Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. Nanotechnology, sometimes shortened to nanotech, refers to a field of Applied science whose theme is the control of matter on an Atomic and Molecular Although Nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time The implications of Nanotechnology run the gamut of human affairs from the medical, Ethical, Mental, legal and environmental to fields With nanotechnology a large set of materials and improved products rely on a change in the physical properties when the feature sizes are shrunk This is a list of organizations involved in Nanotechnology. Government EU Seventh Framework Programme and Action Plan for Nanosciences Nanotechnology and its use in fiction has attracted scholarly attention For a gentler introduction to nanotechnology see List of basic nanotechnology topics This is a hierarchical list of (all topics related to Nanotechnology Nanomaterials are application with morphological features smaller than a one tenth of a micrometre in at least one dimension "C60" and "C-60" redirect here For other uses see C60 (disambiguation. See also Graphene, Buckypaper Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are Allotropes of carbon with a nanostructure that can have a length-to-diameter In Nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its transport and properties Nanomedicine is the medical application of Nanotechnology. The approaches to nanomedicine range from the medical use of Nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic Nanotoxicology is the study of the Toxicity of nanomaterials. Nanosensors are any biological chemical or sugery sensory points used to convey information about Nanoparticles to the Macroscopic world Molecular self-assembly is the process by which Molecules adopt a defined arrangement without guidance or management from an outside source Self assembled monolayers ( SAM s are surfaces consisting of a single layer of Molecules on a substrate. A supramolecular assembly or "supermolecule" is a well defined complex of molecules held together by noncovalent bonds. DNA nanotechnology is a subfield of Nanotechnology which seeks to use the unique Molecular recognition properties of DNA and other Nucleic acids Nanoelectronics refer to the use of Nanotechnology on electronic components especially Transistors. For quantum mechanical study of the Electron distribution in a molecule see Stereoelectronics. Nanocircuits are electrical circuits on the scale of nanometers Nanolithography — or Photolithography at the Nanometer scale — refers to the fabrication of nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at The atomic force microscope (AFM or scanning force microscope (SFM is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope, with demonstrated resolution of fractions Scanning tunneling microscope (STM is a powerful technique for viewing surfaces at the atomic level Molecular nanotechnology (MNT is the concept of engineering functional mechanical systems at the molecular scale A molecular assembler as defined by K Eric Drexler is a "proposed device able to guide chemical reactions by positioning reactive molecules with atomic precision Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or Robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a Nanometres (10-9 Metres. Mechanosynthesis in Chemistry is any Chemical synthesis that takes place by mechanical forces alone Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view samples or objects An image of the surface is obtained by mechanically moving the probe in a raster scan of the specimen, line by line, and recording the probe-surface interaction as a function of position. A Raster scan, or raster scanning, is the pattern of image detection and reconstruction in television and is the pattern of image storage and transmission used in most computer SPM was founded with the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981. Scanning tunneling microscope (STM is a powerful technique for viewing surfaces at the atomic level
Many scanning probe microscopes can image several interactions simultaneously. The manner of using these interactions to obtain an image is generally called a mode.
The resolution varies somewhat from technique to technique, but some probe techniques reach a rather impressive atomic resolution. They owe this largely to the ability of piezoelectric actuators to execute motions with a precision and accuracy at the atomic level or better on electronic command. Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably Crystals and certain Ceramics including bone to generate an Electric potential in response to One could rightly call this family of technique 'piezoelectric techniques'. The other common denominator is that the data are typically obtained as a two-dimensional grid of data points, visualized in false color as a computer image.
Established types of scanning probe microscopy
- AFM, atomic force microscopy
- contact AFM
- non-contact AFM
- dynamic contact AFM
- BEEM, ballistic electron emission microscopy
- EFM, electrostatic force microscope
- ESTM electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope
- FMM, force modulation microscopy
- KPFM, kelvin probe force microscopy
- MFM, magnetic force microscopy
- MRFM, magnetic resonance force microscopy
- NSOM, near-field scanning optical microscopy (or SNOM, scanning near-field optical microscopy)
- PFM, Piezo Force Microscopy
- PSTM, photon scanning tunneling microscopy
- PTMS, photothermal microspectroscopy/microscopy
- SECM, scanning electrochemical microscopy
- SCM, scanning capacitance microscopy
- SGM, scanning gate microscopy
- SICM, scanning ion-conductance microscopy
- SPSM spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy
- SThM, scanning thermal microscopy
- STM, scanning tunneling microscopy
- SVM, scanning voltage microscopy
- SHPM, scanning Hall probe microscopy
Advantages of scanning probe microscopy
- The resolution of the microscopes is not limited by diffraction, but only by the size of the probe-sample interaction volume (i. The atomic force microscope (AFM or scanning force microscope (SFM is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope, with demonstrated resolution of fractions Ballistic electron emission microscopy or BEEM is a technique for studying ballistic electron transport through variety of materials and material interfaces Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM is a type of dynamic non-contact Atomic force microscopy where the electrostatic force is probed The Electrochemical Scanning tunneling microscope, or ESTM, was invented in 1988 by Kingo Itaya in Japan Kelvin probe force microscopy ( KPFM) also known as surface potential microscopy is a noncontact variant of atomic force microscopy (AFM that was An Atomic force microscopy (AFM Unlike typical AFM magnetic materials are used for the sample and tip so that not only the atomic force but also the magnetic interaction are detected Magnetic resonance force microscopy ( MRFM) is an imaging technique that acquires magnetic resonance images ( MRI) at nanometer scales and possibly at atomic scales Near Field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM/SNOM is a microscopic technique for nanostructure investigation that breaks the far field resolution limit by exploiting the properties Photothermal Micro-Spectroscopy (PTMS alternatively known as PTTF (PhotoThermal Temperature Fluctuation is derived from two parent instrumental techniques Infrared spectroscopy Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM is a variety of Scanning probe microscopy in which a narrow probe electrode is held just above the surface of a sample and scanned across Scanning gate microscopy (SGM is a Scanning probe microscopy technique with an electrically conductive tip used as a movable gate that couples capacitively to the sample and The scanning ion-conductance microscope (SICM consists of an electrically charged glass micro- or nanopipette probe filled with electrolyte lowered toward the surface of the sample (which Spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM is a specialized application of Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM that can provide detailed information of magentic phenomena Scanning tunneling microscope (STM is a powerful technique for viewing surfaces at the atomic level Scanning voltage microscopy (SVM -- sometimes also called nanopotentiometry -- is a scientific experimental technique based on Atomic force microscopy. The scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM is a class of Scanning probe microscope which incorporates the accurate sample approach and positioning of the Scanning tunnelling Diffraction is normally taken to refer to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle e. , point spread function), which can be as small as a few picometres. The point spread function ( PSF) describes the response of an imaging system to a Point source or point object A picometre ( American spelling: picometer, symbol pm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one trillionth Hence the ability to measure small local differences in object height (like that of 135 picometre steps on <100> silicon) is unparalleled. Laterally the probe-sample interaction extends only across the tip atom or atoms involved in the interaction.
- The interaction can be used to modify the sample to create small structures (nanolithography). Nanolithography — or Photolithography at the Nanometer scale — refers to the fabrication of nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at
- Unlike electron microscope methods, specimens do not require a partial vacuum but can be observed in air at standard temperature and pressure or while submerged in a liquid reaction vessel.
Disadvantages of scanning probe microscopy
- The detailed shape of the scanning tip is sometimes difficult to determine. Its effect on the resulting data is particularly noticeable if the specimen varies greatly in height over lateral distances of 10 nm or less.
- The scanning techniques are generally slower in acquiring images, due to the scanning process. As a result, efforts are being made to greatly improve the scanning rate. Like all scanning techniques, the embedding of spatial information into a time sequence opens the door to uncertainties in metrology, say of lateral spacings and angles, which arise due to time-domain effects like specimen drift, feedback loop oscillation, and mechanical vibration.
- The maximum image size is generally smaller.
- Scanning probe microscopy is often not useful for examining buried solid-solid or liquid-liquid interfaces.
Atomic Force Microscope Manufacturers
- Gwyddion (image data analysis program) - http://gwyddion.net/ - A Software Framework for SPM Data Analysis. GNU Gwyddion or just Gwyddion is a Free software SPM Data Analysis Program
- GXSM - Gnome X Scanning Microscopy.
- Mountains-SPM - Image processing and analysis from Digital Surf.
- SPIP - Scanning Probe Image Processor.
- WSxM - Free software for Scanning Probe Microscopy images analysis and representation
- XPMPro - Data acquisition, image processing and analysis from RHK Technology, Inc.
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