Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete Solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific
As the term is used by geologists, sand particles range in diameter from 0. A geologist is a contributor to the Science of Geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system Geometry, a diameter of a Circle is any straight Line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose Endpoints are on the 0625 (or 1⁄16 mm) to 2 millimeters. The Millimetre ( American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to An individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain. The next smaller size class in geology is silt: particles smaller than 0. Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Silt is Soil or rock derived Granular material of a Grain size between sand and clay 0625 mm down to 0. 004 mm in diameter. The next larger size class above sand is gravel, with particles ranging from 2 mm up to 64 mm (see particle size for standards in use). Gravel is rock that is of a specific Particle size range In Geology, gravel is any loose rock that is larger than two millimeters (2mm Particle size, also called grain size, refers to the Diameter of individual grains of Sediment, or the lithified particles in Clastic Sand feels gritty when rubbed between the fingers (silt, by comparison, feels like flour).
ISO 14688 grades sands as fine, medium and coarse with ranges 0. 063 mm to 0. 2 mm to 0. 63 mm to 2. 0 mm. In USA, sand is commonly divided into five sub-categories based on size: very fine sand (1/16 - 1/8 mm diameter), fine sand (1/8 mm - 1/4 mm), medium sand (1/4 mm - 1/2 mm), coarse sand (1/2 mm - 1 mm), and very coarse sand (1 mm - 2 mm). These sizes are based on the Φ sediment size scale, where size in Φ = -log base 2 of size in mm. Particle size, also called grain size, refers to the Diameter of individual grains of Sediment, or the lithified particles in Clastic On this scale, for sand the value of Φ varies from -1 to +4, with the divisions between sub-categories at whole numbers.
The most common constituent of sand, in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings, is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of quartz, which, because of its chemical inertness and considerable hardness, is resistant to weathering. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide Quartz (from German) is the most abundant Mineral in the Earth 's Continental crust (although Feldspar is more common in Weathering is the decomposition of earth rocks, Soils and their Minerals through direct contact with the planet's Atmosphere.
The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions. The bright white sands found in tropical and subtropical coastal settings are eroded limestone and may contain coral and shell fragments in addition to other organic or organically derived fragmental material. Coral sand is Sand of particles originating in Tropical and sub-tropical marine environments from Bioerosion of Limestone skeletal Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3  The gypsum sand dunes of the White Sands National Monument in New Mexico are famous for their bright, white color. Gypsum is a very soft Mineral composed of Calcium sulfate dihydrate with the Chemical formula Ca[[sulfur S]] O 4·2 The White Sands National Monument is a US National Monument located about 25 km (15 New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. Arkose is a sand or sandstone with considerable feldspar content, derived from the weathering and erosion of a (usually nearby) granite. Arkose (ˈɑrkoʊz is a Detrital Sedimentary rock, specifically a type of Sandstone containing at least 25% Feldspar. Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains. Feldspar is the name of a group of rock-forming Minerals which make up as much as 60% of the Earth 's crust. Weathering is the decomposition of earth rocks, Soils and their Minerals through direct contact with the planet's Atmosphere. Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. Some sands contain magnetite, chlorite, glauconite or gypsum. Magnetite is not to be confused with Magnesite or Maghemite. Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic Mineral with chemical The chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate Minerals Chlorites can be described by the following four endmembers based on their chemistry via substitution Glauconite is a phyllosilicate ( Mica group Mineral. It can also be referred to as an iron silicate Gypsum is a very soft Mineral composed of Calcium sulfate dihydrate with the Chemical formula Ca[[sulfur S]] O 4·2 Sands rich in magnetite are dark to black in color, as are sands derived from volcanic basalts and obsidian. Obsidian is a naturally occurring Glass formed as an extrusive Igneous rock. Chlorite-glauconite bearing sands are typically green in color, as are sands derived from basalt (lava) with a high olivine content. Lava is molten rock expelled by a Volcano during an eruption When first expelled from a volcanic vent it is a Liquid at Temperatures The Mineral olivine (when gem-quality also called Peridot) is a Magnesium Iron silicate with the formula ( Mg Many sands, especially those found extensively in Southern Europe, have iron impurities within the quartz crystals of the sand, giving a deep yellow colour. The term Southern Europe can have four definitions geographical political climatic phytogeographic Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 In Materials science, a crystal is a Solid in which the constituent Atoms Molecules or Ions are packed in a regularly ordered repeating Sand deposits in some areas contain garnets and other resistant minerals, including some small gemstones. The garnet group includes a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives A gemstone or gem, also called a precious or semi-precious stone, is a piece of attractive Mineral, which &mdash when cut and polished &mdash
Sand is transported by wind and water and deposited in the form of beaches, dunes, sand spits, sand bars and related features. In physical Geography, a dune is a Hill of Sand built by Aeolian processes. A shoal or sandbar (also called sandbank) is a somewhat Linear Landform within or extending into a body of Water, A shoal or sandbar (also called sandbank) is a somewhat Linear Landform within or extending into a body of Water,
Study of individual grains can reveal much historical information as to the origin and kind of transport of the grain. The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Quartz sand that is recently weathered from granite or gneiss quartz crystals will be angular. Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. Gneiss (ˈnaɪs is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally It is called sharp sand in the building trade where it is preferred for concrete, and in gardening where it is used as a soil amendment to loosen clay soils. Sand that is transported long distances by water or wind will be rounded, with characteristic abrasion patterns on the grain surface. Desert sand is typically rounded.
People who collect sand as a hobby are known as arenophiles or psammofiles. An arenophile (also called psammophile) is one who collects Sand samples the interest of the Hobby lying in the variety of texture colour Mineralogy
While sand is generally harmless, one must take care with some activities involving sand such as sandblasting. Sandblasting or Bead blasting is a generic term for the process of smoothing shaping and cleaning a hard surface by forcing solid particles across that surface at high speeds Bags of silica sand used for sandblasting now carry labels warning the user to wear respiratory protection and avoid breathing the fine silica dust. There have been a number of lawsuits in recent years where workers have developed silicosis, a lung disease caused by inhalation of fine silica particles over long periods of time. Silicosis (also known as Grinder's disease and Potter's rot) is a form of Occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline Silica Respiratory Disease is the term for Diseases of the Respiratory system. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) for silica sand state that "excessive inhalation of crystalline silica is a serious health concern". A material safety data sheet ( MSDS) is a form containing data regarding the properties of a particular substance 
In areas of high pore water pressure sand can partially liquefy to form quicksand. Pore water pressure refers to the pressure of Groundwater held within a Soil or rock, in gaps between particles ( Pores) Quicksand is a Colloid Hydrogel consisting of fine Granular matter (such as Sand or Silt) Clay, and Quicksand, once dried, produces a considerable barrier to escape for creatures caught within, who often die from exposure as a result.
Dry quicksand is loose Sand whose Bulk density is reduced by blowing air through it and which yields easily to weight or pressure Quicksand is a Colloid Hydrogel consisting of fine Granular matter (such as Sand or Silt) Clay, and Sand Rat ( Psammomys obesus) also known as the Fat Sand Rat is a terrestrial Mammal from the Gerbil subfamily that is mostly found in North Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains. Several places are named Sand Island. Some of these are Sand Island (Hawaii Sand Island (Alabama Sand Island (Anguilla Singing sand, whistling sand or barking sand is Sand that produces sounds of either high or low Frequency under pressure The White Sands National Monument is a US National Monument located about 25 km (15