Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices initially created by American speculative fiction author L. Ron Hubbard. Scientology is according to its own texts "the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself others and all of life The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Speculative fiction is a term used as an inclusive descriptor covering a group of Fiction Genres that speculate about worlds that are unlike the real world in Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13 1911 &ndash January 24 1986 was a fiction writer who devised a self-help technique called Dianetics and philosophy known as Scientology The major organization promoting Scientology is the Church of Scientology, a hierarchical organization founded by Hubbard, while independent groups using Hubbard's materials are collectively referred to as the Free Zone. The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. The Free Zone (or independent Scientologists or Scientology Freezone) comprises a variety of groups and individuals who practice Scientology -like beliefs Hubbard developed Scientology teachings in 1952 as a successor to his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. Self-help or self-improvement refers to self-guided improvement—economically intellectually or emotionally—most frequently with a substantial psychological or spiritual Dianetics is a set of ideas and practices regarding the relationship between the spirit mind and body that were developed by L  Hubbard later characterized Scientology as an "applied religious philosophy" and the basis for a new religion. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos  Scientology encompasses "auditing", a spiritual rehabilitation philosophy and techniques, and covers topics such as morals, ethics, Purification (a type of detoxification), education and management. Auditing was developed by L Ron Hubbard, and is described by the Church of Scientology as "spiritual counseling which is the central practice of Dianetics The Way to Happiness is a 1980 booklet written by Scientology founder L According to the Church of Scientology, " Ethics may be defined as the actions an individual takes on himself to ensure his continued survival across the dynamics The Purification Rundown is a controversial detoxification program developed by Scientology's founder L Detoxification, or detox for short is the removal of Toxic substances from the body Study technology, or study tech, is a methodology for learning developed by L World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE is an Organization affiliated with the Church of Scientology that educates and assists businesses in the use of management
Hubbard also laid the foundations and policies for the establishment and management of Scientology organizations with the first Church of Scientology being established in December 1953.  Today organizations affiliated with the Church of Scientology form a complex network geared towards introducing Scientology into society.  Religious Technology Center owns the trademarks and service marks of Scientology. The Religious Technology Center (RTC is a Californian 501(c(3 Non-profit corporation.  These marks are licensed for use by the Church of Scientology International and its affiliated organizations.
Scientology and the organizations that promote it have remained highly controversial since their inception. Scientologists and the Church of Scientology have been involved in many scandals and controversies Former members, journalists, courts and the governing bodies of several countries have described the Church of Scientology as a cult and an unscrupulous commercial enterprise, accusing it of harassing its critics and abusing the trust of its members. This article does not discuss "cult" in the original sense of "veneration" or "religious practice" for that usage see Cult (religious practice Scientology officials argue that most of the negative press is motivated by interest groups and that most of the controversy is in the past.
Hubbard established Scientology's doctrines during a period from 1952 until his death in January 1986, establishing the basic principles in the 1950s and 1960s. This is a timeline of Scientology, particularly its foundation and development by author L It was originally secular, Hubbard stating in 1952 that "Scientology would be a study of knowledge. " The following year he began to characterize Scientology's beliefs and practices as a religion, and by 1960 he was defining Scientology as "a religion by its basic tenets, practice, historical background and by the definition of the word 'religion' itself. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos " In 1969 he wrote that "It is fundamentally an applied religious philosophy. " Hubbard recorded his doctrine in archived writings, audio tapes and films. 
The Church of Scientology defines scientology as "the study of truth. " The word itself is a pairing of the Latin word scientia ("knowledge," "skill"), which comes from the verb scire ("to know"), and the Greek λογος lógos ("reason" or "inward thought" or "logic" or "an account of"). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly
Although today associated almost exclusively with Hubbard, the word "scientology" predates his usage by several decades. An early use of the word was as a neologism in an 1871 book by the American anarchist Stephen Pearl Andrews presenting "the newly discovered Science of the Universe". A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been Anarchy (from αναρχία anarchía, "without ruler " may refer to any of the following "Absence of government a state of lawlessness Stephen  Philologist Allen Upward used the word "scientology" in his 1901 book The New Word as a synonym for "pseudoscience," and this is sometimes cited as the first coining of the word. See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology" Allen Upward (1863 - 1926 was a Poet, Lawyer, Politician and Teacher. Pseudoscience is defined as a body of knowledge methodology belief or practice that is claimed to be Scientific or made to appear scientific but does not adhere to the  In 1934, the Argentine-German writer Anastasius Nordenholz published a book using the word positively: Scientologie, Wissenschaft von der Beschaffenheit und der Tauglichkeit des Wissens ("Scientologie, Science of the Constitution and Usefulness of Knowledge").  Nordenholz's book is a study of consciousness, and its usage of the word is not greatly different from Hubbard's definition, "knowing how to know" (from epistemology). Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge Whether Hubbard was aware of these earlier uses is unknown.
The term "Scientology" and related terms are trademarks held by the Religious Technology Center which grants the mother church of the Scientology religion, the Church of Scientology International (CSI), the right to use the trademarks and to license their use to all other Scientology churches and entities. A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual The Religious Technology Center (RTC is a Californian 501(c(3 Non-profit corporation. Other organizations that promote the use of related techniques, developed by or based on the works of L. Ron Hubbard, are the World Institute of Scientology Enterprises and the Association for Better Living and Education. World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE is an Organization affiliated with the Church of Scientology that educates and assists businesses in the use of management The Association for Better Living and Education (ABLE is a Non-profit organization headquartered in Los Angeles California. 
Hubbard often acknowledges his philosophical forerunners and influences. In Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, the seminal "Book One" of Dianetics and Scientology, he states that:
"There are just so many pieces in any puzzle. Dianetics The Modern Science of Mental Health (often abbreviated as DMSMH is a book by L "
Hubbard credits Francis Bacon and Herbert Spencer, along with "a very few more" for having put together parts of the answer. Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban KC QC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626 was an English Philosopher, Statesman, and author Herbert Spencer ( April 27, 1820 – December 8, 1903) was an English Philosopher; prominent classical liberal Hubbard also recalls a meeting with Cmdr. Joseph Cressman Thompson, a U. Joseph Cheesman Thompson, M D (1874-1943 was a career medical officer in the United States Navy who attained the rank of commander before retirement in 1929 S. navy officer who studied with Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded  Hubbard, himself the son of a navy officer, met Thompson at the age of 12 during a trip from Seattle to Washington D. C. via the Panama Canal. The Panama Canal is a man-made Canal in Panama which joins the Thompson introduced him to Freudian analysis, and Hubbard later gave his opinion on Sigmund Freud: “I think that was Freud’s great contribution that something could be done about the mind. . . He was the first man that ever stood up and said: 'there is hope for it'. . . Now there was a great humanitarian. "
Hubbard acknowledged the influence of Alfred Korzybski's General Semantics. Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski (kɔ'ʐɨpski ( July 3, 1879 &ndash March 1, 1950) was a Polish-American Philosopher The term General Semantics refers to a non- Aristotelian Educational Discipline created by Alfred Korzybski (1879–1950 during the years  Scientology also reflects the influence of the Hindu concept of karma and dharma as well as the psychological theories of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and William Sargant but according to its founder, it is neither psychology nor psychiatry. Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म, kárman - "act action performance" Pali: kamma) is the concept of "action" The Sanskrit term ( Devanāgarī: धर्म Pali transliteration dhamma) is an Indian spiritual and religious Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded William Walters Sargant ( April 24, 1907 - August 27, 1988) was a British Psychiatrist who is now famous for his work During The Phoenix Lectures Hubbard stated that Scientology depended on his having known something of the Vedas and has called the Vedas Scientology’s earliest ancestor: "And we find Scientology’s earliest, certainly known ancestor in the Veda. "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. " Hubbard also gave recognition to the Tao Te Ching, the Dharma and Gautama Buddha as forerunners to Scientology. The Tao Te Ching or Dao De Jing ( originally known as Laozi or Lao tzu ( is a Chinese classic The Sanskrit term ( Devanāgarī: धर्म Pali transliteration dhamma) is an Indian spiritual and religious Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder  The late Bryan R. Wilson Reader Emeritus in Sociology at the University of Oxford and President of the International Society for the Sociology of Religion, wrote of Scientology: "it is clear to me that Scientology is a bona fide religion and should be considered as such. Bryan Ronald Wilson, (25 June 1926 Leeds – 9 October 2004, Middleton Stoney, Oxfordshire) was Reader Emeritus in Sociology The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the ".  David G. Bromley of Virginia Commonwealth University characterizes Scientology as "a 'quasi-religious therapy' that resembles Freudian 'depth psychology' while also drawing upon Buddhism, Hinduism and the ancient, heretical offshoot of Christianity known as Gnosticism. David G Bromley is a professor of Sociology at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA and the University of Virginia, Charlottesville VA Virginia Commonwealth University, or VCU, is a large public American research University with its main campuses located in downtown Richmond, Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems " Dr. Frank K. Flinn, adjunct professor of religious studies at Washington University in St. Louis wrote, "it is abundantly clear that Scientology has both the typical forms of ceremonial and celebratory worship and its own unique form of spiritual life. "
Scientology's beliefs and related techniques comprise 18 basic books, and 3,000 recorded lectures. This is an incomplete bibliography of Scientology and Scientology-related books produced within the Church of Scientology and its related organizations Scientology is according to its own texts "the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself others and all of life  There is no single Scientology book that is the equivalent of the Bible or the Qur'an, but the study of Scientology is achieved through the chronological study of its basic books and lectures. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran 
Scientology describes itself as "the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself, others and all of life," and "encompasses all aspects of life from the point of view of the spirit" — including "auditing" and training in morals, ethics, detoxification, education and management. Auditing was developed by L Ron Hubbard, and is described by the Church of Scientology as "spiritual counseling which is the central practice of Dianetics Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings According to the Church of Scientology, " Ethics may be defined as the actions an individual takes on himself to ensure his continued survival across the dynamics Detoxification, or detox for short is the removal of Toxic substances from the body Study technology, or study tech, is a methodology for learning developed by L Management (covering theory practice and scope of management and Manager' (covering the people who manage might help clarify and systematise 
Prime among Scientology's beliefs is "that man is a spiritual being whose existence spans more than one life and who is endowed with abilities well beyond those which he normally considers he possesses. " Scientology believes man to be basically good, that his experiences have led him into evil, that he errs because he seeks to solve his problems by considering only his own point of view, and that man can improve to the degree he preserves his spiritual integrity and remains honest and decent.  According to the Church, the ultimate goal is: "a civilization without insanity, without criminals and without war, where the able can prosper and honest beings can have rights, and where man is free to rise to greater heights. "
The Church of Scientology declares that the goal of Scientology is to achieve "certainty of one’s spiritual existence and [of] one’s relationship to the Supreme Being," and says that Scientology's tenets are not a matter of faith but of testable practice: "That which is true for you is what you have observed to be true. "
The exact nature of all of existence is said to be stated in Hubbard's Scientology and Dianetics Axioms.
Other beliefs of Scientology are:
Members study Scientology and receive auditing sessions to advance from a status of preclear to Operating Thetan. Auditing was developed by L Ron Hubbard, and is described by the Church of Scientology as "spiritual counseling which is the central practice of Dianetics Auditing was developed by L Ron Hubbard, and is described by the Church of Scientology as "spiritual counseling which is the central practice of Dianetics In Scientology, the state of Operating Thetan (OT is a spiritual state above Clear. 
Scientology practices (called "Technology" or "Tech" in Scientology jargon) are structured in sequential levels, reflecting Hubbard's belief that rehabilitation takes place on a "gradient", that is, easier steps are taken first and only then greater complexities are handled; for example, the negative effects of drugs must be addressed before other issues can be successfully tackled. Scientology terminology consists of a complex assortment of Jargon used by Scientologists in conjunction with the practice of Scientology and in their everyday Scientologists follow a sequence of courses that culminate in esoteric, advanced strata. This is described as a passage along "the Bridge to Total Freedom," or simply "the Bridge," in which each step promises a little more personal freedom in some particular area of life. Hubbard first developed the basic axioms then he went into experimentation and finally, he developed the therapy and proof of application by means of a self described "spiritual Technology". As he says, . . . "One might here use an analogy of bridge engineering".  The Bridge is the Classification Gradation and Awareness Chart. 
Scientologists believe that man is composed of three distinguishable parts: mind, body and spirit. 
The thetan (spirit) is described in Scientology as having no mass, no wavelength, no energy and no time or location in space except by consideration or postulate. The spirit, then, is not a thing. It is the creator of things—1956, Professional Auditor's Bulletin 85
The spirit, represented with the Greek letter 'theta' (θ), is the true form of man and can exist exterior to and/or independent from a body.  The mind in Scientology is described as a bank of mental image pictures that give the spirit experience and knowledge and that store the spirit’s "postulates. " Scientologists subdivide the mind into the analytical or conscious mind, which is "totally accessible to the spirit," and the reactive or subconscious mind, which "unknowingly affects the spirit" and is said to operate "on an irrational, stimulus-response basis. " Scientology describes the physical body as "a carbon-oxygen machine" of which the spirit is the engineer. Illnesses and injuries to the body are said to be relieved through the use of "assists. "
Dianetics is a sub study of Scientology that deals with the reactive mind, the "bank" of traumatic experiences known as engrams which are said to inhibit success and happiness. Dianetics is a set of ideas and practices regarding the relationship between the spirit mind and body that were developed by L The reactive mind is a concept in the Dianetics and Scientology systems of L In Dianetics and Scientology, an engram is defined as "a Mental image picture which is a recording of an experience containing pain unconsciousness 
The Scientology symbol contains two triangles which Hubbard called the "ARC triangle" and the "KRC triangle", respectively.  The points of the lower triangle are said to represent Affinity (emotional responses), Reality (an agreement on what is real) and Communication. Scientologists believe that improving one aspect of the triangle increases the level of the other two.  The points of the upper triangle represent Knowledge, Responsibility and Control.  Many auditing processes and training routines aim at increasing an individual's ability to gain knowledge of, take responsibility for and exert control over external and internal elements. The objective environment is there as an agreement; everyone who is sane enough agrees it is there. The subjective environment is the sole responsibility of the individual himself as he is the only one who is aware that it is there. These two environments may not actually agree.  Therefore, a therapy which asks man to adapt his subjective environment to the objective environment, and not the other way around, is like psychiatry enslaving and is unworkable simply because it is not true. Therapy (in Greek: θεραπεία) or treatment, is the attempted Remediation of a health problem usually following a Diagnosis Psychiatry is a medical specialty which exists to study, prevent, and treat Mental disorders in Humans Psychiatric 
The tone scale characterizes human mood and behavior by various positions on a scale from −40 ("Total Failure") to +40 ("Serenity of Being"). In Scientology, the tone scale or emotional tone scale is a characterization of human behavior Positions on the tone scale are usually designated by an emotion, but Hubbard said the tone scale could also indicate health, mating behavior, survival potential or ability to deal with truth. According to Scientology, lower positions on the tone scale indicate more intricate problems and greater difficulties in solving them for lack of communication. According to Hubbard, communication is the universal solvent and a person will climb from the bottom to the top by improving his ability to communicate. The higher the person’s tone is the better the person’s communication is; the lower the tone is the worse the communication is. A hi-tone person would be serene and a low tone would be a failure. 
Scientology and Dianetics state that the basic principle of existence is to survive and that man survives across the eight dynamics of Self, Family and Sex, Group, Humanity, Life, the Universe, Spirituality and the Supreme Being or Infinity. The Scientology cross is one of the principal Symbols of Scientology.  Actions are considered "good" if they promote survival across all eight dynamics or realms of action. 
Scientologists follow The Way to Happiness, which defines morals as "a code of good conduct laid down out of the experience of the race to serve as a uniform yardstick for the conduct of individuals and groups" but warns that "over time, morals can become outmoded, burdensome, and so invite revolt. According to the Church of Scientology, " Ethics may be defined as the actions an individual takes on himself to ensure his continued survival across the dynamics The Way to Happiness is a 1980 booklet written by Scientology founder L "
Scientology states that there is no absolute right or wrong but that right and wrong are actually a gradient from right to wrong. Deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek grc δέον deon, "obligation duty" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Teleology ( Greek: telos: end purpose is the philosophical study of design and Purpose. An action must contain construction which outweighs the destruction it contains in order to be considered good. "Good is any action which brings the greatest construction to the greatest number of dynamics while bringing the least destruction. "An 'absolute wrongness' would be the extinction of the universe and all energy and the source of energy. . . . An 'absolute "rightness"' would be the immortality of the individual himself, his children, his group, mankind and the universe. "
Scientology defines ethics as "the actions an individual takes on himself to ensure his continued survival across the dynamics. It is a personal thing that an ethical person does by his own choice. " "Ethics actually consists of rationality toward the highest level of survival for the individual, the future race, the group, Mankind and the other dynamics taken up collectively. Ethics are reason. Man's greatest weapon is his reason. " According to Scientology, various ethical states or "conditions" represent one's degree of success and delineate a sequence of steps to improve that condition of existence.  From best to worst, these "conditions" are Power, Affluence, Normal, Emergency, Danger, Non-Existence, Liability, Doubt, Enemy, Treason and Confusion. Scientologists are expected to use statistical measurement to assess "measurement of survival potential," where a downward trend could identify an 'emergency condition' and an upward trend could identify a 'affluence condition'.  According to The Scientology Handbook, the Scientology method of statistics can and should be applied to individuals, groups and organizations inside and outside of Scientology. 
Prof. Stephen A. Kent quotes Hubbard as pronouncing that "the purpose of ethics is to remove counter-intentions from the environment. Stephen A Kent, is a Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Having accomplished that, the purpose becomes to remove other intentionedness from the environment. " Kent interprets this as "a peculiar brand of morality that uniquely benefited [the Church of Scientology]. . . . In plain English, the purpose of Scientology ethics is to eliminate opponents, then eliminate people's interests in things other than Scientology. "
In Dianetics, Hubbard proposed that the cause of "aberrations" in a human mind was an accumulation of pain and unconscious memories of traumatic incidents, some of which predated the life of the human. In Scientology, the state of Operating Thetan (OT is a spiritual state above Clear. In Scientology, founder L Ron Hubbard used the Science fiction term Space opera to describe what he said were actual extraterrestrial Dianetics is a set of ideas and practices regarding the relationship between the spirit mind and body that were developed by L He extended this view further in Scientology, declaring that "thetans" have existed for tens of trillions of years (several orders of magnitude greater than what mainstream science generally estimates the age of the universe to be). An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it The age of the Universe is the time elapsed between the theory of the Big Bang and the present day During that time, Hubbard says, they have been exposed to a vast number of traumatic incidents, and have made a great many decisions that influence their present state. Hubbard's 1958 book Have You Lived Before This Life contains descriptions of past lives given by individual Scientologists during auditing sessions. Have You Lived Before This Life is a Scientology / Dianetics book published by L According to an early lecture of Hubbard's, it is, as a practical matter, both impossible and undesirable to recall each and every such event from such vast stretches of time.  As a result, Hubbard's three-decade development of Scientology focused on addressing only "key factors. "
According to Hubbard, some past traumas may have been deliberately inflicted in the form of "implants" used by extraterrestrial dictatorships such as Helatrobus to brainwash and control the population. According to Church of Scientology doctrine Helatrobus was an "interplanetary nation" now extinct which existed Trillions of Years ago Hubbard's lectures and writings include a wide variety of accounts of complex extraterrestrial civilizations and alien interventions in earthly events, collectively described by Hubbard as "space opera. In Scientology, founder L Ron Hubbard used the Science fiction term Space opera to describe what he said were actual extraterrestrial " There is a huge Church of Spiritual Technology symbol carved into the ground at Scientology's Trementina Base that is visible from the air. The Church of Spiritual Technology, also known as CST, is a Californian 501(c(3 Non-profit corporation, incorporated in 1982 which owns all the Trementina Base is the popular designation for a property of the Church of Spiritual Technology (CST near Trementina New Mexico.  Washington Post reporter Richard Leiby wrote, "Former Scientologists familiar with Hubbard’s teachings on reincarnation say the symbol marks a 'return point' so loyal staff members know where they can find the founder’s works when they travel here in the future from other places in the universe. "
Scientologists who have achieved the State of Clear may continue onto the Upper or OT (Operating Thetan) Levels. In Scientology, the state of Operating Thetan (OT is a spiritual state above Clear. These levels are available by invitation only after a review of the candidate's character, ethics and contribution to the aims of Scientology.  Individuals who have read these materials may not disclose what they contain without jeopardizing their standing in the Church.  Presently, there are eight such levels, OT I to VIII.  Church management has promised to release a ninth OT level once certain expansion goals are met.  The OT VIII designation is only granted at sea, on the Scientology ship, the Freewinds, which was established to provide a "safe, aesthetic, distraction-free environment" for this purpose. Concept and construction The vessel that eventually became known as the Freewinds was originally ordered by the Sweden -based Lion Ferry as the 
The organization says that it enforces confidentiality. Excerpts and descriptions of these materials were published online by a former member in 1995 and then circulated in mainstream media.  This occurred after the teachings were submitted as evidence in court cases involving Scientology, thus becoming a matter of public record.  In the previously confidential OT levels, Hubbard explains how to reverse the effects of past-life trauma patterns that supposedly extend millions of years into the past. 
Among these advanced teachings, one episode revealed to those who reach OT level III is the story of Xenu (sometimes Xemu), introduced as an alien ruler of the "Galactic Confederacy. Xenu, also Xemu ( or) was according to Scientology founder (and Science fiction writer L In Scientology doctrine The Galactic Confederacy refers to an extraterrestrial political unit involving our Solar system. " According to this story, 75 million years ago Xenu brought billions of people to Earth in spacecraft resembling Douglas DC-8 airliners, stacked them around volcanoes and blew them up with hydrogen bombs. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Their souls then clustered together, stuck to the bodies of the living and continue to do this today. Hubbard called these clustered spirits "Body Thetans," and advanced-level Scientologists place considerable emphasis on isolating these alien souls and neutralizing their ill effects. In Scientology, a Thetan is the term somewhat corresponding to one's "soul" and a Body Thetan is an alien Thetan who is 'stuck' in on or near 
The central practice of Scientology is "auditing," a one-on-one session with a Scientology counselor or "auditor. Auditing was developed by L Ron Hubbard, and is described by the Church of Scientology as "spiritual counseling which is the central practice of Dianetics Auditing was developed by L Ron Hubbard, and is described by the Church of Scientology as "spiritual counseling which is the central practice of Dianetics " Most auditing requires an E-meter, a device that measures minute changes in electrical resistance through the body when a person holds electrodes (metal "cans"), and a small current is passed through them; Scientology states that it helps locate an area of concern. An E-meter is an electronic device used as an aid in some forms of Dianetics and Scientology auditing. Electrical resistance is a ratio of the degree to which an object opposes an Electric current through it measured in Ohms Its reciprocal quantity is 
In the auditing process, the recipient (referred to as a "preclear" or PC) discloses specific traumatic incidents, prior ethical transgressions and bad decisions, which, in Scientology theory, collectively restrict the preclear from achieving his or her goals and lead to the development of a "reactive mind. " In one form of auditing, the auditor asks the preclear to respond to a list of questions in strict order. The preclear is "a willing and interested participant who understands the questions" and what is going on.  Auditors are not to suggest, interpret, degrade or invalidate the answers.  Scientologists state that benefits from auditing include improved IQ, improved ability to communicate and enhanced memory. An Intelligence Quotient or IQ is a score derived from one of several different Standardized tests attempting to measure Intelligence. 
During the auditing process, the auditor may collect personal information from the person being audited. Auditing records are referred to within Scientology as "PC (preclear) folders" and are stored securely when not being added to during auditing sessions.  Auditors promise never to use secrets divulged in a session for punishment or personal gain, however reports suggest this is the purpose of maintaining these files. 
Training is the supervised process of learning and applying Scientology and auditing, is considered as important as auditing, and follows a checklist that indicates which of Hubbard's writings and lectures are to be studied. The student must demonstrate mastery of each topic in turn to get a pass in the checklist item. 
Scientology training consists of Academy Levels 0-IV and New Era Dianetics, also termed Academy Level V. The first five levels take two weeks each on a 40-hours-per-week schedule.  Level VI, the Saint Hill Special Briefing Course, is done at special advanced organizations and comprises 16 individual checklists, each requiring an average of three to four weeks of study, and covering in total 12,000 pages of materials and 450 lectures. 
Stemming from his belief that birth is a trauma that may induce engrams, Hubbard stated that the delivery room should be as silent as possible and that words should be avoided because any words used during birth might be reassociated by adults with their earlier traumatic birth experience. Silent birth, sometimes known as quiet birth, is a birthing procedure advised by L In Dianetics and Scientology, an engram is defined as "a Mental image picture which is a recording of an experience containing pain unconsciousness
Hubbard also wrote that the mother should use "as little anesthetic as possible. " In the 1960s Hubbard gave certain dietary recommendations, writing that breastfeeding should be avoided if the mother is smoking, drinking or is lacking good nutrition herself. Breastfeeding is the feeding of an Infant or young Child with Breast milk directly from human Breasts, not from a Baby bottle or other  Hubbard described common replacement formulas as "mixed milk powder, glucose and water, total carbohydrate" and offered as an alternative to commercial products what he called the "Barley Formula" made from barley water, homogenized milk and corn syrup. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Homogenization (or homogenisation) is a term used in many fields such as Chemistry, Agricultural science, Food technology, Sociology Corn syrup is a Syrup, made using Cornstarch as a feedstock and composed mainly of Glucose.  Hubbard said that he "picked it up in Roman days," referring to the use of barley.  Hubbard crafted the barley formula to, in his words, provide "a heavy percentage of protein" and called it "the nearest approach to human milk that can be assembled easily. " Although the formula is still popular with many Scientologists, health practitioners advise that it is an inappropriate replacement due to the absence of important nutrients like Vitamin C, the lack of which causes scurvy. Vitamin C or L-ascorbate is an Essential nutrient for a large number of higher primate species a small number of other Mammalian Scurvy (NLat scorbutus is a disease resulting from a deficiency of Vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of Collagen in humans
The Church of Scientology provides Sunday services and social ceremonies for marriage, birth and death that are performed by an ordained Scientology minister.  Most, if not all, of the actual ceremonies used were written by L. Ron Hubbard and are collected in the book, Ceremonies of the Church of Scientology. 
At a funeral service, the minister speaks directly to the departing spirit and grants forgiveness for anything the deceased has done so he can begin life anew. 
We do not contest your right to go away. Your debts are paid. This chapter of thy life is shut. Go now, dear [deceased], and live once more in happier time and place. 
The Church has an official membership system, the International Association of Scientologists, but IAS membership is not what the Church means by 'member. The International Association of Scientologists (IAS is an English non profit organization which was formed in October 1984 by a group of Scientologists who assembled ' Estimates of Scientology adherents worldwide vary considerably.  In 2005 Scientology stated its worldwide membership at 8 million people, and that number included people who took only the introductory course and didn't continue on.  In 2007 the Church claimed 3. 5 million members in the United States, but according to a 2001 survey published by the City University of New York, 55,000 people in the United States would, if asked to identify their religion, have stated Scientology Scientologists tend to disparage such surveys on the grounds that many members maintaining cultural and social ties to other religious groups will, when asked their religion, answer with their traditional and more socially acceptable affiliation. The City University of New York (CUNY Acronym ˈkjuːni is the public University system of New York City. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Religious scholar J. Gordon Melton has said that the church's estimates of its membership numbers are exaggerated. John Gordon Melton (b September 19, 1942) is an American religious scholar who was the founding director of the Institute for the Study of American 
Scientology is composed of a complex network of corporations, churches and organizations all geared towards promoting the use and dissemination of Scientology and related techniques. The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system.
The Church of Spiritual Technology is a non-profit organization that owns the copyrights to Scientology books. The Super Power Building is an Edifice in Clearwater Florida that will be the Church of Scientology 's largest property in the city when completed Clearwater is a City located in Pinellas County Florida, USA, nearly due west of Tampa and northwest of St Concept and construction The vessel that eventually became known as the Freewinds was originally ordered by the Sweden -based Lion Ferry as the The Church of Spiritual Technology, also known as CST, is a Californian 501(c(3 Non-profit corporation, incorporated in 1982 which owns all the The Religious Technology Center (RTC) holds trademarks over the words Dianetics and Scientology. The Religious Technology Center (RTC is a Californian 501(c(3 Non-profit corporation.  Scientology organizations must license the right to use Scientology and related techniques from this organization. Its stated purpose is to maintain Scientology pure per the writings of L. Ron Hubbard. Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13 1911 &ndash January 24 1986 was a fiction writer who devised a self-help technique called Dianetics and philosophy known as Scientology  The RTC's Chairman is David Miscavige, who, while not the titular head of the Church of Scientology, is believed to be the most powerful person in the Scientology movement. David Miscavige (born April 30 1960 is Chairman of the board of Religious Technology Center (RTC a corporation that controls the trademarked names  The Church of Scientology International is the mother church of Scientology and manages all affiliated Scientology organizations worldwide. The Church of Scientology International (CSI is a Californian 501(c(3 Non-profit corporation. 
The first Church of Scientology was incorporated in Camden, New Jersey as a non-profit organization in 1953. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business The City of Camden is the County seat of Camden County, New Jersey, in the United States. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage The Scientology missions directory reports over 300 missions, delivering basic Dianetics and Scientology services in 50 countries worldwide.  A Scientology Mission is considered a church when it has reached the size required to administer all courses and auditing required for delivering the state of "clear. " Overall there are 142 churches in 28 countries established worldwide.  Scientology's "Advanced Organizations" are churches specialized in the delivering of higher training levels.  Those organizations are located in Los Angeles; Clearwater, Florida; Great Britain; Sydney, Australia; Copenhagen; and the cruise ship Freewinds. Concept and construction The vessel that eventually became known as the Freewinds was originally ordered by the Sweden -based Lion Ferry as the 
The World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE) licenses Hubbard's management techniques for use in businesses. World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE is an Organization affiliated with the Church of Scientology that educates and assists businesses in the use of management
Scientologists take part in a number of social reform and charitable activities:
Although "Scientology" is most often used as shorthand for the Church of Scientology, a number of groups practice Scientology and Dianetics outside of the official Church. The Free Zone (or independent Scientologists or Scientology Freezone) comprises a variety of groups and individuals who practice Scientology -like beliefs The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. Some groups are breakaways from the original Church while others have started up independently. The largest such group -- an informal "network" rather than an organization -- is known as the Free Zone, founded by Bill Robertson in 1982. The Free Zone (or independent Scientologists or Scientology Freezone) comprises a variety of groups and individuals who practice Scientology -like beliefs 
The Church labels these groups as "squirrels" in Scientology jargon, and often subjects them to considerable legal and social pressure. Scientology is according to its own texts "the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself others and all of life Scientology terminology consists of a complex assortment of Jargon used by Scientologists in conjunction with the practice of Scientology and in their everyday
Two organizations that are sometimes confused with Scientology (due to a similarity in names) are Christian Science and Religious Science/Science of Mind. Christian Science is believed by its supporters to be a system of spiritually scientific truths which are summed up in the two commandments having one God one Mind one Life Truth Religious Science, also known as Science of Mind, was founded in 1927 by Ernest Holmes (1887-1960 and is a spiritual/philosophical/metaphysical religious movement Religious Science, also known as Science of Mind, was founded in 1927 by Ernest Holmes (1887-1960 and is a spiritual/philosophical/metaphysical religious movement While Christian Science and Religious Science share some common roots (see New Thought) to each other, Scientology has no connection to them. The New Thought Movement or New Thought is a New religious movement developed in the United States during the late 19th century which emphasizes metaphysical . 
Scientologists believe they are obliged to work towards making the benefits of Scientology available to all people without haranguing anyone, with the first and second pledges of "The Code of a Scientologist" being, respectively:
They believe that this is done with, "no effort. . . to be authoritarian," but critics argue that Scientology insists it be approached in only one way:
Scientology has attracted several artists and entertainers, particularly Hollywood celebrities. Hubbard saw to the formation of a special church which would cater to artists, politicians, leaders of industry, sports figures and anyone with the power and vision "to create a better world. " There are eight so-called Celebrity Centres, although Hollywood is the largest. Celebrity Centres are Church of Scientology facilities that are open to the public but serve mostly artists and celebrities and other "professionals leaders and promising Entertainers — including John Travolta, Kirstie Alley, Lisa Marie Presley, Jason Lee, Isaac Hayes, Tom Cruise, and Katie Holmes — have generated considerable publicity for Scientology. Kirsten Louise "Kirstie" Alley (born January 12 1951 is an American Actress known for her role in the TV show Cheers, in which Lisa Marie Presley (born February 1 1968 is an American Singer-songwriter. Jason Michael Lee (born April 25, 1970) is an American Actor and former professional skateboarder. Isaac Lee Hayes Jr (August 20 1942 – August 10 2008 was an American Academy Award winning soul and Funk singer-songwriter Musician Thomas Cruise Mapother IV ( born July 3 1962 better known by his screen name Tom Cruise, is an American Actor and Film producer Kate "Katie" Noelle Holmes (born December 18 1978 is an American actress who first achieved fame for her role as Joey Potter on The WB television Former Scientologists say that celebrity practitioners get more attention than non-celebrity practitioners. For example, former Scientologist Maureen Bolstad noted that a couple of dozen Scientologists including herself were put to work on a rainy night through dawn planting grass in order "to help Tom impress Nicole (Kidman). "
Andre Tabayoyon, a former Scientologist and Sea Org staffer, testified in a 1994 affidavit that money from non-profit Scientology organizations and labor from those organizations (including the Rehabilitation Project Force) had gone to provide special facilities for Scientology celebrities, which were not available to other Scientologists. Andre Tabayoyon is a former member of the Church of Scientology who is primarily known for an affidavit in which he describes the inner workings of the Church The Sea Organization or Sea Org is an association of Scientologists established in 1968 by L The Rehabilitation Project Force, or RPF, is a controversial program set up by the Church of Scientology Sea Organization, intended to "rehabilitate"  "A Sea Org staffer was taken along to do personal cooking for Tom Cruise and Miscavige at the expense of Scientology non-profit religious organizations. David Miscavige (born April 30 1960 is Chairman of the board of Religious Technology Center (RTC a corporation that controls the trademarked names This left only 3 cooks at [Gold Base] to cook for 800 people three times a day. The Gold Base is the informal name of the international headquarters of the Church of Scientology, located on a parcel of land just outside of San Jacinto, California . . . Apartment cottages were built for the use of John Travolta, Kirstie Alley, Edgar Winter, Priscilla Presley and other Scientology celebrities who are carefully prevented from finding out the real truth about the Scientology organization. Edgar Holland Winter (born December 28, 1946 in Beaumont Texas) is an American musician who had significant success in the 1970s and 1980s Priscilla Beaulieu Presley, (born Priscilla Ann Wagner; May 24, 1945) is an American Actress and Businesswoman. . . . Miscavige decided to redo the meadow in beautiful flowers; tens of thousands of dollars were spent on the project so that Cruise and Kidman could romp there. However, Miscavige inspected the project and didn't like it. So the whole meadow was plowed up, destroyed, replowed and sown with plain grass. " Diana Canova, who experienced Scientology both before and during her period of TV stardom, expressed it in a September 1993 interview: "When I started, I wasn't in television yet. Diana Canova (born Diana Rivero on June 1, 1953 in West Palm Beach Florida) is an American actress. I was a nobody—I'd done some TV, but I was not one of the elite, not by a long shot—until I did Soap. Soap is an American Sitcom that originally ran on ABC from 1977 to 1981 Then it became…I mean, you really are treated like royalty. "
Of the many new religious movements to appear during the 20th century, the Church of Scientology has, from its inception, been one of the most controversial, coming into conflict with the governments and police forces of several countries (including the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Germany) numerous times over the years. A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith or an ethical spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that is not part The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. 
Reports and allegations have been made, by journalists, courts, and governmental bodies of several countries, that the Church of Scientology is an unscrupulous commercial enterprise that harasses its critics and brutally exploits its members.  Some critics of Scientology have recanted under duress.  In some cases of US litigation against the Church, former Scientologists appearing as expert witnesses have since stated that they submitted false and inflammatory declarations intended to incite prejudice against Scientology, and harassed key Scientology executives, by advancing unfounded opinions to get a case dropped or to obtain a settlement. 
The German government takes the view that Scientology is a commercial, rather than religious organization, and has even gone so far as to consider a ban on Scientology. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.  Belgium, France, Ireland, Luxembourg and the United Kingdom have not recognized Scientology as a religion. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  Scientology has also not been recognized as a religion in Israel or Mexico. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Belgian State Prosecution Service has recommended that various individuals and organizations associated with Scientology should be prosecuted.  An administrative court is to decide if charges will be pressed. 
The controversies involving the Church and its critics, some of them ongoing, include:
Although Scientologists are usually free to practice their beliefs, the organized church has often encountered opposition due to their strong-arm tactics directed against critics and members wishing to leave the organization. While a number of governments now view the Church as a religious organization entitled to protections and tax relief, others view it as a pseudoreligion or a cult. Pseudoreligion (or pseudotheology is a generally Pejorative term applied to a non-mainstream Belief system or Philosophy which is functionally This article does not discuss "cult" in the original sense of "veneration" or "religious practice" for that usage see Cult (religious practice  The differences between these classifications has become a major problem when discussing religions in general and Scientology specifically. 
While acknowledging that a number of his colleagues accept Scientology as a religion, sociologist Stephen A. Kent wrote: "Rather than struggling over whether or not to label Scientology as a religion, I find it far more helpful to view it as a multifaceted transnational corporation, only one[sic] element of which is religious. Stephen A Kent, is a Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Multinational corporation ( MNC) or transnational corporation ( TNC) is a Corporation or enterprise that manages Production or delivers "
In some instances, former members have claimed the Church used information obtained in auditing sessions against them.  The Church maintains that its auditing records are kept confidential. On 16 December 1969 the organization authorized the use of auditing records for purposes of "internal security. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. "
Supporters of Scientology assert that no actual violation based solely upon use or revelation of auditing records has been documented and such a violation of their Auditing Code is a high crime per Scientology justice codes.  "The Court refers to GO 121669 for justification for abolishing the clergyman-penitent privilege. Yet nowhere does the program call for a) external dissemination of the preclear folder or b) use of information against anyone. To cause preclear folders or preclear folder information to be released from the care and control of authorized Church ministers is to cause the destruction of its parishioners' religious freedom and would be a severe violation of Church ecclesiastical policies. " (Declaration of Reverend Ken Hoden)
However, a California court ruling recorded that "The practice of culling supposedly confidential [counseling folders or files] to obtain information for purposes of intimidation and/or harassment is repugnant and outrageous. " The court found that former members of the church knew that their confidential data might be used by "the Church or its minions" for "intimidation or other physical or psychological abuse" and noted: "The record is replete with evidence of such abuse. "
Supporters of Scientology responded by stating: "Guardian's Office policy letter written by Mary Sue Hubbard had allegedly authorized the practice of culling information from counseling folders. Any such directive is not part of the Scientology scriptures and was long ago canceled. The Guardian's Office was disbanded by current Church management when it was found to have veered wildly off Church policies as laid down by Mr. Hubbard. "
Scientology states that it is fully compatible with all existing major world religions and that it does not conflict with those religions or their religious practices. Scientology claims that it is fully compatible with all existing major world religions and that it does not conflict with those religions or their religious practices The Church of Scientology pursues an extensive Public relations campaign for the recognition of Scientology as a bona fide religion and cites However, due to major differences in the beliefs and practices between Scientology and especially the major monotheistic religions a simultaneous membership in Scientology is seen as not compatible with the major world religions. For the Celtic Frost album see Monotheist (album In Theology, monotheism (from Greek grc [[wiktμόνος μόνος]] For its part, Scientology only allows a passive formal membership in a second religion. Parishioners are not allowed to engage in other religious activities or ceremonies. 
The Church pursues an extensive public relations campaign for the recognition of Scientology as a bona fide religion. Public relations (PR is the practice of managing the flow of Information between an Organization and its Publics Public relations - often referred  Scientology does have "beliefs in something transcendental or ultimate, practices (rites and codes of behavior) that re-inforce those beliefs and, a community that is sustained by both the beliefs and practices" which are elements that a religion must contain.  Scientology is considered a legitimate religion in such countries as Australia, Italy, Kyrgyzstan, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Tanzania and Zimbabwe and thus enjoys and regularly cites the legal protections afforded in these nations to religious practice. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Kyrgyzstan (ˈkɻ̩gɪztɑn (AmE or /'kɝgəztan/ (BrE Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан; Russian: Киргизия or Киргизстан or Кыргызстан New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Other countries, mostly in Europe, have regarded Scientology as a potentially dangerous cult, or at least have not considered local branches to meet the legal criteria for being considered religion-supporting organizations. This article does not discuss "cult" in the original sense of "veneration" or "religious practice" for that usage see Cult (religious practice Religious activities generally need some infrastructure to be conducted 
Although its religious status is often controversial, the Church of Scientology itself, on the other hand, holds that many of these issues were laid to rest by the recognition in 1993 by the United States Internal Revenue Service of being "operated exclusively for religious and charitable purposes. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The "
The Anderson Report, an inquiry conducted in 1965 for the state of Victoria, Australia, found that the auditing process involved "command" hypnosis, in which the hypnotist assumes "positive authoritative control" over the patient. This article refers to a Report on Scientology For the Anderson Report into UK Higher Education see Anderson Report. Hypnosis is often thought to be a wakeful state of focused attention and heightened suggestibility with diminished peripheral awareness "It is the firm conclusion of this Board that most scientology and dianetics techniques are those of authoritative hypnosis and as such are dangerous. . . . The scientific evidence which the Board heard from several expert witnesses of the highest repute … which was virtually unchallenged—leads to the inescapable conclusion that it is only in name that there is any difference between authoritative hypnosis and most of the techniques of scientology. Many scientology techniques are in fact hypnotic techniques, and Hubbard has not changed their nature by changing their names. " Hubbard was an accomplished hypnotist, and close acquaintances such as Forrest Ackerman (Hubbard's literary agent) and A. E. van Vogt (an important early supporter of Dianetics) witnessed repeated demonstrations of his hypnotic skills. Forrest J Ackerman (born November 24, 1916) is an American collector of Science fiction books and movie memorabilia and a science fiction Alfred Elton van Vogt (April 26 1912 – January 26 2000 was a Canadian -born Science fiction author who was one of the most prolific  (See Scientology and hypnosis). The Church of Scientology officially denies that it uses Hypnosis as part of its beliefs and practices. Licensed psychotherapists alleged that auditing sessions amount to mental health treatment without a license. The Church disputes these statements and said that its practice leads to spiritual relief. According to the Church, the psychotherapist treats mental health and the Church treats the spiritual being. Using the synonym of alternative religions, Barrett (1998:237) and Hunt (2003:195) place Scientology in the sociological grouping of personal development movements together with the Neurolinguistic Programming, Emin, and Insight. Self-help or self-improvement refers to self-guided improvement—economically intellectually or emotionally—most frequently with a substantial psychological or spiritual Neuro-linguistic programming (or NLP) is an Interpersonal communication model applied in Psychotherapy and other contexts of communication and change (for other uses see Insight (disambiguation Insight can be used with several related meanings *a piece of information *the
In France, the Church of Scientology was categorized as a sect (or cult) in the report of the National Assembly of France in 1995. The French National Assembly. The other is the Senate ( “Sénat”)  A more recent government report in 2000 categorized the church as an "absolute sect" and recommended that all its activities be prohibited.  The United States has no such classification in its legal system. 
The Cult Awareness Network famously received more complaints concerning Scientology than any other group. The Cult Awareness Network (CAN was founded in the wake of the November 18, 1978 deaths of members of the group Peoples Temple and Assassination They therefore listed the Church of Scientology at the top of their cult list, until they went into bankruptcy from suits initiated by Scientology (1996). Ultimately, they were bought in Bankruptcy Court by the Church of Scientology (1997), which now operates the new Cult Awareness Network as a promotional arm of the church. 
The federal government of Germany, as well as its states, have to a greater or lesser degree and for varying periods since 1997 placed Scientology and Scientologists under surveillance by its intelligence agency based on anti-democratic tendencies. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (BfV "Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution") is the Federal Republic of Germany 's domestic  No criminal or civil charges have been brought as a result of this surveillance. On a Federal level, Scientology lost a complaint against continued surveillance by the federal Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz because the court gave its opinion that there are indications that Scientology is pursuing anti-constitutional activities. As of April 2007 the case was pending in appeal.  In Berlin, the court prohibited the use of paid undercover agents. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany.  In Saarland, surveillance was stopped by the court as inappropriate because there is no local branch of Scientology and few members. Saarland (ˈzaːɐ̯lant in German; French: Sarre) is one of the 16 federal states (German Bundesländer) of Germany. 
Allegations of Scientology's cult status may be attributed to its unconventional creation by a single authoritative and charismatic leader. 
On May 12, 2007 Journalist John Sweeney of BBC Panorama made highly critical comments regarding Scientology and its teachings, and further reported that since beginning an extensive investigation he had been harassed, surveilled, and investigated by strangers. John Sweeney is an award-winning Journalist and Author, currently working as an Investigative journalist for the BBC 's Panorama Panorama is the longest-running current affairs documentary series in the world Sweeney wrote, "I have been shouted at, spied on, had my hotel invaded at midnight, denounced as a "bigot" by star Scientologists and chased round the streets of Los Angeles by sinister strangers. Back in Britain strangers have called on my neighbors, my mother-in-law's house and someone spied on my wedding and fled the moment he was challenged. " In another passage, "He [Scientology representative Tommy Davis] harangued me for talking to […] heretics. I told him that Scientology had been spying on the BBC and that was creepy. " And in another passage, "In LA, the moment our hire car left the airport we realized we were being followed by two cars. In our hotel a weird stranger spent every breakfast listening to us. "
The Church of Scientology called John Sweeney's documentary (first aired May 14, 2007) into question and produced its own documentary in which it claimed to have documented 154 violations in the BBC's and OfCom's guidelines. 
The Church documentary also claimed that the BBC had organized a demonstration outside a Church building in London in order to film it, following which e-mailed anonymous death threats had been made against the Church. The BBC described these allegations as "clearly laughable and utter nonsense" whilst representatives of the picket group stated that the BBC had simply turned up to a scheduled picket date that was part of an ongoing protest since 1996.  Sandy Smith, the BBC program's producer, commented that the Church of Scientology has "no way of dealing with any kind of criticism at all. "
The Church of Scientology and its many related organizations have amassed considerable real estate holdings worldwide, likely in the hundreds of millions of dollars, as well as a large amount of other funds from the practice of auditing. Though the Church of Scientology describes itself as a religion various governments have at some time denied the organisation charitable status for tax purposes and some still  Hubbard was accused in his lifetime of adopting a religious façade for Scientology to allow the organization to maintain tax-exempt status and to avoid prosecution for false medical claims. A tax exemption is an exemption from all or certain Taxes of a state or nation in which part of the taxes that would normally be collected from an individual or an organization  There have been numerous accounts from Hubbard's fellow science-fiction authors and researchers, notably Harlan Ellison, Neison Himmel, Sam Merwin, Sam Moskowitz, Theodore Sturgeon, Lloyd Arthur Eshbach, and Lyle Stuart, of Hubbard stating on various occasions that the way to get rich was to start a religion. Harlan Jay Ellison (born May 27, 1934) is a prolific American Writer of Short stories, Novellas, Teleplays Sam Moskowitz ( June 30, 1920 - April 15, 1997) was an early fan and organizer of interest in Science fiction and later a writer critic Theodore Sturgeon (born Edward Hamilton Waldo on February 26, 1918; died May 8, 1985) was an American Science fiction Lloyd Arthur Eshbach ( June 20, 1910 - October 29, 2003) was an American Science fiction fan and writer secular Lyle Stuart ( August 11 1922 &ndash June 24, 2006) was an American independent publisher of controversial books  This is referenced, among other places, in a May 1980 Reader's Digest article, which quotes Hubbard, "If a man really wants to make a million dollars, the best way would be to start his own religion. Reader's Digest is a monthly general-interest family Magazine co-founded in 1922 by Lila Bell Wallace and DeWitt Wallace. "
The Church says that "One individual once claimed L. Ron Hubbard made such a comment during a lecture in 1948. The only two people who could be found who attended that very lecture in 1948 denied that Mr. Hubbard ever made this statement" and that therefore it is an "unfounded rumor. " The Church's statement does not address any of the other individuals who have stated that they personally heard Hubbard make such a statement, some saying that he said it on multiple occasions. The Church also suggests that the origin of the "rumor" was a quote by George Orwell which had been "misattributed" to Hubbard. Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950 who used the Pseudonym George Orwell, was an English writer However, Robert Vaughn Young, who left the Church in 1989 after twenty years, said that he had discovered the Orwell quote, and suggested that reports of Hubbard making such a statement could be explained as a misattribution of Orwell, despite having encountered three of Hubbard's associates from his science fiction days who remembered Hubbard making statements of that sort in person. Robert Vaughn Young ( April 23, 1938 - June 15, 2003) commonly known by his initials RVY, was a Whistleblower against the 
Scientology pays members commissions on new recruits they bring in, encouraging Scientology members to "sell" Scientology to others.  In addition, Scientology franchises, or missions, pay the church roughly 10% of their gross income.  On that basis, it is often likened to a pyramid selling scheme. A pyramid scheme is a Non-sustainable Business model that involves the exchange of Money primarily for enrolling other people into the scheme without  Charges for auditing and other Church-related courses run to tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars.  Scientology maintains strict control over the use of its symbols, icons, and names. It claims copyright and trademark over its "Scientology cross", and its lawyers have threatened lawsuits against individuals and organizations who have published the image in books and on Web sites. Because of this, it is very difficult for individual groups to attempt to publicly practice Scientology on their own, without any affiliation or connection to the Church of Scientology. Scientology has sued a number of individuals who attempted to set up their own "auditing" practices, using copyright and trademark law to shut these groups down.
In conjunction with the Church of Scientology's request to be officially recognized as a religion in Germany, around 1996 the German state Baden-Württemberg conducted a thorough investigation regarding the group's activities within Germany. Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states ( Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.  The results of this investigation indicated that, at the time of publication, Scientology's main sources of revenue ("Haupteinnahmequellen der SO") were from course offerings and sales of their various publications. Course offerings—e. g. "The Ups and Downs of Life", "Hubbard's Key to Life", "Intensive Auditing", etc. —ranged from (German Marks) DM 182. 50 to about DM 30,000—the equivalent today of approximately $119 to $19,560 US dollars. Revenue from monthly, bi-monthly, and other membership offerings could not be estimated in the report, but was nevertheless placed in the millions.
In June of 2006, it was announced at the Book Expo America a Dianetics Racing Team joined NASCAR. Dianetics is a set of ideas and practices regarding the relationship between the spirit mind and body that were developed by L The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing ( NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of Stock cars in the United States. The Number 27 Ford Taurus driven by Kenton Gray displays a large Dianetics logo. Ford Motor Company is an American Multinational corporation and the world's fourth largest automaker based on Worldwide vehicle sales, following Kenton Gray is a NASCAR racer from La Verne California, best known for founding the Dianetics Racing Team sponsored by the Church of Scientology to promote Dianetics is a set of ideas and practices regarding the relationship between the spirit mind and body that were developed by L 
The Church of Scientology is one of a number of groups involved in the anti-psychiatry movement, and one of the few organizations that publicly oppose the study and application of psychology in addition to psychiatry, claiming that psychiatry was responsible for World War I, the rise of Hitler and Stalin, the decline in education standards in the United States, the wars in Bosnia and Kosovo, and the September 11 attacks. Scientology has come into conflict with Psychiatry since the foundation of Scientology in 1952 See also Scientology and psychiatry The Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR also sometimes known as the Citizens Psychiatry An Industry of Death is a Museum in Hollywood California, USA, as well as several touring exhibitions Psychiatry is a medical specialty which exists to study, prevent, and treat Mental disorders in Humans Psychiatric See also Psychiatry See also Biopsychiatry controversy Anti-psychiatry refers to a post-1960s configuration of groups and theoretical constructs Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commonly known as the Bosnian War, was an international armed conflict that took place between March 1992 and November 1995 The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999  The Church's point of view on these issues is documented mainly by Church groups and magazines such as those published by the Citizens Commission on Human Rights and Freedom Magazine. See also Scientology and psychiatry The Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR also sometimes known as the Citizens
In the 1990s Scientology representatives began extensive operations to deal with growing allegations against Scientology on the Internet. Scientology has been involved in a number of disputes on the Internet related to suppressing material critical of Scientology through the use of lawsuits Project Chanology, also called Operation Chanology, In the video music from Cruise's Mission Impossible films plays in the background and Cruise makes The organization states that it is taking actions to prevent distribution of copyrighted Scientology documents and publications online by people whom it has called "copyright terrorists. Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for " Critics say that the organization’s true motive is to attempt to suppress the free speech of its critics.
In January 1995, Church lawyer Helena Kobrin attempted to shut down the newsgroup alt.religion.scientology by sending a control message instructing Usenet servers to delete the group on the grounds that:
(1) It was started with a forged message; (2) not discussed on alt.config; (3) it has the name "scientology" in its title which is a trademark and is misleading, as a. Helena Kempner Kobrin (born April 27 1948 is an American Scientologist and Lawyer at the firm Moxon & Kobrin, working for the Religious A newsgroup is a Repository usually within the Usenet system for messages posted from many users in different locations The newsgroup altreligionscientology (often abbreviated ars or ARS) is a Usenet newsgroup started in 1991 to discuss the controversial beliefs of Usenet, a Portmanteau of "user" and "network" is a world-wide distributed Internet discussion system altconfig is a Newsgroup used to discuss the creation of as well as create new groups in the Alt hierarchy of Usenet. r. s. is mainly used for flamers to attack the Scientology religion; (4) it has been and continues to be heavily abused with copyright and trade secret violations and serves no purpose other than condoning these illegal practices. 
In practice, this rmgroup message had little effect, since most Usenet servers are configured to disregard such messages when applied to groups that receive substantial traffic, and newgroup messages were quickly issued to recreate the group on those servers that did not do so. Types of control messages cancel A cancel message requests the deletion of a specific article Types of control messages cancel A cancel message requests the deletion of a specific article However, the issuance of the message led to a great deal of public criticism by free-speech advocates.
The Church also began filing lawsuits against those who posted copyrighted texts on the newsgroup and the World Wide Web, and pressed for tighter restrictions on copyrights in general. The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked Hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. The Church supported the controversial Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. The Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA of 1998 &ndash alternatively known as the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, Sonny Bono Act, or Pejoratively The even more controversial Digital Millennium Copyright Act was also strongly promoted by the Church and some of its provisions (notably the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act) were heavily influenced by Church litigation against US Internet service providers over copyrighted Scientology materials that had been posted or uploaded through their servers. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA is a United States Copyright Law which implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property An Internet service provider ( ISP, also called Internet access provider or IAP) is a company which primarily offers their customers access to the Internet
Beginning in the middle of 1996 and for several years after, the newsgroup was attacked by anonymous parties using a tactic dubbed "sporgery" by some, in the form of hundreds of thousands of forged spam messages posted on the group. Sporgery is the disruptive act of posting a flood of articles to a Usenet Newsgroup, with the article headers falsified so that they appear to have been posted by Although the Church neither confirmed nor denied its involvement with the spam, some investigators said that some spam had been traced to Church members. Former Scientologist Tory Christman, after she left the Church, confessed to having been part of the sporgery project, taking money supplied by the Office of Special Affairs to open up Internet accounts at various ISPs under false names, accounts from which she later saw forged and garbled communications going out. Tory Christman (formerly Tory Bezazian) is a former member of the Church of Scientology. The Office of Special Affairs or OSA (formerly the Guardian's Office) is a department of the Church of Scientology. 
In early 2008, another protest against the Church of Scientology was organised by the Internet-based group Anonymous, which originally consisted of users of the English speaking imageboards 4chan and 711chan. The self-styled Anonymous (used as a Mass noun) is a label and Internet meme adopted within Internet culture to represent the actions of many online community An imageboard (also chan, which itself is short for channel is a type of Internet forum that revolves around the posting of images. 4chan is an English-language Imageboard Website based on the Japanese Futaba Channel. org, the associated partyvan. info wiki, and several Internet Relay Chat channels. A wiki is a page or collection of Web pages designed to enable anyone who accesses it to contribute or modify content using a simplified Markup language.
On January 14, 2008, a video produced by the Church of Scientology featuring an interview with Tom Cruise was leaked to the Internet and uploaded to YouTube. Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. Thomas Cruise Mapother IV ( born July 3 1962 better known by his screen name Tom Cruise, is an American Actor and Film producer YouTube is a video sharing website where users can upload view and share Video clips YouTube was created in February 2005 by three former PayPal employees  The Church of Scientology issued a copyright violation claim against YouTube requesting the removal of the video.  In response to this, Anonymous formulated Project Chanology. Project Chanology, also called Operation Chanology, In the video music from Cruise's Mission Impossible films plays in the background and Cruise makes  Calling the action by the Church of Scientology a form of Internet censorship, members of Project Chanology organized a series of denial-of-service attacks against Scientology websites, prank calls, and black faxes to Scientology centers. Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. A prank call also known as a hoax call, phone scam or phony phone call, is a form of Practical joke committed over the Telephone The term black fax refers to a prank Fax transmission consisting of one or more pages entirely filled with a uniform black tone and often made into a loop the sending machine  On January 21, 2008, Anonymous announced its goals and intentions via a video posted to YouTube entitled "Message to Scientology", and a press release declaring a "War on Scientology" against both the Church of Scientology and the Religious Technology Center. Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common A news release, media release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded Communication directed at members of the News The Religious Technology Center (RTC is a Californian 501(c(3 Non-profit corporation.  In the press release, the group states that the attacks against the Church of Scientology will continue in order to protect the right to freedom of speech, and end what they believe to be the financial exploitation of church members. Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation.  A new video "Call to Action" appeared on YouTube on January 28, 2008, calling for protests outside Church of Scientology centers on February 10, 2008. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1355 - The St Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
On February 2, 2008, 150 people gathered outside of a Church of Scientology center in Orlando, Florida to protest the organization's practices. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Orlando is a major City in central Florida, USA and is the County seat of Orange County Florida.  Small protests were also held in Santa Barbara, California, and Manchester, England. Santa Barbara is a city in Santa Barbara County California, United States.  On February 10, 2008, about 7,000 people protested in more than 93 cities worldwide. Events 1355 - The St Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common  Many protesters wore masks based on the character V from V for Vendetta (who in turn was influenced by Guy Fawkes), or otherwise disguised their identities, in part to protect themselves from reprisals from the Church of Scientology. V is a Fictional character from the Comic book series V for Vendetta, created by Alan Moore and David Lloyd. V for Vendetta is a ten-issue Comic book Guy Fawkes ( 13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606) sometimes known as Guido Fawkes, was a member of a group of English  Anonymous held a second wave of protests on March 15, 2008 in cities all over the world, including New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, London, Paris, Vancouver, Toronto, Berlin, and Dublin. Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The global turnout was estimated to be between 7000 and 8000.  Anonymous held its third protest against Scientology on April 12, 2008. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common  Named "Operation Reconnect", it aimed to increase awareness of the Church of Scientology's disconnection policy. Disconnection is a practice in Scientology in which Scientologists sever all ties between themselves and friends colleagues or family members that are deemed to be antagonistic 
A 1971 ruling of the United States District Court, District of Columbia (333 F. Supp. 357), specifically stated, "the E-meter has no proven usefulness in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of any disease, nor is it medically or scientifically capable of improving any bodily function. An E-meter is an electronic device used as an aid in some forms of Dianetics and Scientology auditing. " Scientology now publishes the following disclaimer in its books and publications: "By itself, the E-meter does nothing. It is an electronic instrument that measures mental state and change of state in individuals and assists the precision and speed of auditing. The E-Meter is not intended or effective for any diagnosis, treatment or prevention of any disease" and that it is used specifically for spiritual purposes.
Professor Richard Dawkins, author of The God Delusion, has described Scientology as "gullibiligy" and its statements as "purely made-up. Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS, FRSL (born 26 March 1941 is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and Popular science The God Delusion is a 2006 bestselling non-fiction book by British biologist Richard Dawkins, holder of the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding "