Science fiction first appeared on television during the golden age of science fiction, first in Britain (UK) and then in the United States (US). Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic The first Golden Age of Science Fiction, often recognized as a period from the late 1930s or early 1940s through to the 1950s was an era during which the science fiction genre gained wide The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Special effects and other production techniques allow creators to present a living visual image of an imaginary world not limited by the constraints of reality; this makes television an excellent medium for science fiction, which in turn contributes to its popularity in this form. The illusions used in the Film, Television, Theater, or Entertainment industries to simulate the imagined events in a story are traditionally called
Because of its visual presentation mode, television uses much less exposition than books do to explain the underpinnings of the fictional setting. As a result, the definition and boundaries of the genre are less strictly observed than they are in print media. Because of the relatively high cost of creating a television show compared to the cost of writing and printing books, television shows are obliged to appeal to a much larger audience than print fiction. Some writers and readers believe that a lowest-common-denominator effect lowers the quality of science fiction on television, relative to that in books. With the genre boundaries being weaker, screenwriters and viewers must use more inclusive standards than authors and readers. So the category of science fiction on television is considered in many contexts to include all the speculative genres, including fantasy and horror; in Britain this group is referred to as "telefantasy". Speculative fiction is a term used as an inclusive descriptor covering a group of Fiction Genres that speculate about worlds that are unlike the real world in
The most enduring and well-known bodies of work in this field are Doctor Who and Star Trek, though countless other series have attracted large and small audiences over the decades. Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. Star Trek is a Science fiction Television series created by Gene Roddenberry that aired from September 8, 1966 through
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Science fiction has been a popular genre with television viewers in the United States almost since its inception, and the country has produced many of the best-known and most popular sci-fi shows in the world. This page lists a broad variety of Science fiction Novels (and novel series--some old some new some famous some obscure some well-written some ill-written--and Note that this Partial list contains some authors whose works of fantastic fiction would today be called science fiction even if they predate or did not work in that genre Science fiction Film is a Film genre that uses speculative, Science -based depictions of imaginary phenomena such as extra-terrestrial This is a list of Science fiction conventions, as distinct from anime conventions furry conventions Gaming conventions and Horror conventions US television science fiction is a popular genre of Television in the United States that has produced many of the best-known and most popular Science fiction Most famous of all these – indeed, perhaps the most famous science-fiction program of all – is the iconic Star Trek and its spin-off shows, comprising the Star Trek franchise. Star Trek is a Science fiction Television series created by Gene Roddenberry that aired from September 8, 1966 through
The first popular science-fiction program on American television was the children's adventure serial Captain Video and His Video Rangers, which ran from June 1949 to April 1955.  ABC's own attempt to cash in on the success of Captain Video was a small screen version of Buck Rogers in 1950. The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. Buck Rogers is a fictional character who first appeared in 1928 as Anthony Rogers the hero of two Novellas by Philip Francis Nowlan published in the magazine Other important live-action space adventure series of the early 1950s included Flash Gordon, Space Patrol, and Rod Brown of the Rocket Rangers. Flash Gordon is a science fiction television series based on the characters of the Alex Raymond -created comic strip of the same name. Rod Brown of the Rocket Rangers was a 30-minute weekly CBS -TV network outer space adventure series broadcast live
Science Fiction Theatre was an early anthology series, running from 1955 and 1957. Science Fiction Theatre is a syndicated Science fiction Anthology series. It was followed by The Twilight Zone in 1959 and The Outer Limits in 1963. The Twilight Zone is an American Television series created by Rod Serling. For the album by Progressive Metal band Voivod see The Outer Limits (album.
Lost in Space, a space opera which aired from 1965 to 1968, became popular with audiences. Lost in Space is a Science fiction TV series created and produced by Irwin Allen, produced by 20th Century Fox Television, and Space opera is a subgenre of Speculative fiction or Science fiction that emphasizes romantic, often Melodramatic adventure set mainly or entirely It was followed by the influential Star Trek, conceived by Gene Roddenberry and produced by Desilu Productions on the former RKO lot, which later was acquired by Paramount; it aired on NBC. Star Trek is a Science fiction Television series created by Gene Roddenberry that aired from September 8, 1966 through Eugene Wesley "Gene" Roddenberry (August 19 1921 &ndash October 24 1991 was an American Screenwriter and producer. Desilu Productions was a Los Angeles California based company jointly owned by American actors Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz. Paramount Television was an American Television production / distribution Company that was active from December 1967 to January The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's When NBC tried to cancel it in early 1968, the show was so popular among fans that a campaign organized by Bjo Trimble successfully demanded its return, redefining the relationship between television networks and audiences. Betty Jo Trimble, born August 15, 1933 as Betty JoAnne Conway, but universally known as Bjo (ˈbiːdʒoʊ is a significant figure in the history of However, the eventual cancellation of Star Trek led to a decline in science fiction on American television.
During the 1970s, Star Wars reignited interest in science fiction. Star Wars Episode IV A New Hope (originally released as Star Wars) is a 1977 Space opera This led to the production of shows including Buck Rogers in the 25th Century and Battlestar Galactica (1978–1980). Buck Rogers in the 25th Century is an American science fiction adventure television series produced by Universal Studios. Battlestar Galactica is an American Science fiction television series, produced in 1978 by Glen Larson and starring Lorne Greene
In 1983, V used both Cold War and World War II allegories about totalitarianism, propaganda, collaboration, and resistance. V The Series was a one-hour weekly television series based on American producer and director Kenneth Johnson 's science fiction franchise Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In 1987, enduring fan interest led to the development of the Star Trek sequel Star Trek: The Next Generation, which became extremely successful, and led to the later sequels Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, and finally Star Trek: Enterprise, which ended in 2005. Star Trek The Next Generation ( STTNG or TNG) is an Emmy and Peabody Award-winning science fiction television program created by Gene Roddenberry Star Trek Enterprise (simply titled Enterprise prior to season three is a Science fiction Television program created by Brannon
In 1993, seaQuest DSV explored environmental themes. seaQuest DSV was an American Science fiction television series created by Rockne S In the same year, Babylon 5 began, set in a detailed universe, using a multi-threaded multi-level story arc. Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created produced and largely written by J Although ratings were weak among general audiences, Babylon 5 had unprecedented support within science fiction fandom. Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is a community of people actively interested in Science fiction and Fantasy literature, and in contact with one another It raised the bar expected by audiences and led to a broad increase in the quality of science fiction on television in the late 1990s. The time travel drama Quantum Leap used contemporary settings to find a broader audience. Quantum Leap is an American science fiction television series that ran for 96 episodes from March 1989 to May 1993 on the NBC network The X-Files tapped into popular conspiracy fears and generational angst to find great commercial success at the end of the decade. The X-Files is a Peabody, Golden Globe and Emmy Award -winning American Science fiction television series created by Chris Carter
Over the years, some comic science fiction shows have been popular, including My Favorite Martian, Mork & Mindy, 3rd Rock from the Sun, Eureka, and the animated series Futurama. See also Science fiction, Comedy Comic science fiction is a sub- Genre of Science fiction that exploits the genre's conventions for My Favorite Martian is an American Television Sitcom that aired on CBS from September 29, 1963 to Mork & Mindy is an American Sci-fi -based Sitcom broadcast from 1978 until 1982 on ABC. 3rd Rock from the Sun is an Emmy Award -winning American sitcom that aired from 1996 until 2001 on NBC. Eureka is an American Science fiction Television series set in a town inhabited almost entirely by geniuses Futurama is an Emmy Award -winning animated American sitcom created by Matt Groening, and developed by Groening and
At the end of the decade, shows with fantasy and horror elements attracted large audiences, most notably Buffy the Vampire Slayer and its spinoff Angel. Fictional narratives (and works of art exist beyond their completion e Angel is an American Television series, a Spin-off of the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer.
In the 21st century, shows with paranormal themes like Medium and Ghost Whisperer have appeared on mainstream networks. Paranormal is an Umbrella term used to describe unusual Phenomena or experiences that lack an obvious Scientific explanation Medium is an American Dramatic Television series which premiered on NBC on January 3, 2005. Ghost Whisperer is an American television drama - fantasy - thriller that premiered on CBS September 23 2005 Many shows popular with American audiences are now produced outside the US, including Stargate SG-1 and Battlestar Galactica. Battlestar Galactica is an Emmy and Peabody Award -winning serial drama Television program created by Ronald D
In recent years, the much lower costs of reality television shows have hit all television dramas, but especially those with unusual cost requirements such as science fiction shows. Reality television is a genre of Television programming which presents purportedly unscripted dramatic or humorous situations documents actual events and usually features ordinary This has led to a sharp decline in production since 2003, though shows like the 2004 Battlestar Galactica series and NBC's Heroes attract strong audiences.
First run syndication was the most important venue for science fiction television between the mid 1980s and mid 1990s. After this period, specialty channels such as Sci-Fi Channel have replaced first run syndication as a significant venue for new shows.
Prior to recent years, science fiction television shows were normally centered around a premise and characters were defined essentially based on what they did or encountered in the course of their adventures. However, the growing trend towards character drama and naturalistic plots and settings has replaced the episodic action-adventure format that was once standard for television science fiction. Cosmic themes, exotic settings, so-called technobabble, and "two fisted action" have been mostly phased out in favor of emotional content and contemporary themes. Technobabble (a Portmanteau of technology and babble) is a form of prose using Jargon, Buzzwords and highly esoteric language to give Also, the demographic audience for science fiction has changed from mostly male to a significant female presence demanding more human elements and stronger female character representation. The aforementioned reimagined Battlestar Galactica is one of the most noted examples of the naturalistic approach towards television science fiction. The anthology format popularized by Rod Serling rarely appeared in science fiction television after the 1980s. ANThology is the first Major label album by Alien Ant Farm released on March 6, 2001 in the USA and March 19 Rodman Edward "Rod" Serling ( December 25, 1924 &ndash June 28, 1975) was an American Screenwriter, best known The current format, popularized by Ronald D. Moore and J.J. Abrams, is toward long story arcs and season long plots with character oriented subplots. Ronald Dowl Moore (born 5 July 1964 in Chowchilla California) is a two-time Emmy Award -nominated American Screenwriter Jeffrey Jacob "JJ" Abrams (born in 1966 is an American Emmy Award -winning film and Television producer, writer actor composer director
At one time, prominent science fiction authors were frequently recruited to write episodes of various series. The last major involvement of a science fiction writer was Harlan Ellison who served as a creative consultant on Babylon 5. Harlan Jay Ellison (born May 27, 1934) is a prolific American Writer of Short stories, Novellas, Teleplays Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created produced and largely written by J This has also largely disappeared due in part to the logistics of writing for television and the reality of proper television drama taking precedence over good science fiction.
The first known piece of television science fiction anywhere in the world was produced by the BBC on February 11, 1938. The first known piece of television science fiction anywhere in the world was produced by the BBC 's fledgling television service then less than eighteen months Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The piece was a thirty-five-minute adaptation of a section of the play R.U.R.. RUR (Rossum's Universal Robots is a Science fiction play by Karel Čapek. 
In the summer of 1953, BBC staff writer Nigel Kneale created The Quatermass Experiment, leading to further Quatermass serials and feature film adaptations from Hammer. Nigel Kneale (18 April 1922 &ndash 29 October 2006 was a Manx writer who worked mostly in the United Kingdom. The Quatermass Experiment is a British science-fiction serial broadcast by BBC Television in the summer of 1953 and re-staged by Hammer Film Productions is a film production company based in the United Kingdom. Unlike the US practice, British SF on television was mainly broadcast live until the early 1960s, and then mainly on videotape until the 1980s.
In the 1960s, Britain's independent television network, ITV, influenced by Canadian producer Sydney Newman produced the science-fiction serials Pathfinders In Space (1960) and its sequel Pathfinders to Venus (1961). Independent Television (generally known as ITV) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters set up under the Independent Sydney Cecil Newman, OC (April 1 1917 &ndash October 30 1997 was a Canadian film and Television producer, best remembered for the pioneering work
In 1961, the BBC produced A for Andromeda about a supercomputer artificial intelligence created from instructions received from an alien transmission. A for Andromeda is a British television Science fiction Drama serial first made and broadcast by the BBC in
In 1963, the BBC began production of the longest-running science-fiction television series ever, Doctor Who. Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. It lasted for twenty-six seasons in its original form, and has been revived twice, training a generation of writers, producers, and actors.
Gerry Anderson was keen on making science fiction for the independent companies. For a detailed article on collaborations with Sylvia Anderson see Sylvia and Gerry Anderson; the separated strands aren't working - GA is the common thread throughout He wanted to make live-action series but did not have the money, so used puppetry instead. His science fiction shows such as Thunderbirds, Captain Scarlet and Stingray became successful and are still well-known to this day. Thunderbirds is a British mid-1960s television show devised by Gerry and Sylvia Anderson and made by AP Films using a form of Puppetry Stingray is a children's Marionette Television show created by Gerry and Sylvia Anderson and produced by AP Films Later he was allowed to develop live-action shows like UFO, then Space: 1999. SHADO redirects here For other meanings see Shado. UFO is a British Television Science fiction Space 1999 ( ITC Entertainment and RAI, 1975-77 is a British science-fiction television series
Doctor Who alumni had moved on to produce their own genre programmes, such as Doomwatch, Survivors, and Blake's 7. Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. Doomwatch is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC, which ran on BBC One between 1970 and 1972 Survivors was a British television series devised by Terry Nation and produced by Terence Dudley at the BBC from 1975 to 1977 Blake's 7 is a British Science fiction television series made by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC for their BBC 1 channel
In the 1970s, ITV began to produce youth-oriented genre programmes, such as Timeslip (1970) and The Tomorrow People, as well as shows aimed at a wider audience such as the time-travel drama Sapphire & Steel. Independent Television (generally known as ITV) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters set up under the Independent Timeslip is a British children's Science fiction Television series made by ATV for the ITV network and The Tomorrow People is a children's science fiction television series, devised by Roger Price which first ran between 1973 and 1979 Sapphire & Steel is a British television science-fiction series starring David McCallum as Steel and Joanna Lumley as Sapphire
In the 1980s, the BBC adapted novels such as The Day of the Triffids, The Invisible Man and Child of the Vodyanoi (adapted as The Nightmare Man), also beginning an adaptation of The White Mountains novels, under the name The Tripods. The Day of the Triffids is a 1981 BBC television science fiction serial based on the novel of the same name by English science fiction The Invisible Man, the second television series with this title, debuted in 1975 on NBC and starred David McCallum as Scientist Daniel Weston The Nightmare Man is a Science fiction and horror Television serial produced by the BBC in 1981. The Tripods is a series of Novels written by Samuel Youd (under the pseudonym "John Christopher" The BBC's Edge of Darkness was a popular hit. Edge of Darkness is a British television Drama serial, produced by BBC Television in association with Lionheart Television International Later, Star Cops ran for nine episodes before being cancelled, despite critical approval. Star Cops is a British Science fiction Television series first broadcast on BBC Two in 1987 The BBC also aired science fiction comedy series such as The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams and Red Dwarf. The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy is a science fiction comedy series Douglas Noël Adams (11 March 1952 &ndash 11 May 2001 was an English author comic Radio dramatist According to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a red dwarf star is a small and relatively cool Star, of the Main sequence, either late K Doctor Who was finally cancelled in 1989, although it was revived as a 1996 television movie (intended as the start of a new series), and in 2005 as a television series.
In the 1990s, Russell T. Davies began working in the BBC children's department. Russell T Davies, OBE (born Stephen Russell Davies, 27 April, 1963) is a critically acclaimed British Television producer His first sci-fi serial was Dark Season; two years later he wrote Century Falls. Dark Season is a British science-fiction television serial for adolescents screened on BBC1 in late 1991. Century Falls is a British Cross-genre series broadcast in six twenty-five minute episodes on BBC One in early 1993 The BBC also produced the action adventure series Bugs, and co-produced Invasion: Earth with the US Sci-Fi Channel. Bugs was a British Television drama series which ran for four series from April 1995 to August 1999 Invasion Earth is a BBC science fiction series made in collaboration with the Sci-Fi Channel, and released in 1998 as a six episode series of approximately Davies was finally able to revive Doctor Who in 2005, with some financing from the Canadian Broadcasting Company. Since then, the show has spun off two series: Torchwood and The Sarah Jane Adventures. Torchwood is a British science fiction Drama Television programme, created by Russell T Davies and starring John Barrowman The Sarah Jane Adventures is a British Science fiction Television series produced by BBC Wales for CBBC, created
Other 21st century British science fiction shows have included the time travel drama Life on Mars on the BBC and Eleventh Hour and Primeval on ITV. Life on Mars is Eleventh Hour is a four part British Television series developed by Granada Television for ITV by writer Stephen Gallagher Primeval is a British Science fiction Television programme produced for ITV by Impossible Pictures. For children we have the BBC Spy spoff M. I. High.
Science fiction in Canada was produced by the CBC as early as the 1950s. See also Canadian science fiction, Science fiction on television See also List of science fiction TV and radio shows produced in Canada, Television Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page In the 1970s, CTV produced The Starlost. CTV is a Canadian English language Television network. It is Canada's largest privately owned network the main television asset of CTVglobemedia The Starlost was a Canadian -produced Science fiction television series devised by writer Harlan Ellison and broadcast in 1973 on CTV In the 1980s, Canadian animation studios including Nelvana, began producing a growing proportion of the world market in animation. British spellings. Thank you --> Nelvana Limited is a Canadian entertainment
In the 1990s, Canada became an important player in live action speculative fiction on television, with dozens of shows like Forever Knight, Robocop, and most notably The X-Files and Stargate SG-1. Forever Knight is a Canadian - German - American Television series about Nick Knight an 800-year-old Vampire working RoboCop The Series is a 1994 Television series based on the film of the same name. The X-Files is a Peabody, Golden Globe and Emmy Award -winning American Science fiction television series created by Chris Carter Many shows have been produced for youth and children's markets, including Deepwater Black and MythQuest. Deepwater Black is a 1995 novel first in the Deepwater trilogy, by the New Zealand Science fiction writer Ken Catran, where a cast MythQuest is a Canadian television series that originally aired on PBS in 2001
In the early 2000s, changes in provincial tax legislation prompted many production companies to move from Toronto to Vancouver. Vancouver (vænˈkuːvɚ is a coastal Recent popular shows produced in Vancouver include The Dead Zone, Smallville, Andromeda, Stargate Atlantis, The 4400, and the revised Battlestar Galactica. The Dead Zone, aka Stephen King's Dead Zone (in USA is an American - Canadian Science fiction / Suspense series See Andromeda (disambiguation for other uses of "Andromeda" Stargate Atlantis (often abbreviated as SGA) is an American - Canadian Science fiction Television program, part of the The 4400 (read "the forty-four hundred" is a Science fiction Television program produced by CBS Paramount Network Television in association Battlestar Galactica is an Emmy and Peabody Award -winning serial drama Television program created by Ronald D
Because of the small size of the domestic television market, most Canadian productions involve partnerships with production studios based in the United States and Europe. However, in recent years, new partnership arrangements are allowing Canadian investors a growing share of control of projects produced in Canada and elsewhere.
Australia's most well known Science Fiction show was Farscape, made with American co-production, it ran from 1999 to 2003. Science fiction television has been produced in Australia since the 1960s as a homegrown response to imported overseas US and British shows Farscape is an American science fiction television series filmed in Australia and produced for the Sci-Fi Channel. Early shows made in the 1960s included The Interparis (1968) Vega 4 (1967) and Phoenix Five(1970). Vega4 were a four-piece band formed in London Johnny McDaid was the band's lead vocalist and was joined on guitar by Bruce Gainsford Phoenix Five is a low-budget Australian science fiction television series produced in 1970 by Artransa Park in association with the Australian A significant proportion of Australian produced science fiction programmes are made for the teens/young Adults market, including The Girl From Tomorrow, the long running Mr Squiggle, Halfway Across The Galaxy and Turn Left, Ocean Girl, Crash Zone, Watch this space and Spellbinder (TV series). The Girl from Tomorrow is an Australian Children's television series created by Film Australia. Mr Squiggle was Australia 's longest-running children's series and the name of the title character from that ABC TV show Ocean Girl ( Ocean Odyssey in the UK is an Australian Science fiction Television series aimed for family audiences and Spellbinder ( Dwa światy (Two worlds is a Sci-fi Television series, produced by Film Australia & Telewizja Polska in association
Other shows like Time Trax, Roar (television series) and Space: Above And Beyond were filmed in Australia, but used mostly US crew and actors. Time Trax is an American / Australian co-produced Science fiction television series that first aired in 1993. Roar is an American Television show that originally aired on the FOX network in the summer of 1997. Space Above and Beyond (abbreviated as SAAB) was a short-lived 1990s American Science fiction Television show on the 
Japan has a long history of producing science fiction series for TV. Known for meticulous use of miniatures and hundreds of sci-fi themed Anime, Japan has a long history of producing science fiction series for TV. Only a few of these series are aired outside Japan and even when aired, they tend to be heavily edited
Tokusatsu (特撮), lit. is a Japanese word that literally means " Special effects " It is primarily used to refer to Live-action Japanese Film and special filming or more commonly SFX is the loose term used to describe the televised science fiction. The illusions used in the Film, Television, Theater, or Entertainment industries to simulate the imagined events in a story are traditionally called
In 1958, Gekkokamen (月光仮面) became the first science fiction series to be aired. Tsuburaya Eiji, the producer of Godzilla films, He produced Ultra Q in 1964 and Ultraman in 1966, using wireworks and firecrackers for special effects and suit actors for aliens and monsters. (born on July 7, 1901 &ndash died January 25, 1970, in Sukagawa Fukushima) was the Japanese Special effects director Etymology Name "Godzilla" is a combination of two Japanese words and. is a Tokusatsu SF / Kaiju series made in the tradition of Toho 's many Tokusatsu sci-fi/horror films is a Fictional character featured in Tokusatsu, or "special effects" television programs in Japan In 1971, Ishimori Shotaro produced Kamen Rider (仮面ライダー), based on manga. was an influential figure in Manga, Anime and Tokusatsu who created several immensely popular long-running series such as Cyborg 009 and translated as Masked Rider, is a weekly Sci-fi story created by renowned Japanese Mangaka. The single-hero series had commercial (merchandising) limitations among the youth audience (hard for group play), so the first Sentai series was produced in 1975, based on a secret battle team of five rangers. is a Japanese language word for a Military unit and may be literally translated as "task force" " group " or " wing "
TV dramas including science fiction elements are too numerous to list. Satorare (サトラレ) in 2002 featured genetic geniuses who broadcast thoughts telepathically.
Osamu Tezuka played a major part in the history of science fiction anime with Astro Boy, an adaptation of a manga that began in 1952. The history of Anime begins at the start was a Japanese manga artist, Animator, producer and Medical doctor, although he never practiced medicine (anime in Japanese, is a Japanese Manga series and Television program first broadcast in Japan from 1963 to 1966 Since then, anime has always been associated with elements from science fiction, particularly in the West.
Early science fiction anime strongly influenced Japanese live-action works, and vice versa. Gatchaman (1972) had five members, like most sentai (combat team) tokusatsu (special effects) series that followed it. is a 5-member Superhero team which comprises the main characters in several Anime originally produced in Japan by Tatsunoko Productions and later
Tetsujin 28-go (鉄人２８号) or Gigantor started another trend called Robottomono (ロボット物), lit. Gigantor is the American adaptation of the Anime version of Tetsujin 28-go, a Manga by Mitsuteru Yokoyama released in 1956. robot stories or Mecha. Word origin and usage The term "mecha" is derived from the Japanese abbreviation for the English word " mechanical " Mobile Suit Gundam (機動戦士ガンダム)) (1979) by Tomino Yoshiyuki brought verisimilitude for characters and setting to Robottomono. is a televised Anime series created by Sunrise. Written and directed by Yoshiyuki Tomino, it premiered in Japan on Nagoya Broadcasting Network is a Japanese Anime creator director screenwriter and novelist
During the 1980s, character development, even romance, grew in importance. Later episodes of Armored Trooper Votoms (装甲騎兵ボトムズ)) focused mainly on politics and relationships, while in The Super Dimension Fortress Macross (超時空要塞マクロス) humanity was saved with the help of Bubblegum pop singer. is a 52-episode Anime Television series, created by Ryosuke Takahashi and Sunrise, aired in Japan from April 1 1983 to is an Anime Television series According to story creator Shoji Kawamori, it depicts "a small love triangle against the backdrop of great battles" Bubblegum pop (also known as bubblegum rock, bubblegum music, or simply bubblegum) is a genre of Pop music whose classic period ran from 1967
The space opera genre is best represented by Morioka Hiroyuki's Crest of the Stars. (born March 2 1962, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan) is a Japanese sci-fi novelist is a trilogy of Space opera science fiction novels written by Hiroyuki Morioka. Common anime subgenres include magical girl anime, Bishōnen, and Bishōjo. belong to a sub-genre of Japanese fantasy Anime and Manga. Magical girl stories feature young girls with superhuman abilities who are forced to fight evil and protect is a Japanese term literally meaning "beautiful boy or beautiful youth is a Japanese term used to refer to young and pretty girls usually below university age
Although the US and the UK have produced the bulk of the world's most famous television science-fiction shows, the popularity of the genre ensures that just about every country which produced television drama has produced some sci-fi at some point. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
The Australian / American production Farscape (1999–2003) has been a popular hit in recent years, as have other Australian science-fiction productions such as the children's serial The Girl from Tomorrow (1992) and the Channel 31 Melbourne independent series Damon Dark, (1999) which continues today as a YouTube webseries. Farscape is an American science fiction television series filmed in Australia and produced for the Sci-Fi Channel. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Girl from Tomorrow is an Australian Children's television series created by Film Australia. C31 Melbourne, also known as Channel 31 Melbourne ( Call letters MGV-31 is a Non-profit community Television station in Melbourne Damon Dark is a long-running independent science fiction series from Australia, created by and featuring Australian science fiction writer and actor Adrian Sherlock.
Lexx was most famous German and Highlander: The Series French science-fiction/fantasy television series (both co-produced with Canada). Lexx is a science fantasy television series that follows the adventures of a group of mismatched individuals aboard the organic space craft Lexx. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Highlander The Series is an English language Fantasy / Sci-fi Television series featuring Duncan MacLeod ( Adrian Paul This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Among the notable non-English language productions is Raumpatrouille, a German series first broadcast in 1966. Raumpatrouille – Die phantastischen Abenteuer des Raumschiffes Orion, colloquially also known as Raumpatrouille Orion, and Space Patrol Orion Also well remembered in Germany are the movies by Rainer Erler, including the miniseries Das Blaue Palais. Danish television broadcast the children's TV-series Crash in 1984 about a boy who finds out that his room is a space ship. France produced a small number of science fiction/fantasy television series, including Tang in 1971, about a super secret organization that attempts to control the world with a new super weapon. Annother French produced science fiction series was the animated series Il était une fois. . . l'espace (English: Once upon a time. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States . . space). An interesting pheomena has been the continuing collaboration between French and Japanese animators, resulting in a series of French-Japanese cartoons/anime, including such titles as Ulysses 31 (1981), The Mysterious Cities of Gold (1982) and more recently, Ōban Star-Racers (2006). The word cartoon has various meanings based on several very different forms of Visual art and Illustration. (anime in Japanese, is a Franco - Japanese Anime series ( 1981) that updates the Greek and Roman Mythology of Odysseus (known also known as Esteban and the Seven Cities of Gold or abbreviated to MCoG by the fans is an Animated television series co-produced by DiC Entertainment is a French / Japanese Animated television series created by Savin Yeatman-Eiffel of Sav! The World Productions Serbia produced The Collector (Sakupljač), science fiction television series in style of The Twilight Zone, based upon Zoran Živković's story, winer of World Fantasy Award. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The Collector (Sakupljač - original title is the first Serbian Science fiction Television series. Zoran Živković ( Serbian Cyrillic: Зоран Живковић (born October 5 1948 is a Writer, Essayist, researcher publisher and Translator The World Fantasy Awards are annual international awards given to authors and artists who have demonstrated outstanding achievement in the field of Fantasy. Several science-fiction series were also produced in various European countries, and never translated into English.
In New Zealand, the production of Hercules and Xena: Warrior Princess created an entire industry, building the foundation for The Lord of the Rings movies and other productions. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Xena Warrior Princess is an American Television series that aired from September 15 1995 until June 18 2001 The Lord of the Rings film trilogy consists of three Live action Fantasy Epic films The Fellowship of the Ring ( 2001
Because of the need to market television to a wide audience, shows outside the loose realm of science fiction will often tend to gravitate to established tropes, such as time travel or superheroes. This article details time travel itself For other uses see Time Traveler.
The classic mode of science fiction on television is space opera, in which a protagonist or a group of brave men and women venture into the black unknown. Space opera is a subgenre of Speculative fiction or Science fiction that emphasizes romantic, often Melodramatic adventure set mainly or entirely Starships are a conventional setting in this category, with Star Trek being the definitive example. A starship is a theoretical Spacecraft designed for traveling between the stars, as opposed to a vehicle designed for Orbital spaceflight or Interplanetary Because the spacecraft environment is by definition limited, a very small number of sets can be heavily used, lowering production costs and allowing producers to focus on character development, setting detail, or sometimes simply to keep a production in the black so it can stay on the air. Variations on this are space station series, notably Babylon 5 and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, based on an open-port paradigm in which trouble comes in through the airlocks. A space station is an artificial structure designed for Humans to live in Outer space. Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created produced and largely written by J Rarer are shows based on space travel without vehicles; Stargate SG-1 is the prime example.
Near-future settings work well for science fiction on television; shows such as The Six Million Dollar Man, TekWar, Quatermass, Star Cops, and Mutant X allow producers to use street clothes and contemporary locations, using only minimal props and effects to foster viewers' suspension of disbelief. The Six Million Dollar Man is an American Television series about a fictional Cyborg working for the OSI (which was usually said to refer TekWar (or Tek War) is a series of Science fiction Novels authored by William Shatner. Star Cops is a British Science fiction Television series first broadcast on BBC Two in 1987
Using stock sets for other shows results in odd subcategories like the science fiction western; some established shows also have the occasional episode. A science fiction Western is a work of Fiction which has elements of Science fiction in a Western setting
Fantasy is less common on television due to higher production cost. Fantasy television is a genre of Television featuring elements of the Fantastic, often including magic, Supernatural forces or exotic Fantasy Stories with animalistic or otherwise non-human characters, scientifically impossible talents, and settings that evoke awe and wonder are more expense to film on a regular basis, making true high fantasy shows like Robin of Sherwood or Legend of Earthsea rare examples. High fantasy, or epic fantasy, is a subgenre of Fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. Robin of Sherwood, retitled Robin Hood in the US was an acclaimed 1980s British Television series, based on the legend of Legend of Earthsea is a miniseries (later shortened to Earthsea) adapted quite loosely from the award-winning Earthsea novels by Ursula Fantasy seems to lend itself to comedy with shows like Bewitched, I Dream of Jeannie, and Wizards and Warriors. Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and Bewitched is an American Situation comedy originally broadcast for eight seasons on ABC from 1964 to 1972. I Dream of Jeannie is a 1960s American sitcom with a Fantasy premise Wizards and Warriors is CBS Television series from 1983, starring Jeff Conaway, Julia Duffy, Walter Olkewicz, Duncan As noted, to control costs, fantasy on television is often presented as finite mini-series such as Merlin or The Odyssey. A miniseries (also mini-series) in a serial Storytelling medium is a production which tells a story in a pre-planned limited number of episodes Merlin is a 3 hour made-for-television movie released in 1998 that retells the famous legend of King Arthur from the perspective of the wizard The Odyssey is a Canadian -produced half-hour adventure-fantasy Television series for children originally broadcast 1992-95 on CBC Television As with science fiction, contemporary settings reduce costs in shows like Beauty and the Beast or Nanny and the Professor. Nanny And The Professor is a US fantasy Situation comedy created by AJ Carothers and produced by 20th Century Fox Television Shows may be based on fairy tales, e. A fairy tale or fairy story is a fictional Story that may feature folkloric characters (such as fairies, enchantments]] often involving g. The 10th Kingdom, or mythology, like Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, or divine intervention like Touched by an Angel or Joan of Arcadia. The 10th Kingdom is an epic fantasy TV Miniseries written by screenplay writer Simon Moore and released by Hallmark Entertainment The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" Touched by an Angel is an American Drama Television series that chronicles the missions of a group of Angels sent by God Joan of Arcadia is an American Television Fantasy / Family Drama, which originally aired on Fridays 8-9 p Encounters with ghosts or the paranormal are a popular category, with shows like Medium, Ghost Whisperer, or Dead Like Me. Medium is an American Dramatic Television series which premiered on NBC on January 3, 2005. Ghost Whisperer is an American television drama - fantasy - thriller that premiered on CBS September 23 2005 Dead Like Me is an American television Comedy-drama starring Ellen Muth and Mandy Patinkin as grim reapers in
Horror has advantages and disadvantages in the medium of television. On the one hand, horror can often be produced with inexpensive techniques: creative cinematography, pacing, lighting, fake blood or other simple props, prosthetics, or costumes. However, horror relies on a definitive resolution, often with a negative result for main characters. The episodic nature of television generally involves a resolution at the end of the episode, with characters surviving to the next episode; over time, this lessens the extreme tension required in horror. This makes horror an excellent genre for films, but much less so for television, though many anthology shows, notably The Twilight Zone, The Outer Limits, and Night Gallery, avoid the problem. The Twilight Zone is an American Television series created by Rod Serling. For the album by Progressive Metal band Voivod see The Outer Limits (album. Night Gallery is Rod Serling 's follow-up series to The Twilight Zone that aired on NBC from 1970 to 1973 Investigative shows, related to the mystery genre, such as Kolchak: The Night Stalker, also mostly avoid the issue (though are hard on secondary characters). Kolchak The Night Stalker is an American Television series that aired on ABC in 1974 Shows with humorous elements, like The Chronicle, relieve tension for viewers but not characters in the show, making things more accessible to audiences. The Chronicle is the name of a short-lived Television series on the Sci Fi Cable channel Some horror shows use common horror tropes such as vampires with more conventional dramatic forms like the heroic myth (for example Buffy the Vampire Slayer) or even gothic romance (Dark Shadows). Vampires are mythological or folkloric revenants who subsist by feeding on the blood of the living Fictional narratives (and works of art exist beyond their completion e Gothic fiction (sometimes referred to as Gothic horror) is a genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. Dark Shadows is a Gothic soap opera that originally aired weekdays on the ABC television network from June 27, 1966 to Demonic powers and black magic are common themes in shows like Brimstone, Charmed, Hex, and Supernatural. Black magic or dark magic is a form of sorcery that draws on malevolent powers Brimstone (1998-1999 is a short-lived FOX Television series, featuring a dead police Detective whose mission (assigned by the Devil Hex is a British Television programme developed by Shine Limited and aired on the Sky One satellite channel Supernatural is an American horror television series regarding the Paranormal.
Television is used as a medium for the visual presentation of fiction. Film adaptation is the transfer of a written work to a Feature film. Literary adaptation is the adapting of a literary source (eg a Novel, Short story, Poem) to another Genre or medium, such In order to draw on an established audience, or simply to leverage the existing creativity of an author, television shows are sometimes based on novels or series of novels. The process of converting a print story is called adaptation. Film adaptation is the transfer of a written work to a Feature film. Producers, studios, or other intermediaries acquire the rights to produce shows based on a book with a contract known as an option; one might say "the studio optioned the book". The primary role of a television producer is to control all aspects of production ranging from show idea development and cast hiring to shoot supervision and fact-checking A television studio is an installation in which Television or Video productions take place either for Live television, for recording Live to tape Many popular novels are optioned, but only a tiny fraction of these ever materialize as an actual show; often, a producer who is interested in a particular show has to purchase an option from another producer who originally negotiated with the author. Rarely, other media are adapted for film, notably computer games. A personal computer Game (also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a Video game played on a Personal computer, rather
The reverse process of adaptation also occurs. Shows may be translated into print novels as novelizations, where an author is contracted to write a prose version of the story line. A novelization is a Novel that is written based on some other media story form rather than as an original work Just as television series are a collection of episodes, if there is a plan to convert a series to print, that usually is done as a series of novels. A popular series like Star Trek has resulted in hundreds of novelizations over the years. The visual content of a film is an excellent resource for the development of computer strategy or action games. As well, a series, particularly one that has lasted several seasons, has a rich background of character and setting detail that can provide a strong background and an established market for a role-playing game. A role-playing game ( RPG; often roleplaying game) is a Game in which the participants assume the roles of Fictional characters. The most popular series and novels can result in adaptation in many different media.
The need to portray imaginary settings or characters with properties and abilities beyond the reach of current reality obliges producers to make extensive use of specialized techniques of television prodduction.
Through most of the 20th century, many of these techniques were expensive and involved a small number of dedicated craft practitioners, while the reusability of props, models, effects, or animation techniques made it easier to keep using them. The combination of high initial cost and lower maintenance cost pushed producers into building these techniques into the basic concept of a series, influencing all the artistic choices. By the late 1990s, improved technology and more training and cross-training within the industry made all of these techniques easier to use, so that directors of individual episodes could make decisions to use one or more methods, so such artistic choices no longer needed to be baked into the series concept.
Special effects (or "SPFX") have been an essential tool throughout the history of science fiction on television: small explosives to simulate the effects of various ray guns, squibs of blood and gruesome prosthetics to simulate the monsters and victims in horror shows, and the wire-flying entrances and exits of George Reeves as Superman. The illusions used in the Film, Television, Theater, or Entertainment industries to simulate the imagined events in a story are traditionally called This article is about fictional weapons For other meanings see Raygun (disambiguation. Wire-flying is a theatrical Stunt which involves suspending an actor from from high-tension Wires normally with a harness concealed under the Costume to George Reeves ( January 5, 1914 &ndash June 16, 1959) was an American Actor, best known for his role as Superman in the Adventures of Superman is an American Television series based on Comic book characters and concepts created in 1938 by Jerry Siegel
The broad term "special effects" all the techniques here, but more commonly there are two categories of effects. Visual effects ("VFX") involve photographic or digital manipulation of the onscreen image, usually done in post-production. Visual effects (commonly shortened to Visual F/X or VFX) are the various processes by which imagery is created and/or manipulated outside the context of a Live See also Filmmaking Post-production occurs in the making of motion pictures, television programs, Videos audio recordings Mechanical or physical effects involve props, pyrotechnics, and other physical methods used during principal photography itself. Physical effects is the term given to a sub-category of Special effects in which mechanical or physical effects are recorded See also Filmmaking Principal photography is the phase of Film production in which the movie is actually shot as distinct from Pre-production Some effects involved a combination of techniques; a ray gun might require a pyrotechnic during filming, and then an optical glowing line added to the film image in post-production. Stunts are another important category of physical effects. A stunt is an unusual and difficult physical feat or any act requiring a special skill performed for artistic purposes in TV, Theatre, or cinema In general, all kinds of special effects must be carefully planned during pre-production. See also Filmmaking Pre-production is the process of preparing all the elements involved in a Film, play, or other Performance.
Babylon 5 was the first series to use computer-generated imagery, or "CGI", for all exterior space scenes, even those with characters in space suits. Computer animation Computer-generated imagery (also known as CGI) is the application of the field of Computer graphics or more specifically 3D computer graphics Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created produced and largely written by J Computer animation Computer-generated imagery (also known as CGI) is the application of the field of Computer graphics or more specifically 3D computer graphics The technology has made this more practical, so that today models are rarely used. In the 1990s, CGI required expensive processors and customized applications, but by the 2000s, computing power has pushed capabilities down to personal laptops in a wide array of software.
Models have been an essential tool in science fiction television since the beginning, when Buck Rogers took flight in spark-scattering spaceships wheeling across a matte backdrop sky. A scale model is a representation or copy of an object that is larger or smaller than the actual size of the object. A puppet is a representational figure manipulated by a Puppeteer. A scale model is a representation or copy of an object that is larger or smaller than the actual size of the object. Buck Rogers is a fictional character who first appeared in 1928 as Anthony Rogers the hero of two Novellas by Philip Francis Nowlan published in the magazine The original Star Trek required a staggering array of models; the USS Enterprise had to be built in several different scales for different needs. Star Trek is a Science fiction Television series created by Gene Roddenberry that aired from September 8, 1966 through The Enterprise or USS Enterprise (often referred to as the " Starship Enterprise " are the names of several fictional Models fell out of use in filming in the 1990s as CGI became more affordable and practical, but even today, designers sometimes construct scale models which are then digitized for use in animation software.
Models of characters are puppets. A puppet is a representational figure manipulated by a Puppeteer. Gerry Anderson created a series of shows using puppets living in a universe of models and miniature sets, notably Thunderbirds. For a detailed article on collaborations with Sylvia Anderson see Sylvia and Gerry Anderson; the separated strands aren't working - GA is the common thread throughout Thunderbirds is a British mid-1960s television show devised by Gerry and Sylvia Anderson and made by AP Films using a form of Puppetry In recent years, shows like Greg the Bunny and Puppets Who Kill have portrayed puppets as an oppressed minority, for which the politically-correct term is "fabricated-Americans" and the racial epithet is "sock". Greg the Bunny was an American Sitcom that originally aired on Fox in 2002. Puppets Who Kill is a Canadian television comedy series produced by and broadcast on The Comedy Network. ALF depicted an alien living in a family, while Farscape included two puppets as regular characters. ALF is a half-hour American Television Sitcom that originally ran on NBC from 1986 to 1990 and was created by Paul Fusco Farscape is an American science fiction television series filmed in Australia and produced for the Sci-Fi Channel. In Stargate SG-1, the Asgard characters are puppets in scenes where they are siting, standing, or lying down. The Asgard are a Fictional highly advanced and benevolent race in the Science fiction series Stargate SG-1 and Stargate Atlantis
As animation is completely free of the constraints of gravity, momentum, and physical reality, it is an ideal technique for science fiction and fantasy on television. The bouncing ball animation (below consists of these 6 frames (anime in Japanese, In a sense, virtually all animated series allow characters and objects to perform in unrealistic ways, so they are almost all considered to fit within the broadest category of speculative fiction (in the context of awards, criticism, marketing, etc. ). The artistic affinity of animation to comic books has led to a large number of superhero-themed animation, much of this adapted from comics series, while the impossible characters and settings allowed in animation made this a preferred medium for both fantasy and for shows aimed at young audiences. A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative A superhero (sometimes rendered super-hero or super hero) is a Fictional character "of unprecedented physical prowess dedicated to acts of derring-do Fantasy is a Genre that uses magic and other Supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting
Originally, animation was all hand-drawn by artists, though in the 1980s, beginning with Captain Power, computers began to automate the task of creating repeated images; by the 1990s, hand-drawn animation became defunct.
The insectoid methane-breathing N'Grath in Babylon 5 was the first attempt to integrate an animated character into a live-action television series, but the limited computer power available at the time only allowed limited use of this technique. Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created produced and largely written by J In recent years as technology has improved,this has become more common, notably since the development of the Massive software application permits producers to include hordes of non-human characters to storm a city or space station. The robotic Cylons in the new version of Battlestar Galactica are usually animated characters, while the Asgard in Stargate SG-1 are animated when they are shown walking around. Battlestar Galactica is a franchise of Science fiction Films and television series, the first of which was produced in 1978
In general science fiction series are subject to the same financial constraints as other television shows. However, high production costs increase the financial risk, while limited audiences further complicate the business case for continuing production. Star Trek was the first television series to cost more than $100,000 per episode, while Star Trek: The Next Generation was the first to cost more than $1 million per episode. Star Trek is a Science fiction Television series created by Gene Roddenberry that aired from September 8, 1966 through Star Trek The Next Generation ( STTNG or TNG) is an Emmy and Peabody Award-winning science fiction television program created by Gene Roddenberry
The innovative nature of science fiction means that new shows can't rely on predictable market-tested formulas like legal dramas or sitcoms; the involvement of creative talent outside the Hollywood mainstream introduces more variables to the budget forecasts.
The perception, more than the reality, of science fiction shows being cancelled unreasonably is greatly increased by the attachment of fans to their favorite shows, which is much stronger in science fiction fandom than it is in the general population. Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is a community of people actively interested in Science fiction and Fantasy literature, and in contact with one another While mainstream shows are often more strictly episodic, where ending shows can allow viewers to imagine that characters live happily, or at least normally, ever after, science fiction shows generate questions and loose ends that, when unresolved, cause dissatisfaction among devoted viewers. Creative settings also often call for broader story arcs than is often found in mainstream television, requiring science fiction shows many episodes to resolve an ongoing major conflict. Science fiction television producers will sometimes end a season with a dramatic cliffhanger episode to attract viewer interest, but the short-term effect rarely influences financial partners. A cliffhanger or cliffhanger ending is a Plot device in which a movie, Novel, or other work of fiction contains an abrupt ending often leaving Dark Angel is one of many shows ending with a cliffhanger scene that left critical questions open when the series was cancelled. Dark Angel is an American Biopunk / Cyberpunk Science fiction Television program created by James Cameron
One of the earliest forms of media fandom was Star Trek fandom. Media fandom is a fan term invented in the late 1970s to describe the collective Fandoms for contemporary television shows and movies Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is a community of people actively interested in Science fiction and Fantasy literature, and in contact with one another Trekkie (or Trekker) is a term used to describe a fan of all or part of the Star Trek Fictional universe. Trekkie (or Trekker) is a term used to describe a fan of all or part of the Star Trek Fictional universe. Fans of the series became known to each other through the science fiction fandom. Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is a community of people actively interested in Science fiction and Fantasy literature, and in contact with one another In 1968, NBC decided to cancel Star Trek. The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Star Trek is a Science fiction Television series created by Gene Roddenberry that aired from September 8, 1966 through Bjo Trimble wrote letters to contacts in the National Fantasy Fan Foundation, asking people to organize their local friends to write to the network to demand the show remain on the air. Betty Jo Trimble, born August 15, 1933 as Betty JoAnne Conway, but universally known as Bjo (ˈbiːdʒoʊ is a significant figure in the history of Network executives were overwhelmed by an unprecedented wave of correspondence, and they kept the show on the air. Although the series continued to receive low ratings and was canceled a year later, the enduring popularity of the series resulted in Paramount creating a set of movies, and then a new series Star Trek: The Next Generation, which by the early 1990s had become one of the most popular dramas on American television. Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and Distribution company, based in Hollywood California. Star Trek The Next Generation ( STTNG or TNG) is an Emmy and Peabody Award-winning science fiction television program created by Gene Roddenberry
Although somewhat smaller, Doctor Who fandom considerably predates Star Trek fandom. Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. Meanwhile, Star Trek fans continued to grow in numbers, and began organizing conventions in the 1970s. No other show attracted a large organized following until the 1990s, when Babylon 5 attracted both Star Trek fans and a large number of literary SF fans who previously had not been involved in media fandom. Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created produced and largely written by J Other shows began to attract a growing number of followers.
In the late 1990s, Buffy the Vampire Slayer drew a large mainstream audience into fandom; greater demand allowed (even obliged, for the sake of time management) Buffy actors to charge much higher appearance fees than the Star Trek actors had. Fictional narratives (and works of art exist beyond their completion e This pushed appearances out of the reach of some volunteer non-profit fan groups towards commercial event promoters. At the same time, a market for celebrity autographs emerged on eBay, which created a new source of income for actors, who began to charge money for autographs that they had previously been doing for free. eBay Inc is an American Internet company that manages eBaycom an Online auction and shopping Website in which people and businesses buy and This became significant enough that lesser-known actors would come to conventions without requesting any appearance fee, simply to be allowed to sell their own autographs (commonly on publicity photos). Today most events with actor appearances are organized by commercial promoters, though a number of fan-run conventions still exist, such as Toronto Trek and Shore Leave. Polaris (formerly " Toronto Trek " is an annual science fiction and fantasy convention held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada Shore leave is the Leave that professional Sailors get to spend on dry land
Also in the 1990s, anime fans began organizing conventions. (anime in Japanese, These quickly grew to sizes much larger than other science fiction and media conventions in the same communities; many cities now have anime conventions attracting five to ten thousand attendees. Many anime conventions are a hybrid between non-profit and commercial events, with volunteer organizers handling large revenue streams and dealing with commercial suppliers and professional marketing campaigns.
For a list of notable science fiction series and programs on television, see: List of science fiction television programs. List of Television shows with significant Science fiction elements
People who have influenced science fiction on television include: