Sandpaper is a form of paper where an abrasive material has been fixed to its surface. Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging An abrasive is a material often a Mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away
Sandpaper is part of the "Coated abrasives" family of abrasive products. Coated abrasives are made of abrasive grains adhered to the surface of flexible or semi-flexible backings such as Paper, cloth vulcanized fiber Plastic films It is used to remove small amounts of material from surfaces, either to make them smoother (painting and wood finishing), to remove a layer of material (e. In Mathematics, specifically in Topology, a surface is a Two-dimensional Manifold. Paint is any Liquid, liquifiable or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque Solid Wood finishing refers to the process of embellishing and/or protecting the surface g. old paint), or sometimes to make the surface rougher (e. g. as a preparation to gluing). Glue or adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together
The first recorded instance of sandpaper was in 13th century China when crushed shells, seeds, and sand were bonded to parchment using natural gum. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Shark skin was also used as a sandpaper. Sharks ( Superorder Selachimorpha) are a type of Fish with a full cartilaginous Skeleton and a highly streamlined body Sandpaper was originally known as glass paper, as it used particles of glass.
The rough scales of the living fossil Coelacanth are used by the natives of Comoros as sandpaper. Living fossil is an informal term for any living Species (or Clade) of organism which appears Coelacanth (ˈsiːləkænθ adaptation of Modern Latin Cœlacanthus > cœl-us + acanth-us from Greek κοῖλ-ος + ἄκανθ-α) is the common name for
Glass paper was manufactured by John Oakey's company in London by 1833, who had developed new adhesive techniques and processes that could be mass-produced. John Oakey (1813 &ndash 1887 founder of John Oakey & Sons Ltd manufacturer of Sandpaper and polishing materials London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Year 1833 ( MDCCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common A process for making sandpaper was patented in the United States on June 14, 1834 by Isaac Fischer, Jr. A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 1276 - While taking exile in Fuzhou in southern China, away from the advancing Mongol invaders, the remnants of the Year 1834 ( MDCCCXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common , of Springfield, Vermont. Springfield is a town in Windsor County, Vermont, United States.
In 1916, 3M invented a type of waterproof sandpaper, known as Wetordry, and its first application was for automotive paint refinishing. 3M Company ( formerly Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company until 2002 is an American multinational conglomerate corporation with a worldwide
Sandpaper has occasionally been used as a surface for painting, as by Joan Miro. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Joan Miró i Ferrà ( April 20, 1893 &ndash December 25, 1983) was an ethnic Catalan (of Spanish nationality Sandpaper was even used as a musical instrument, in Leroy Anderson's Sandpaper Ballet. Leroy Anderson ( June 29 1908 – May 18 1975) was an American Composer of short light concert pieces many of which were
There are countless varieties of sandpaper, with variations in the paper or backing, the material used for the grit, grit size, and the bond.
In addition to paper, backing for sandpaper includes cloth (cotton, polyester, rayon), PET film, and "fibre". Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Polyester is a category of Polymers which contain the Ester Functional group in their main chain Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic Fiber. Rayon is produced from naturally occurring Polymers and therefore it is not a truly Biaxially-oriented Polyethylene terephthalate (boPET Polyester film is used for its high Tensile strength, Chemical and dimensional Stability Cloth backing is used for sandpaper discs and belts, while mylar is used as backing with extremely fine grits. Biaxially-oriented Polyethylene terephthalate (boPET Polyester film is used for its high Tensile strength, Chemical and dimensional Stability Fibre or vulcanized fibre is a strong backing material consisting of many layers of polymer impregnated paper. Vulcanization (or Vulcanisation refers to a specific curing process of Rubber involving high heat and the addition of Sulfur or other equivalent curatives The weight of the backing is usually designated by a letter. For paper backings, the weight ratings range from "A" to "F," with A designating the lightest and F the heaviest. Letter nomenclature follows a different system for cloth backings, with the weight of the backing rated J, X, Y , T, and M, from lightest to heaviest. A flexible backing allows sandpaper to follow irregular rounded contours of a given workpiece; relatively inflexible backing is optimal for regular rounded or plane surfaces. Sandpaper backings may be glued to the paper or form a separate support structure for moving sandpaper, such as used in sanding belts and discs.
Materials used for the abrading particles are:
As well, sandpaper may be "stearated" where a dry lubricant is loaded to the abrasive. Stearic acid (first syllable rhymes with either bear or gear) ( IUPAC Systematic name: octadecanoic acid) is a saturated Stearated papers are useful in sanding coats of finish and paint as the stearate "soap" prevents clogging and increases the useful life of the sandpaper. SOAP (see below for name and origins is a protocol for exchanging XML -based messages over Computer networks normally using Aluminium Oxide with stearate is also known as PS33.
Innovative abrading surfaces now include long-life stainless steel sanding discs.
Different adhesives are used to bond the abrasive to the paper. Hide glue is still used, but this paper often cannot withstand the heat generated when machine sanding and is not waterproof. An animal glue is an Adhesive that is created by prolonged boiling of Animal Connective tissue. Waterproof or wet/dry sandpapers use a resin bond and a waterproof backing.
Sandpapers can also be open coat, where the particles are separated from each other and the sandpaper is more flexible. This helps prevent clogging of the sandpaper. The wet and dry sandpaper is best used when wet and when using material like acrylic where it leaves a nice smooth feel afterwards.
Sandpaper comes in a number of different shapes and sizes.
Grit size refers to the size of the particles of abrading materials embedded in the sandpaper. A number of different standards have been established for grit size. These standards establish not only the average grit size, but also the allowable variation from the average. The two most common are the United States CAMI (Coated Abrasive Manufacturers Institute, now part of the Unified Abrasives Manufacturers' Association) and the European FEPA (Federation of European Producers of Abrasives) "P" grade. The FEPA system is the same as the ISO 6344 standard. ISO 6344 is an international Standard covering tve materials sizes and tests regarding Sandpaper and other similar coated Abrasives It has three parts Other systems used in sandpaper include the Japan Industrial Standards Committee (JIS), the micron grade (generally used for very fine grits). The "ought" system was used in the past in the United States. Also, cheaper sandpapers sometimes are sold with nomenclature such as "Coarse", "Medium" and "Fine", but it is not clear to what standards these names refer.
The following table, compiled from the references at the bottom, compares the CAMI and "P" designations with the average grit size in micrometres (µm).
|ISO/FEPA Grit designation||CAMI Grit designation||Average particle diameter (µm)|
|Extra Coarse (Very fast removal of material)||P12||1815|
|Coarse (Rapid removal of material)||P40||40||425|
|Medium (sanding bare wood in preparation for finishing)||60||265|
|Fine (sanding bare wood in preparation for finishing)||P100||162|
|Very Fine (final sanding of bare wood)||P150||100|
|Very Fine (sanding finishes between coats)||P240||58. 5|
|Extra fine||320||36. 0|
|Super fine (final sanding of finishes)||400||23. 0|
|Ultra fine (final sanding of finishes)||P1500||800||12. 6|