of the Americas
|History of the Americas|
Scottish colonization of the Americas consisted of a number of failed or abandoned Scottish settlements in North America, a colony at Darien, Panama, and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made after the Acts of Union 1707. The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492 although there was at least one earlier colonization effort The history of the Americas is the collective history of North and South America, including Central America and the Caribbean. British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland before the 1707 Acts of Union created The Duchy of Courland was the smallest nation to colonize the Americas with a colony on the island of Tobago from 1654 to 1659 and intermittently from The Danish-Norwegian monarch headed a small number of countries from the 17th through the 20th centuries large portions of which were in The Americas. During the 17th century Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common French colonization of the Americas began in the 14th century and continued in the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western The German colonization of the Americas consisted of failed attempts to settle Venezuela ( Klein-Venedig in German) St Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century Russian colonization of the Americas proceeded in several places The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spain 's conquest settlement and rule over much of the Western hemisphere. The Swedish colonization of the Americas included a 17th-century colony on the Delaware River in what is now Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania As early as the 10th century Norse sailors (often referred to as Vikings explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeastern fringes of Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in North America and South America gained their independence Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The Darien scheme (colony of New Caledonia was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to establish a Colony on the Isthmus of Panama in the Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. The Acts of Union were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into
Although it is sometimes claimed that Henry Sinclair, 1st Earl of Orkney, a Scottish nobleman, explored North America in the 14th century, the first documented Scottish settlement in the Americas was of Nova Scotia in 1621. Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney and feudal baron of Roslin (c Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's On 29 September 1621, the charter for the foundation of a colony was granted by James VI of Scotland to Sir William Alexander, and in 1622 the first settlers left Scotland, though this settlement initially failed and a permanent colony was not established until 1629. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James For others with similar names see William Alexander (disambiguation. The colony's charter, in law, made Nova Scotia (defined as all land between Newfoundland and New England) a part of mainland Scotland; this was later used to get around the English navigation acts. Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the The English Navigation Acts were a series of Laws which restricted the use of foreign Shipping and trade between England (later the Kingdom of Great
Due to difficulties in obtaining a sufficient number of skilled emigrants, in 1624, James VI created a new order of Baronets; admission to this order was obtained by sending six labourers or artisans, sufficiently armed, dressed and supplied for two years, to Nova Scotia, or by paying 3,000 merks to William Alexander. "Emigrant" redirects here For the Butterflies, see Catopsilia. A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt) or the rare female equivalent a baronetess (abbreviation Btss) is the holder A merk was a Scottish Silver Coin. Originally the same word as a mark of silver the merk was in circulation at the end of the 16th century and For six months, no one took up this offer until James compelled one to make the first move. In 1627, there was a wider uptake of baronetcies, and thus more settlers available to go to Nova Scotia. However, in 1627, war broke out between England and France and the French re-established a settlement at Port Royal, Nova Scotia, which they had originally settled in 1604. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Port Royal is a small rural community in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Later that year, a combined Scottish and English force destroyed the French settlement, forcing them out. In 1629, the first Scottish settlement at Port Royal was inhabited. However, this did not last long: in 1631, under Charles I, the Treaty of Suza was signed, which returned Nova Scotia to the French. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. The Treaty of Suza was a 1631 peace treaty which ended a war between England and France that had broken out in 1627. The Scots were forced to abandon their Nova Scotia colony in its infancy. Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's 
|History of Scotland |
|Scotland in the Early Middle Ages|
|Scotland in the High Middle Ages|
|Wars of Scottish Independence|
|Scotland in the Late Middle Ages|
|Scotland in the Early Modern Era|
|Scotland in the Modern Era|
|Dynasties and Regimes|
|House of Alpin (843–878) & (889–1040)|
|House of Moray (1040–1058)|
|House of Dunkeld (1058–1286)|
|House of Balliol (1292–1296)|
|House of Bruce (1306–1371)|
|House of Stuart (1371–1707)|
|Act of Union (1707)|
|Timeline of Scottish history|
In 1625 a charter was given by James VI for a settlement at Cape Breton, New Galloway. The history of Scotland begins around 10000 years ago when Humans first began to inhabit Scotland after the end of the Devensian glaciation, the last Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Archaeology and Geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland The Early Middle Ages, a period which corresponds in part with Early Historic Scotland and the Later Iron Age, is that era of Scottish pre-history and The history of Scotland in the High Middle Ages covers Scotland in the era between the death of Domnall II in 900 AD and the death of king Alexander III The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th The history of Scotland in the Late Middle Ages might be said to be dominated by the twin themes of crisis and transition The Scottish Reformation was Scotland 's formal break with the Roman Catholic Church in 1560 and the events surrounding this The Scottish Enlightenment was the period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments The House of Alpin is the name given to the kin-group which ruled in Pictland and then the Kingdom The so-called House of Moray is a historiographical and genealogical construct to illustrate the succession of rulers whose base was at the region of Moray and who ruled sometimes The so-called House of Dunkeld, in Scottish Gaelic Dùn Chailleann (meaning Fort of the Caledonii or of the Caledonians) is a historiographical and genealogical The House of Balliol was a Picard and Anglo-Norman family who began to rule some estates in England in the reign of William Rufus. The House of Stuart or Stewart was a Royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of The Acts of Union were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into The history of Scottish visual art which we can take to mean the visual art produced within the modern political boundary of Scotland since the earliest times forms a distinctive The culture of Scotland refers to the peculiar cultural norms of Scotland and the Scottish people, particularly in relation to the more general British Scottish historiography refers to the sources and critical methods used by scholars to come to an understanding of the history of Scotland. Scottish literature is Literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. Historically Scotland has a long military tradition that predates the Act of Union with England. Current situation The largest party is the Scottish National Party, which campaigns for Scottish independence. This Timeline outlines the main events in Scottish history. 1st century - 7th century c Cape Breton Island ( French: île du Cap-Breton - formerly île Royale, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, However, this land was never colonised likely due to the problems over the settlement of Nova Scotia.
On 23 November 1683, Charles II granted a charter for the colony of New Jersey to 24 proprietors, 12 of whom were Scots. Events 800 - Charlemagne arrives at Rome to investigate the alleged crimes of Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Province of New Jersey was an English Colony that existed within the boundaries of the current U The colony was to be split between an English settlement in West Jersey and a Scottish settlement in East Jersey. New Jersey was governed as two distinct provinces East Jersey and West Jersey, for the 28 years between 1674 and 1702. East Jersey, together with West Jersey, was a distinct separately governed Province of New Jersey that existed for 28 years between 1674 and 1702 The driving force among the Scots was Robert Barclay of Urie, a prominent Quaker and the first Governor of East Jersey. Robert Barclay ( December 23, 1648 – October 3, 1690) one of the most eminent Writers belonging to the Religious Society
Although the Quakers were an important force, making up all of the proprietors of East Jersey, the settlement was marketed as a national, rather than a religious, endeavour, partially due to persecution of the Quakers in the 1660s and 1670s.
During the 1680s, around 700 Scots emigrated to East Jersey, mostly from Aberdeen and Montrose, and around 50% of those travelled as indentured servants. Aberdeen ( pronounced; Aiberdeen Obar Dheathain is Scotland 's third most populous city and one of Scotland's 32 local government council Montrose is a coastal Resort town and former Royal burgh in Angus, Scotland. An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to From 1685, there was further emigration, albeit unsought by the emigrants, with the deportation of captured Covenanters. The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century They were originally to have been placed in indented servitude on arrival; however, they were declared by the courts to be free men, as they had not voluntarily indented. In the 1690s, the pace of Scottish immigration slowed, due to opposition by William III of England and II of Scotland to those proprietors who supported James II; it did not pick up again till the 1720s. William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James The initial immigrants to East Jersey were Quakers, Episcopalians and Presbyterians; by the 1730s, Presbyterianism had become the dominant religion. The Scottish Episcopal Church (Eaglais Easbaigeach na h-Alba is a Christian denomination in Scotland and a member of the Anglican Communion, although it Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity
Until 1697, every Governor of East Jersey was Scottish, and Scots maintained great influence in politics and business even after 1702, when East Jersey and West Jersey were merged to become a Royal Colony.
Although the Province of Carolina was an English colony in the early 1680s, Sir John Cochran of Ochiltree and Sir George Campbell of Cessnock negotiated the purchase of two counties for Scottish settlement. The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1712, was a North American British proprietary Colony, controlled by eight English noblemen Ochiltree, spelt Uchletree in the Middle Ages, is a village in East Ayrshire, Scotland near Auchinleck and Cumnock. George Campbell may refer to Politicians: George Campbell (Australian politician (born 1943 senator from the Australian Labor Party in New South These were intended, with the support of the Earl of Shaftesbury, the leader of the Carolina Proprietors, to provide a safe haven for Covenanters, as these Scots were given a guarantee of freedom of conscience and autonomous control of their colony, which extended from Charles Town (Charleston) towards Spanish territory. Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl of Shaftesbury ( July 22, 1621 &ndash January 21, 1683) known as Sir Anthony Ashley-Cooper The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the US state of South Carolina.
In 1684, 148 Scots settlers arrived to build a settlement at Port Royal, the site of former French and Spanish settlements. Port Royal is a town in Beaufort County, South Carolina, United States. This was renamed by the Scots as Stuarts Town.
Once settled, there was frequent conflict, both with Spanish allied Indians and with the English at Charles Town, the latter over English attempts to assert authority over the Scots and rights to the lucrative Indian trade. The Scots also carried out frequent raids on Spanish allied Indians and raided the Spanish mission at Santa Catalina as well as encouraging (and arming) the Indians they traded with to attack the Spanish directly. In 1686, the Spanish retaliated and sent three ships with 150 Spanish troops and Indian allies to attack Stuarts Town. Due to a recent sickness, the Scots had only 25 effective fighting men able to mount a defence and the town was wiped out.  There was no retaliation by the English, who were warned by the Proprietors not to interfere.
The Darién Scheme is probably the best known of all Scotland's colonial endeavours, and the most disastrous. The Darien scheme (colony of New Caledonia was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to establish a Colony on the Isthmus of Panama in the In 1695, an act was passed in the Scottish Parliament establishing The Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies and was given the Royal assent by the Scottish representative of King William II of Scotland (and III of England). The Scottish Parliament ( Scottish Gaelic: Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: Scottish Pairlament) is the devlolved national unicameral The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of Lawmaking by formally assenting to an This act gave the company a 31-year monopoly on trade with Africa and Asia, authorising it to arm and equip ships and to establish colonies in uninhabited or unclaimed areas of America, Asia or Africa. These powers were similar to those of the English East India Company, which opposed the establishment of a Scottish rival. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or
Capital for the company of £400,000 (estimated at one-third to one-quarter of the liquid wealth of Scotland) was raised solely in Scotland, due to intrigue by English merchants and the English government which prevented shares being sold in Amsterdam and Hamburg. Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany  This opposition also prevented shares being sold in England, as was the original intention.
In 1696, 2,500 Scottish settlers, in two expeditions, set out to found a Scottish trading colony at Darién on the isthmus of Panama. Santa María la Antigua del Darién was a settlement established in 1510 by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa on the Caribbean coast of Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. These settlers were made up of ex-soldiers, ministers of religion, merchants, sailors and the younger sons of the gentry, to receive 50 to 150 acres each. The government of the colony was run by a committee, the chairman of which changed every two weeks, thus preventing any real sustained progress in solving the problems faced by the settlers.
These problems included a lack of provisions due to famine in Scotland, the Scots' lack of colonising experience, diseases such as malaria, poor weather and the proximity of the Spanish, who claimed the land the Scots had settled on. Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including Also, for a trading colony established to trade with passing ships in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, they carried a poor choice of trade goods, including wigs, shoes, bibles, woolen clothing and clay pipes. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions
The colony received no assistance from the crown or English colonies in the West Indies or Jamaica, despite having been promised, in the 1695 act, the assistance of William II. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Thus, the Scots faced assaults by the Spanish on their own. In 1699, they dealt with this by recruiting a Jamaican captain to raid Spanish shipping as a privateer, but this achieved little. A privateer was a private Warship authorized by a country's Government by Letters of marque to attack foreign shipping Soon thereafter, the Spanish mounted an expedition of 500 men to wipe out the Scots. This was effective, as most settlers had already succumbed to disease or starvation.
Darien, Georgia, was a Scottish settlement in the British Province of Georgia. Darien is a city in McIntosh County, Georgia, United States. It is part of the ' Brunswick Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area ' The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies in British North America. It was named after the previous failed settlement on the Isthmus of Panama, though it was, for a time, also known as "New Inverness".
It was founded in January 1736 by 177 Highland Scots (men, women and children) recruited as settler-soldiers by General James Oglethorpe. The Scottish Highlands ( Scottish Gaelic: A' Ghàidhealtachd, Scots: Hielans) include the rugged and Mountainous James Oglethorpe (December 22 1696 &ndash June 30 1785 was a British general a Philanthropist, and was the founder of the colony of Georgia. They had a dual role of establishing a new settlement and acting as a buffer, protecting the rest of Georgia from the Spanish to the south. The Scots quickly established a number of military forts in the surrounding area and, after initial poor success in farming, concentrated on cattle rearing and the felling of timber for survival. Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family Lumber or timber is Wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural Material for Construction, or
In 1739, eighteen prominent members of the colony signed the first petition against the introduction of slavery into Georgia. This was in response to pleas to Oglethorpe and the Trustees by inhabitants of Savannah to lift their prohibition on slavery. The Highlanders' petition was successful for a time; slavery was not introduced until ten years later, in 1749.
Despite conflicts between Jacobite and Hanoverian settlers, the colony did reasonably well, with additional settlers arriving in 1737 and 1741. Jacobitism was (and to a limited extent remains the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England, Scotland However, there was frequent conflict with the Spanish and their allied Indians. On the outbreak of the War of Jenkins' Ear in October 1739, the Scots seized five Spanish forts and attempted a siege of St. Augustine. The War of Jenkins' Ear was a conflict between Great Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1748 St Augustine is the County seat of St Johns County, Florida, in the United States. However, they were defeated in the subsequent Battle of Fort Mosa that resulted in the death or capture of fifty-one of the Darien settlers. Despite this, Scottish settlement in Georgia continued.