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The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction in the United States often omits the and), commonly known as simply the Scottish Rite, is one of several Rites of the worldwide fraternity known as Freemasonry. Freemasonry|Regular Masonic jurisdictionsA Grand Lodge, or " Grand Orient " is the usual governing body of "Craft" or "Blue Lodge" Freemasonry A Masonic Lodge, often termed a Private Lodge or Constituent Lodge in Books of Constitutions is the basic organisation of Freemasonry. This article relates to mainstream 'Craft Freemasonry' sometimes known as 'Blue Lodge Freemasonry' Prince Hall Freemasonry derives from historical events which led to a tradition of separate predominantly African-American, Freemasonic fraternal organization in See also Freemasonry This article deals with organization in Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry. See also Freemasonry The history of Freemasonry studies the development evolution and events of the Fraternal organization known as Freemasonry Liberté chérie was a Masonic Lodge to be founded in a Nazi concentration camp during the Second World War. There are a number of manuscripts that are historically important in the development of Freemasonry. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A Rite is a series of progressive degrees that are conferred by various Masonic organizations or bodies, each of which operates under the control of its own central authority. In the Scottish Rite the central authority is called a Supreme Council.
The thirty-three degrees of the Scottish Rite are conferred by several controlling bodies. The first of these is the Craft Lodge which confers the Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft, and Master Mason degrees. Craft lodges operate under the authority of Grand Lodges, not the Scottish Rite. Freemasonry|Regular Masonic jurisdictionsA Grand Lodge, or " Grand Orient " is the usual governing body of "Craft" or "Blue Lodge" Freemasonry Although most lodges throughout the English-speaking world do not confer the Scottish Rite versions of the first three degrees, there are a handful of lodges in New Orleans and in several other major cities that have traditionally conferred the Scottish Rite version of these degrees. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana  
The Scottish Rite is one of the appendant bodies of Freemasonry that a Master Mason may join for further exposure to the principles of Freemasonry. The fraternity of Freemasonry, also known as "Free and Accepted Masons" is organized into lodges chapters councils commanderies consistories etc In England and some other countries, while the Scottish Rite is not accorded official recognition by the Grand Lodge, there is no prohibition against a Freemason electing to join it. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland In the United States, however, the Scottish Rite is officially recognized by Grand Lodges as an extension of the degrees of Freemasonry. The Scottish Rite builds upon the ethical teachings and philosophy offered in the craft lodge, or Blue Lodge, through dramatic presentation of the individual degrees. A Masonic Lodge, often termed a Private Lodge or Constituent Lodge in Books of Constitutions is the basic organisation of Freemasonry.
There are records of lodges conferring the degree of "Scots Master" or "Scotch Master" as early as 1733. A lodge at Temple Bar in London is the earliest such lodge on record. Other lodges include a lodge at Bath in 1735, and the French lodge, St. George de l'Observance No. 49 at Covent Garden in 1736. The references to these few occasions indicate that these were special meetings held for the purpose of performing unusual ceremonies, probably by visiting Freemasons. 
The seed of the myth of Stuart Jacobite influence on the higher degrees may have been a careless and unsubstantiated remark made by John Noorthouk in the 1784 Book of Constitutions of the Premier Grand Lodge of London. Jacobitism was (and to a limited extent remains the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England, Scotland It was stated, without support, that King Charles II (older brother and predecessor to James II) was made a Freemason in the Netherlands during the years of his exile (1649–60). Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands However, there were no documented lodges of Freemasons on the continent during those years. The statement may have been made to flatter the fraternity by claiming membership for a previous monarch. This folly was then embellished upon by John Robison (1739–1805), a professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, in an anti-Masonic work published in 1797. John Robison is the name of John Robison (physicist, Scottish physicist inventor and conspiracy theorist John J The University of Edinburgh (Oilthigh Dhùn Èideann founded in 1582 is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as "Avowed opposition to Freemasonry " The lack of scholarship exhibited by him in that work caused the Encyclopedia Britannica to denounce it. 
A German bookseller and Freemason, living in Paris, working under the assumed name of C. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Lenning, embellished the story further in a manuscript titled "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry" probably written between 1822 and 1828 at Leipzig. This sort of fix restores section edit linkpoints to where they belong This manuscript was later revised and published by another German Freemason named Friedrich Mossdorf (1757–1830).  Lenning stated that King James II of England, after his flight to France in 1688, resided at the Jesuit College of Clermont, where his followers fabricated certain degrees for the purpose of carrying out their political ends. 
By the mid-19th century, the story had gained currency. The well-known English Masonic writer, Dr. George Oliver (1782–1867), in his "Historical Landmarks", 1846, carried the story forward and even claimed that King Charles II was active in his attendance at meetings—an obvious invention, for if it had been true, it would not have escaped the notice of the historians of the time. The story was then repeated by the French writers Jean-Baptiste Ragon (1771–1862) and Emmanuel Rebold, in their Masonic histories. Rebold's claim that the high degrees were created and practiced in Lodge Canongate Kilwinning  at Edinburgh are entirely false. Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. 
James II died in 1701 at the Palace of St. Germain en Laye, and was succeeded in his claims to the British throne by his son, James Francis Edward Stuart (1699–1766), the Chevalier St. The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a French royal Palace in the commune of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, in the département of Prince James Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart " The Old Pretender " or " The Old Chevalier " 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766 was the George, better known as "the Old Pretender", but recognized as James III by the French King Louis XIV. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent He was succeeded in his claim by Charles Edward Stuart ("Bonnie Prince Charles"), also known as "the Young Pretender", whose ultimate defeat at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 effectively put an end to any serious hopes of the Stuarts regaining the British crowns. For the US politician see Charles E Stuart For "Betty Burke" see The 'Forty-Five' below The Battle of Culloden (Blàr Chùil Lodair (16 April 1746 was the final clash between the French-supported Jacobites and the Hanoverian The House of Stuart or Stewart was a Royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of
The natural confusion between the names of the Jesuit College of Clermont, and the short-lived Masonic Chapter of Clermont, a Masonic body that controlled a few high degrees during its brief existence, only served to add fuel to the myth of Stuart Jacobite influence in Freemasonry's high degrees. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order However, the College and the Chapter had nothing to do with each other. The Jesuit College was located at Clermont, whereas the Masonic Chapter was not. Rather, it was named "Clermont" in honor of the French Grand Master, the Comte de Clermont (Louis de Bourbon, Comte de Clermont) (1709-1771), and not because of any connection with the Jesuit College of Clermont. Louis de Bourbon-Condé comte de Clermont ( 15 June[[ 709]]- 16 June[[ 771]] was a member of the cadet Bourbon-Condé branch of the French royal house 
A French trader, by the name of Estienne Morin, had been involved in high degree Masonry in Bordeaux since 1744 and, in 1747, founded an "Ecossais" lodge (Scots Masters Lodge) in the city of Le Cap Francais, on the north coast of the French colony of Saint-Domingue (now Haiti). Over the next decade, high degree Freemasonry continued to spread to the Western hemisphere as the high degree lodge at Bordeaux warranted or recognized seven Ecossais lodges there. In Paris in the year 1761, a Patent was issued to Estienne Morin, dated 27 August, creating him "Grand Inspector for all parts of the New World. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan " This Patent was signed by officials of the Grand Lodge at Paris and appears to have originally granted him power over the craft lodges only, and not over the high, or "Ecossais", degree lodges. Later copies of this Patent appear to have been embellished, probably by Morin, to improve his position over the high degree lodges in the West Indies. 
Early writers long believed that a "Rite of Perfection" consisting of 25 degrees, the highest being the "Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret", and being the predecessor of the Scottish Rite, had been formed in Paris by a high degree council calling itself "The Council of Emperors of the East and West". The title "Rite of Perfection" first appeared in the Preface to the "Grand Constitutions of 1786", the authority for which is now known to be faulty. It is now generally accepted that this Rite of twenty-five degrees was compiled by Estienne Morin and is therefore more properly titled "The Rite of the Royal Secret", or "Morin's Rite". 
Morin returned to the West Indies in 1762 or 1763, to Saint-Domingue, where, armed with his new Patent, he assumed powers to constitute lodges of all degrees, spreading the high degrees throughout the West Indies and North America. Morin stayed in Saint-Domingue until 1766 when he moved to Jamaica. At Kingston, Jamaica, in 1770, Morin created a "Grand Chapter" of his new Rite (the Grand Council of Jamaica). Morin died in 1771 and was buried in Kingston. 
The one man who was most important in assisting Morin in spreading the degrees in the New World was a naturalized French subject of Dutch origin named Henry Andrew Francken. Morin appointed him Deputy Grand Inspector General as one of his first acts after returning to the West Indies. Francken worked closely with Morin and, in 1771, produced a manuscript book giving the rituals for the 15th through the 25th degrees. Francken produced at least two more similar manuscripts, one in 1783 and another about 1786. The second and third of these manuscripts included all the degrees from the 4th through the 25th. 
A Loge de Parfaits d' Écosse was formed on 12 April 1764 at New Orleans, becoming the first high degree lodge on the North American continent. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1764 ( MDCCLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Its life, however, was short, as the Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded New Orleans to Spain, and the Catholic Spanish crown had been historically hostile to Freemasonry. The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain Documented Masonic activity ceased for a time and did not return to New Orleans until the 1790s. 
Francken travelled to New York in 1767 where he granted a Patent, dated 26 December 1767, for the formation of a Lodge of Perfection at Albany. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1767 ( MDCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a This marked the first time the Degrees of Perfection (the 4th through the 14th) were conferred in one of the thirteen British colonies. This Patent, and the early minutes of the Lodge, are still extant and are in the archives of Supreme Council, Northern Jurisdiction. 
While in New York, Francken also communicated the degrees to Moses Michael Hays, a Jewish businessman, and appointed him a Deputy Inspector General. In 1781, Hays made eight Deputy Inspectors General, four of whom were later important in the establishment of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in South Carolina: Isaac Da Costa Sr. , D. I. G. for South Carolina; Abraham Forst, D. I. G. for Virginia; Joseph M. Myers, D. I. G. for Maryland; and Barend M. Spitzer, D. I. G. for Georgia. Da Costa returned to Charleston, S. C. , and established the "Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection" in February 1783. After Da Costa's death in November 1783, Hays appointed Myers as Da Costa's successor. Joined by Forst and Spitzer, Myers created additional high degree bodies in Charleston and, by 1801, the Charleston bodies were the only extant bodies of the Rite in North America. 
Although most of the thirty-three degrees of the Scottish Rite existed in parts of previous degree systems, the Scottish Rite did not come into being until the formation of the Mother Supreme Council at Charleston, South Carolina, in May 1801. Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the US state of South Carolina. South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America.
Isaac De Costa, one of the deputies commissioned to establish Morin's Rite of the Royal Secret in other countries, formed constituent bodies of the Rite in South Carolina in 1783, which eventually became, in 1801, The Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction. All regular Scottish Rite bodies today derive their heritage from this body.
Born in Boston, Massachusetts on December 29, 1809, Albert Pike is asserted within the Southern Jurisdiction as the man most responsible for the growth and success of the Scottish Rite from an obscure Masonic Rite in the mid-1800s to the international fraternity that it became. Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Albert Pike (December 29 1809–April 2 1891 was an attorney, soldier writer and Freemason. Pike received the 4th through the 32nd Degrees in March 1853 from Dr. Albert G. Mackey, in Charleston, S. Albert Gallatin Mackey ( March 12 1807 &ndash June 20 1881) was an American medical doctor and is best known for his authorship of C. , and was appointed Deputy Inspector for Arkansas that same year.
At this point, the degrees were in a rudimentary form, and often only included a brief history and legend of each degree as well as other brief details which usually lacked a workable ritual for their conferral. In 1855, the Supreme Council appointed a committee to prepare and compile rituals for the 4th through the 32nd Degrees. That committee was composed of Albert G. Mackey, John H. Honour, W. S. Rockwell, C. Samory, and Albert Pike. Of these five committee members, Pike did all the work of the committee.
In March 1858, Pike was elected a member of the Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, and in January 1859 he became its Grand Commander. The American Civil War interrupted his work on the Scottish Rite rituals. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South After the War, he moved to Washington, DC, and in 1868 his revision of the rituals was complete. Pike also wrote lectures for all the degrees which were published in 1871 under the title Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, or simply Morals and Dogma, is a book of Esoteric Philosophy published by .
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in each country is governed by a Supreme Council. There is no international governing body — each Supreme Council in each country is sovereign unto itself in its own jurisdiction.
In the United States of America there are two Supreme Councils: one in Washington, DC, and one in Lexington, Massachusetts, which control the Southern Jurisdiction (SJ) and Northern Masonic Jurisdiction (NMJ), respectively. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Lexington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. In the SJ, individual states are referred to as Orients and local bodies are called Valleys; the NMJ uses only Valley.  Each Valley has up to four Scottish Rite bodies, and each body confers a set of degrees.
In the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, the Supreme Council consists of no more than 33 members, and is presided over by a Grand Commander. Other members of the Supreme Council are called "Sovereign Grand Inspectors General" (S. G. I. G. ), and each is the head of the Rite in his respective Orient (or state). Other heads of the various Orients who are not members of the Supreme Council are called "Deputies of the Supreme Council. "
The Lexington, Massachusetts-based Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, formed in 1813, oversees the bodies in fifteen states: Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Wisconsin and Vermont. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. New Hampshire ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern Rhode Island ( officially named the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Orients in the other thirty-five states, districts and territories in the United States are overseen by the Southern Jurisdiction. Based in Washington, D. C. , the Southern Jurisdiction is the "Mother Supreme Council of the World," being the first Supreme Council, and was founded in Charleston, South Carolina in 1801. Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday
In the Northern Jurisdiction, the Supreme Council consists of no more than 66 members. All members of the Supreme Council are designated Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, but the head of the Rite in each Valley of the Northern Jurisdiction is called a "Deputy of the Supreme Council. "
In England and Wales, whose Supreme Council was warranted by that of the Northern Jurisdiction of the USA (in 1845), the Rite is known colloquially as the "Rose Croix" or more formally as "The Ancient and Accepted Rite for England and Wales and its Districts and Chapters Overseas" (continental European jurisdictions retain the "Écossais"). The only local bodies are Rose Croix Chapters; many degrees are conferred in name only, and degrees beyond the 18° are conferred only by the Supreme Council itself.
Attainment of the third Masonic degree, that of a Master Mason, represents the attainment of the highest rank in all of Masonry. Additional degrees are sometimes referred to as appendant degrees, even where the degree numbering might imply a hierarchy. They represent a lateral movement in Masonic Education rather than an upward movement, and are degrees of instruction rather than rank.
In 2000, the Southern Masonic Jurisdiction completed a revision of its ritual scripts. In 2004, the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction rewrote and reorganized its degrees.  Further changes have occurred in 2006.  The current titles of the degrees and their arrangement in the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States remains substantially unchanged from the beginning. The list of degrees for the Supreme Councils of Canada, Australia, England and Wales, and most other jurisdictions agrees with that of the Southern Jurisdiction of the U. S. However, the list of degrees for the Northern Jurisdiction of the United States is now somewhat different and is given in the table below:
|Degree Number||Southern Jurisdiction||Northern Jurisdiction|
|4°||Secret Master||Master Traveler|
|6°||Intimate Secretary||Master of the Brazen Serpent|
|7°||Provost and Judge|
|8°||Intendant of the Building|
|9°||Elu of the Nine||Master of the Temple|
|10°||Elu of the Fifteen||Master Elect|
|11°||Elu of the Twelve||Sublime Master Elected|
|12°||Master Architect||Grand Master Architect|
|13°||Royal Arch of Solomon||Master of the Ninth Arch|
|14°||Perfect Elu||Grand Elect Mason|
|15°||Knight of the East, or|
Knight of the Sword, or
Knight of the Eagle
|Knight of the East, or|
Knight of the Sword
|16°||Prince of Jerusalem|
|17°||Knight of the East and West|
|18°||Knight Rose Croix||Knight of the Rose Croix de Heredom Council of Kadosh|
|20°||Master of the Symbolic Lodge||Master ad Vitam|
|22°||Knight of the Royal Axe, or|
Prince of Libanus
|Prince of Libanus|
|23°||Chief of the Tabernacle|
|24°||Prince of the Tabernacle||Brother of the Forest|
|25°||Knight of the Brazen Serpent||Master of Achievement|
|26°||Prince of Mercy, or|
|Friend and Brother Eternal|
|27°||Knight of the Sun, or|
|Knight of Jerusalem|
|28°||Knight Commander of the Temple||Knight of the Sun, or|
|29°||Scottish Knight of Saint Andrew||Knight of Saint Andrew|
|30°||Knight Kadosh, or|
Knight of the White and Black Eagle
|31°||Inspector Inquisitor||Knight Aspirant|
|32°||Master of the Royal Secret||Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret|
In the United States, members of the Scottish Rite can be elected to receive the 33° by the Supreme Council. The Knight Kadosh is a Freemasonic degree or ceremony of initiation performed by certain branches of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry It is conferred on members who have made major contributions to society or to Masonry in general. In the Southern Jurisdiction, a member who has been a 32° Scottish Rite Mason for 46 months or more is eligible to be elected to receive the "rank and decoration" of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour (K. C. C. H. ) in recognition of outstanding service. After 46 months as a K. C. C. H. he is then eligible to be elected to the 33rd degree.  In the Northern Jurisdiction, there is only one 46-month requirement for eligibility to receive the 33rd degree, and while there is a Meritorious Service Award (as well as a Distinguished Service Award), they are not required intermediate steps towards the 33°. A recipient of the 33rd Degree is an honorary member of the Supreme Council and is therefore called an "Inspector General Honorary. " However, those who are appointed Deputies of the Supreme Council that are later elected to membership on the Supreme Council are then designated "Sovereign Grand Inspectors General. "
According to the various Scottish Rite jurisdictions in the world, all of which operate independently, the Scottish Rite degrees are worked at will by their governing bodies. For example, the Southern Jurisdiction separates the degrees as follows:
This is different in the Northern Jurisdiction:
In Scotland, candidates are perfected in the 18th degree, with the preceding degrees awarded in name only. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. A minimum of a two-year interval is required before continuing to the 30th degree, again with the intervening degrees awarded by name only. Elevation beyond that is by invitation only, and numbers are severely restricted.
Similarly in England, the candidate is perfected in the 18th degree with the preceding degrees awarded in name only. Continuing to the 30th degree is restricted to those who have served in the chair of the Chapter. Elevation beyond the 30th degree is as in Scotland.
In 1856 Albert Pike revised and re-issued the rituals for use in the Southern Jurisdiction, also illustrating his interpretations of his revised rituals in Morals and Dogma. These rituals and the interpretation of them contained in Morals and Dogma have been the focus of much of the criticism of Freemasonry as a whole, despite the factual inaccuracies of that criticism. Pike's final revision of the ritual is no longer in use in the Southern Jurisdiction. Rather, the Southern Jurisdiction ritual today is a ritual that has been revised many times by various ritual committees and other contributors. The Northern Jurisdiction and other Supreme Councils also use rituals that represent many similar revisions and additions.