law, an appeal is a process for requesting a formal change to an official decision
French parents are not free to choose the public school that their children will attend; unless said children have special pedagogical needs, they will attend the school allocated to them by the carte scolaire (school map). Reasons for attending a different public school, other than the local assigned one, include studying a unique elective (e. g. a rare foreign language) unavailable in the assigned school.
For many reasons, many parents consider the allocated school inadequate, most notably the "bad frequentation" (bad social elements) of the school. This is especially the case in poor neighbourhoods with great foreign immigrant populations. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term In any city, there are "better" lycées and collèges, which parents would prefer their children attend (usually dating from the 19th century, in the city centre). The two, principal methods of assigned school-circumvention used in such circumstances are:
A like trick used in case there are "better" classes in a given school: for easy organisation, students of certain elective subjects will be grouped in special classes, which may be academically attractive. Such choice elective courses typically include Latin or German or Ancient Greek as a first foreign language.
The lycée is the second, and last, stage of secondary education in the French educational system. Australia See also Education The French educational system is highly centralized organised and ramified At the end of the final year of schooling, most students take the baccalauréat. The baccalauréat (bakaloʁeˈa often known in France colloquially as le bac or le bachôt, is an academic qualification which
Lycées are divided as (i) the lycée général, leading to two or more years of post–baccalauréat studies, (ii) the lycée technologique, leading to short-term studies, and (iii) the lycée professionel, a vocational qualification leading directly to a particular career. General and technological education streams are imparted at 'standard' lycées, while vocational streams are imparted at separate professional lycées.
In fact, provided one is a good, competent pupil, when one is attending a vocational 'lycée professionel', one can apply for short-term, post–baccalauréat studies, titled the Brevet de technicien suppérieur (BTS); it is a professional education. Moreover, a pupil in lycée général can apply for the same, short-term studies. Famous lycées in Paris include: Lycée Henri IV, Lycée Louis-le-Grand and Lycée Saint-Louis. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The Lycée Henri-IV (sometimes called HIV, H4, or Henri-Quatre) is a public Secondary school located in Paris. The Lycée Louis-le-Grand (sometimes nicknamed LLG) is a public Secondary school located in Paris, widely regarded as one of the most demanding in The lycée Saint-Louis is a higher education establishment located in the VIe arrondissement of Paris, in the Latin Quarter.
In France, the lycée général is the usual stepping stone to university degrees. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects The Seconde is a link-year during which students make their final choice of série (academic stream) for the final two years. During the seconde, students mostly take the same courses, despite having different intellectual and academic skills and interests. Therefore, that schooling year usually is deemed easier than either the première or the terminale.
After the seconde, most French students chose a general stream. In all streams, some subjects occupy more hours in the student's timetable. The baccalauréat examination is different for all three séries, and subjects are weighted according to the fxstudent's academic stream.
(various hard sciences)
économique et social
(economics and social sciences)
|Description||The sciences stream requires high-level mathematics (very heavily weighted), physics, and chemistry. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties||The série ES is balanced between literary and scientific courses; students must take economics and social sciences exams. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies||The série L heavily weighs French language, history and geography and foreign languages; also including a literature section. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Students must present examinations in one-to-three modern languages, and also have the option of presenting examinations for either Latin or ancient Greek or for both. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c|
According to the official statistics, for the 2003–2004 school year, 33 per cent of students chose série S; 19 per cent chose série ES; and 11 per cent chose série L.
In all streams, students have philosophy courses in terminale, while French language classes end in the première, excepting the série L, where they become French literature classes. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people This article is a general introduction to French literature For detailed information on French literature in specific historic periods see the separate historical articles in the
There also is a required option for further specialisation in all séries, although it is restricted to the chosen stream. For example, a student in série S can choose to specialise in mathematics, physics, natural sciences or "engineering sciences", but not in philosophy. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. In Science, the term natural science refers to a naturalistic approach to the study of the Universe, which is understood as obeying rules or law of Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Specialisation adds a separate, weekly two-hour class in the chosen discipline; also, it increases the weight of said subject at the baccalauréat. The syllabus in the specialisation class is unrelated to the material learned in the common class. A syllabus is an Outline and Summary of topics to be covered in a course. Specialisation is an important step in choosing a post–secondary career or subject at university, especially for admission to a classe préparatoire (CPGE). A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects The classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE commonly called classes prépas or prépas, are a two-year cursus extensible to three-years acting as a prep
The lycée includes eight other streams, called séries technologiques:
The STPA and STAE stream are only available in lycées agricoles, speciality schools for agricultural sciences. Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact natural economic and Social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding
The Lycée Professionnel leads to several, different vocational diplomas in all fields of study. The enrolled students are not planning on getting a higher education, as the schooling is vocational training as craftspeople and through internships in companies. It is a good track of schooling for students more interested in a hands-on educational approach than in academic schooling and learning.
The first diploma, the CAP, is prepared for during 2 years; usually preparing the student for a specific occupation: carpenter, childcare provider, tailor, and so on. It is the easiest obtainable diploma, hence, the academically weakest students often follow this schooling track.
The second diploma, the BEP, is prepared for during 3 years, after the collège. It leads to a professional qualification in a specific field, such as restaurant industry, metallurgy, et cetera. It is more difficult diploma to earn than a CAP diploma; some students who have earned a CAP continue to a BEP.
The final diploma is the Baccalauréat Professionnel, the BP, it is the highest professional qualification available. It can be prepared for during 3 years after the college, but most students first earn a BEP and then continue to a Bac Professionnel.
The principal problem is that, while there are many tracks from which to choose, and, as some are more popular than others, there is a selection process undergone for entrance to them, that the academically weakest students often are assigned to a track they did not choose.
Main article: Agence pour l'Enseignement Français à l'Étranger