Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. List of Scottish writers is an incomplete alphabetical list of Scottish Writers This list includes writers of all genres writing in English, Scots It includes literature written in English, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, Brythonic, French, Latin and any other language in which a piece of literature was ever written within the boundaries of modern Scotland. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Scottish Gaelic ( Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. Scots ( The Scots leid) refers to Anglic varieties derived from early northern Middle English spoken in parts of Scotland and Northern The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages or British languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family the other being French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
The people of northern Britain spoke forms of Celtic languages. The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family. Much of the earliest Welsh literature was actually composed in or near the country we now call Scotland, as Brythonic speech (the ancestor of Welsh) was not then confined to Wales and Cornwall. The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any Literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages or British languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family the other being While all modern scholarship indicates that the Picts spoke a Brythonic language (based on surviving placenames, personal names and historical evidence), none of their literature seems to have survived into the modern era. Pictish is a term used for the Extinct language or languages thought to have been spoken by the Picts, the people of northern and central Scotland
Some of the earliest literature known to have been composed in Scotland includes:
The ethnic language of the Scots was Gaelic. Northumbrian, also known as Ynglis and Inglis, is a Dialect of the Old English language spoken in the Angle Kingdom of Northumbria The Goidelic languages, (also sometimes called particularly in colloquial situations the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) historically formed a Dialect Gael was actually what the word Scot meant in English before c. 1500. Between c. 1200 and c. 1700 the learned Gaelic elite of both Scotland and Ireland shared a literary form of Gaelic. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world It is possible that more Middle Irish literature was written in medieval Scotland than is often thought, but has not survived because the Gaelic literary establishment of eastern Scotland died out before the 14th century. Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the Goidelic language used from the 10th to 12th centuries it is therefore a contemporary Some Gaelic texts written in Scotland has survived in Irish sources. Gaelic literature written in Scotland before the 14th century includes the Lebor Bretnach, the product of a flourishing Gaelic literary establishment at the monastery of Abernethy. Abernethy ( Obar Neithich) is a village in Perth and Kinross, Scotland, situated eight Miles south-east of Perth.
The first known text to be composed in the form of northern Middle English spoken in the Lowlands (now called Early Scots) didn't appear until the fourteenth century. Early Scots describes the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450 It is clear from John Barbour, and a plethora of other evidence, that the Fenian Cycle flourished in Scotland. John Barbour (?1320 &ndash March 13, 1395) was a Scottish Poet and the first major literary voice to write in Scots, the vernacular The Fenian Cycle or Fiannaidheacht (modern Irish Fiannaíocht) also known as the Fionn Cycle, Finn Cycle, Fianna Cycle, Finnian There are allusions to Gaelic legendary characters in later Anglo-Scottish literature (oral and written).
In the 13th century, French flourished as a literary language, and produced the Roman de Fergus, the earliest piece of non-Celtic vernacular literature to come from Scotland. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A literary language is a register of a Language that is used in Literary Writing. The Roman de Fergus is an Arthurian romance written in Old French, in Scotland, at the beginning of the 13th century, by Vernacular refers to the Native language of a country or a locality Moreover, many other stories in the Arthurian Cycle, written in French and preserved only outside Scotland, are thought by some scholars (D. The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the Legends that concern the Celtic and legendary History of Great Britain, especially those D. R. Owen for instance) to have been written in Scotland.
In addition to French, Latin too was a literary language. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Famous examples would be the Inchcolm Antiphoner and the Carmen de morte Sumerledi, a poem which exults triumphantly the victory of the citizens of Glasgow over Somailre mac Gilla Brigte. Somerled ( Old Norse Sumarliði, Scottish Gaelic Somhairle, commonly Anglicized from Gaelic as Sorley) was a military and political And of course, the most important medieval work written in Scotland, the Vita Columbae, was also written in Latin.
Among the earliest Middle English or Early Scots literature is John Barbour's Brus (14th century), Wyntoun's Kronykil and Blind Harry's Wallace (15th century). Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of Early Scots describes the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450 Andrew Wyntoun, known as Andrew of Wyntoun (c 1350 &ndash c 1423 was a Scottish poet a canon and Prior of Loch Leven on St Serf's Blind Harry (c 1440 &ndash 1492 also known as Harry (also spelt Hary) or Henry the Minstrel, is renowned as the earliest surviving lengthy source for From the 15th century much Middle Scots literature was produced by writers based around the royal court in Edinburgh and the University of St Andrews. Middle Scots describes the language of Anglic Lowland Scotland in the period 1450 to 1700 Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. The University of St Andrews is the oldest University in Scotland and third oldest in the English-speaking world, having been founded between Alexander Montgomerie, the 16th century poet, for example, was in the service of King James VI. Alexander Montgomerie (c 1550? - 1598 was a Scottish Poet. Life and works The outstanding poet of the later sixteenth century in Scotland Montgomerie James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James James I of Scotland himself wrote [[The Kingis Quair. James I ( December 10, 1394 &ndash February 21, 1437) was nominal King of Scots from April 4, 1406, and At the request of James V of Scotland, John Bellenden translated Hector Boece's Historia Gentis Scotorum as Chroniklis of Scotland (published 1536). James V (10 April 1512 &ndash 14 December 1542 was King of Scots from 9 September 1513 until his death John Bellenden or Ballantyne (flourished 1533-1587? of Moray was a Scottish writer of the 16th century. Hector Boece (sometimes spelt Boethius, or Boyce) (1465-1536 was a Scottish Philosopher. He also translated the first five books of Livy. Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome These remain the earliest existing specimens of Scottish literary prose
Versions of popular continental romances were also produced, for example: Launcelot o the Laik and The Buik o Alexander. As a Literary genre of High culture, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic Prose and verse Narrative
In the early 16th century, Gavin Douglas produced a Scots translation of the Aeneid. Gavin Douglas (c 1474 &ndash September 1522 was a Scottish Bishop, Makar and Translator. For the group of nine Ancient Egyptian deities see Ennead. The Aeneid (əˈniːɪd in Chaucerian, classical and French literary language continued to influence Scots literature up until the Reformation. Geoffrey Chaucer (c 1343 – 25 October 1400? was an English author poet Philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and Diplomat. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Writers such as Robert Henryson, William Dunbar, and David Lyndsay led a golden age of Scottish literature in the 15th and early 16th centuries. Robert Henryson was a poet who flourished in Scotland in the period c This article is about the Scottish poet for other people of this name see William Dunbar (disambiguation. Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount, (also spelled Lindsay) (c 1490 &ndash c George Bannatyne collected many poems of the Middle Scots period. George Bannatyne (1545-1608 collector of Scottish poems that were very dramatic and emotional was a native of Newtyle, Angus.
The Scottish ballad tradition can be traced back to the early 17th century. A ballad is a Poem usually set to Music; thus it often is a story told in a Song. Francis James Child's compilation, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads (1882-1898) contains many examples, such as The Elfin Knight (first printed around 1610) and Lord Randal. Francis James Child ( February 1, 1825 &ndash September 11, 1896) was an American scholar educationist and folklorist, " The Elfin Knight " ( Child #2 Roud #12 is a traditional Scottish folk Ballad of which there are many versions all dealing "Lord Randall" ( Roud 10 Child 12) is a traditional Ballad consisting of dialogue
In Scotland, after the 17th century, anglicisation increased, though Lowland Scots was still spoken by the vast majority of the population of the Lowlands. Anglicisation or anglicization (see -ise vs -ize) is a process of conversion of verbal or written elements of any other language into a more comprehensible English Scots ( The Scots leid) refers to Anglic varieties derived from early northern Middle English spoken in parts of Scotland and Northern At the time, many of the oral ballads from the borders and the North East were written down. The English/Scottish border has a long and bloody history of conquest and reconquest raid and counter-raid (see Wars of Scottish Independence) Writers of the period include Robert Sempill (c. Robert Sempill (the elder (c 1530 &ndash 1595 Scottish Ballad -writer was in all probability a cadet of illegitimate birth of the noble house of Sempill or Semple 1595-1665), Lady Wardlaw and Lady Grizel Baillie. Lady Grizel Baillie ( December 25, 1665 &ndash December 6, 1746) was a Scottish songwriter
The Scottish novel developed in the 18th century, with such writers as Tobias Smollett. Tobias George Smollett (bapt 19 March, 1721 &ndash 17 September, 1771) was a Scottish author best known for his Picaresque
Allan Ramsay (1686-1758) laid the foundations of a reawakening of interest in older Scottish literature, as well as leading the trend for pastoral poetry. Allan Ramsay (15 October 1686—7 January 1758 was a Scottish Poet. The Habbie stanza was developed as a poetic form. The Burns stanza is a verse form named after the Scottish poet Robert Burns. 
In 1760, James Macpherson claimed to have found poetry written by Ossian. James Macpherson (Seumas Mac a' Phearsain 27 October 1736 17 February 1796) was a Scottish Poet, known as the "translator" Ossian is the narrator and supposed author of a cycle of poems which the Scottish poet James Macpherson claimed to have translated from ancient sources in the He published translations which acquired international popularity, being proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical epics. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation Fingal written in 1762 was speedily translated into many European languages, and its deep appreciation of natural beauty and the melancholy tenderness of its treatment of the ancient legend did more than any single work to bring about the Romantic movement in European, and especially in German, literature, influencing Herder and Goethe in his earlier period. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Johann Gottfried von Herder ( August 25, 1744 December 18, 1803) was a German philosopher, Poet, and Literary ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfgaŋ fɔn ˈgøːtə (in English generally ˈgɝːtə 28 August 1749 22 March 1832 was a German writer  It inspired many Scottish writers, including the young Walter Scott, but it eventually became clear that the poems were not direct translations from the Gaelic but flowery adaptations made to suit the aesthetic expectations of his audience (as has been demonstrated in Derick S. Thomson, The Gaelic Sources of Macpherson's "Ossian" .
Among the best known Scottish writers are two who are strongly associated with the Romantic Era, Robert Burns and Walter Scott. Robert Burns (25 January 1759 – 21 July 1796 (also known as Rabbie Burns, Scotland's favourite son, the Ploughman Poet, the Bard of Ayrshire Sir Walter Scott 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 &ndash 21 September 1832 was a prolific Scottish Historical novelist and Poet popular throughout Scott's work is not exclusively concerned with Scotland, but his popularity in England and further abroad did much to form the modern stereotype of Scottish culture. Burns is considered Scotland's national bard; his works have only recently been edited to reflect the full breadth of their subject matter, as during the Victorian era he was censored. A national poet or national bard is a Poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity beliefs and principles of a particular national Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor
Scott collected Scottish ballads and published The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border before launching into a novel-writing career in 1814 with Waverley, often called the first historical novel. An historical novel is a Novel in which the story is set among historical events or more generally in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the Author Other novels by Scott which contributed to the image of him as a patriot include Rob Roy. Rob Roy (1817 is a novel by Walter Scott about Frank Osbaldistone the son of an English merchant who goes to the Scottish Highlands to collect a He also wrote a History of Scotland. He was the highest earning and most popular author up to that time.
James Hogg, a writer encouraged by Walter Scott, made creative use of the Scottish religious background in producing his distinctive The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner, which can be seen as introducing the "doppelgänger" theme which would be taken up later in the century in The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. James Hogg (1770 - 21 November 1835) was a Scottish poet and Novelist who wrote in both Scots and English. The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner Written by Himself A doppelgänger ( or fetch is the ghostly double of a living person a sinister form of Bilocation. Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a Novella written by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson and first published in 1886 Hogg may have borrowed his literary motif from the concept of the "co-choisiche" in Gaelic folk tradition.
In the latter half of the nineteenth century the population of Scotland had become increasingly urban and industrialised. However, the appetite amongst readers, first whetted by Walter Scott, for novels about heroic exploits in a mythical untamed Scottish landscape, encouraged yet more novels that did not reflect the realities of life in that period.
A Scottish intellectual tradition, going back at least to the philosopher David Hume can be seen reflected in the Sherlock Holmes books of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: although Holmes is now seen as part of quintessential London, the spirit of deduction in these books is arguably more Scottish than English. David Hume (26 April 1711 25 August 1776 Scottish Philosopher, Economist, and Historian is an important figure in Western philosophy Sherlock Holmes is a famous fictional detective of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries who first appeared in Publication in 1887 Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930 was an Anglo-Scottish Author most noted for his stories about the
Robert Louis Stevenson's most famous works are still popular and feature in many plays and films. Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850–3 December 1894 was a Scottish novelist poet and travel writer, and a representative of Neo-romanticism in The short novel Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) depicts the dual personality of a kind and intelligent physician who turns into a psychopathic monster after imbibing a drug intended to separate good from evil in a personality. Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a Novella written by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson and first published in 1886 Dissociative Identity Disorder ( DID) as defined by the American Psychiatric Association 's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM Kidnapped is a fast-paced historical novel set in the aftermath of the '45 Jacobite Rising, and Treasure Island is the classic pirate adventure. Kidnapped is a historical fiction Adventure novel by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson. An historical novel is a Novel in which the story is set among historical events or more generally in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the Author The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings rebellions and wars in the kingdoms of England, Kingdom of Scotland (later the United Kingdom of Great Britain Treasure Island is an adventure Novel by author Robert Louis Stevenson, narrating a tale of "pirates and buried gold" Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering
The introduction of the movement known as the "kailyard tradition" at the end of the 19th century, brought elements of fantasy and folklore back into fashion. The Kailyard school of Scottish fiction came into being at the end of the Nineteenth century as a reaction against what was seen as increasingly coarse writing representing Fantasy is a Genre that uses magic and other Supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological J. M. Barrie is one example of this mix of modernity and nostalgia. Sir James Matthew Barrie 1st Baronet OM ( 9 May, 1860 &ndash 19 June, 1937) more commonly known as J  This tradition has been viewed as a major stumbling block for Scottish literature, focusing, as it did, on an idealised, pastoral picture of Scottish culture, becoming increasingly removed from reality of life in Scotland during that period. This tradition was satirised by the author George Douglas Brown in his novel The House with the Green Shutters. George Douglas Brown ( 26 January 1869 &mdash 28 August 1902) was a Scottish Novelist, best known for his highly influential It could be argued that Scottish literature as a whole still suffers from the echoes of this tradition today.
One Scottish author whose work has become popular again is the cleric George MacDonald. George MacDonald ( 10 December 1824 &mdash 18 September 1905) was a Scottish author poet and Christian minister
In the early 20th century in Scotland, a renaissance in the use of Lowland Scots occurred, its most vocal figure being Hugh MacDiarmid. The Scottish Renaissance was a mainly Literary movement of the early to mid 20th century that can be seen as the Scottish version of Modernism. Hugh MacDiarmid is the pen name of Christopher Murray Grieve (Crìsdean Mac a' Ghreidhir (11 August 1892 Langholm - 9 September 1978 Edinburgh Other contemporaries were A.J. Cronin, Eric Linklater, Naomi Mitchison, James Bridie, Robert Garioch, Robert McLellan, Nan Shepherd, William Soutar, Douglas Young, and Sidney Goodsir Smith. Archibald Joseph Cronin (19 July 1896–6 January 1981 was Eric Robert Russell Linklater (8 March 1899 - 7 November 1974 was a British writer known for more than 20 novels as well as Short stories, travel writing and autobiography Naomi May Margaret Mitchison CBE (née Haldane 1 November 1897 Edinburgh – 11 January 1999 at Carradale) was a Scottish Novelist James Bridie, the Pseudonym used by Osborne Henry Mavor ( January 3, 1888, in Glasgow - January 29, 1951 in Robert Garioch Sutherland, ( 9 May 1909 &ndash 26 April 1981) was a Scottish Poet and Translator. Robert McLellan Scottish Dramatist and Poet, (1907-1985 was born at Linmill, a fruit farm in Kirkfieldbank in the Clyde valley the home Nan (Anna Shepherd ( February 11, 1893 - February 23, 1981) was a Scottish novelist and poet William Soutar was a Scottish Poet, born 1898 He served in the navy in World War I, and afterwards studied at the University of Edinburgh, where Douglas Young may refer to Professor Douglas Young (classicist (1913-1973 Scottish poet scholar and translator leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP from Sydney Goodsir Smith ( 26 October 1915 &ndash 15 January 1975) was a New Zealand - Scottish poet artist dramatist and novelist  However, the revival was largely limited to verse and other literature. Sorley MacLean's work in Scottish Gaelic in the 1930s gave new value to modern literature in that language. Sorley MacLean ( Somhairle MacGill-Eain, sometimes "MacGilleathain" in earlier publications ( 26 October, 1911 - 24 November, The History of literature in the Modern period in Europe begins with the Age of Enlightenment and the conclusion of the Baroque period in the 18th century Edwin Muir advocated, by contrast, concentration on English as a literary language. Edwin Muir ( 15 May 1887 &ndash 3 January, 1959) was an Orcadian poet novelist and noted translator born on a farm in Deerness
The novelists Neil M. Gunn and Lewis Grassic Gibbon emphasised the real linguistic conflict occurring in Scottish life during this period in their novels in particular, The Silver Darlings and A Scots Quair respectively, where we can see the language of the protagonists grows more anglicised progressively as they move to a more industrial lifestyle. Neil Miller Gunn ( November 8, 1891 - January 15, 1973) was a prolific novelist critic and dramatist who emerged as one of the leading lights Lewis Grassic Gibbon was the Pseudonym of James Leslie Mitchell ( 13 February 1901 &ndash 7 February 1935) a
New writers of the postwar years displayed a new outwardness. Both Alexander Trocchi in the 1950s and Kenneth White in the 1960s left Scotland to live and work in France. Alexander Whitelaw Robertson Trocchi (30 July 1925 - 15 April 1984 was a Scottish novelist Kenneth White (born April 28, 1936 in Glasgow, Scotland) is a poet academic and writer Edwin Morgan became known for translations of works from a wide range of European languages. Edwin George Morgan OBE (born April 27, 1920) is a Scottish poet and translator who is associated with the Scottish Renaissance
Edwin Morgan is the current Scots Makar (the officially-appointed national poet , equivalent to a Scottish poet laureate) and also produces translations of world literature. A makar is a term from Scottish literature for a Poet or Bard, often thought of as royal court poet although the term can be more generally A national poet or national bard is a Poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity beliefs and principles of a particular national A Poet Laureate is a Poet officially appointed by a government and is often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events His poetry covers the current and the controversial, ranging over political issues, and academic debates.
The tradition of fantastical fiction is continued by Alasdair Gray, whose Lanark has become a cult classic since its publication in 1981. Alasdair Gray (born 28 December 1934 is a Scottish writer and Artist. Lanark, subtitled A Life in Four Books, was the first novel of Scottish writer Alasdair Gray, and is still his best known A cult film is a Film that has acquired a highly devoted but relatively small group of fans. The 1980s also brought attention to writers capturing the urban experience and speech patterns - notably James Kelman and Jeff Torrington. James Kelman (born in Glasgow on June 9 1946) is an influential writer of Novels Jeff Torrington ( 31 December 1935 &ndash 11 May 2008) was a novelist from Glasgow in Scotland.
The works of Irvine Welsh, most famously Trainspotting, are written in a distinctly Scottish English, and reflect the underbelly of contemporary Scottish culture. Irvine Welsh (born 27 September 1958 Leith, Edinburgh) is a contemporary Scottish novelist, best known for his novel Trainspotting Trainspotting is the first novel by Scottish writer Irvine Welsh. Scottish English is the variety of English spoken in Scotland, also called Scottish Standard English. Other commercial writers, Iain Banks and Ian Rankin have also achieved international recognition for their work, and, like Welsh, have had their work adapted for film or television. Iain Menzies Banks (born on 16 February 1954 in Dunfermline, Fife) is a Scottish Writer. Ian Rankin OBE, DL, (born 28 April 1960 in Cardenden, Fife) is a Scottish Crime writer. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic
Alexander McCall Smith, Alan Warner, and Glasgow-based novelist Suhayl Saadi, whose short story "Extra Time" is in Glaswegian Scots, have made significant literary contributions in the 21st century. Alexander (RAA "Sandy" McCall Smith, CBE, FRSE, (born August 24 1948 is a Zimbabwean born British Writer and Alan Warner (born 1964 a Scottish novelist, grew up in Connel, near Oban. Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom Suhayl Saadi (b 23 October 1961, Beverley, Yorkshire) is a Physician, Author and Dramatist based in Glasgow Patter or Glaswegian is a Dialect spoken in and around Glasgow, Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic literature is currently experiencing a revival in print, with the publishing of An Leabhar Mòr and the Ùr Sgeul series, which encouraged new authors of poetry and fiction. An Leabhar Mòr, subtitled The Great Book of Gaelic, is a celebration of the modern Celtic muse
The Scottish literature canon has in recent years opened up to the idea of including women authors, encouraging a revisiting of Scottish women's work from past and present.
In recent years the publishing house Canongate Books has become increasingly successful, publishing Scottish literature from all eras, and encouraging new literature. Canongate Books (often simply Canongate) is a Scottish independent Publishing firm based in Edinburgh; it is named for the Canongate