Gaius Sallustius Crispus, generally known simply as Sallust, (86-34 BC), a Roman historian, belonged to a well-known plebeian family, and was born at Amiternum in the country of the Sabines. Year 86 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome First Mithridatic War Year 34 BC was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Plebs were the general body of landowners of Roman Citizens in Ancient Rome. Amiternum, a traditional cradle of the Sabines is an ancient Sabine Prefecture in the Abruzzo region of modern Italy at 9 km from L'Aquila The Sabines ( Latin Sabini, Singular Sabinus) were an Italic tribe that lived in ancient Italy, inhabiting Throughout his career Sallus always stood by his principle as a populares, an opposer of Pompey's party and the old aristocracy of Rome. Populares ("favoring the people" singular popularis) were Aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who tended to use the Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and
After an ill-spent youth, Sallust entered public life and won election as Quaestor 55 and one of the tribunes of the people in 52, the year in which the followers of Milo killed Clodius in a street brawl. The cursus honorum ( Latin: "course of honors" or "honors race" was the sequential order of Public offices held by aspiring Year 55 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Marcus Licinius Crassus and Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the Year 52 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Titus Annius Milo Papianus was a Roman political agitator the son of Gaius Papius Celsus, but adopted by his maternal grandfather Titus Annius Luscus. Publius Clodius Pulcher (born around 92 BC died January 18, 52 BC was a Roman Politician of the Populares cause chiefly remembered for his Sallust then supported the following prosecution of Milo. He also had hostilities with the famous orator Cicero. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman
From the beginning of his public career, Sallust operated as a decided partisan of Caesar, to whom he owed such political advancement as he attained. In 50 the censor Appius Claudius Pulcher removed him from the Senate on the grounds of gross immorality (probably really because of his friendship for Caesar). Year 50 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Appius Claudius Pulcher was the name of several members of the Claudii during the Roman Republic: Appius Claudius Pulcher, consul of The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. In the following year, no doubt through Caesar's influence, he was reinstated and appointed Quaestor in 55. Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action Year 55 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Marcus Licinius Crassus and
In 46 he served as a praetor and accompanied Caesar in his African campaign, which ended in the decisive defeat of the remains of the Pompeian war party at Thapsus. Year 46 BC was the last year of the pre-Julian calendar. This year had 445 days due to the errors that had accumulated in the pre-Julian calendar Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before The Roman civil war of 49 BC sometimes called Caesar's Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman Republic. The Battle of Thapsus took place on April 6 46 BC near Thapsus (modern Ras Dimas, Tunisia) As a reward for his services, Sallust gained appointment as governor of the province of Africa Nova. Numidia (202 BC – 46 BC was an ancient Berber kingdom in present-day Algeria and part of Tunisia ( North Africa) that later alternated In this capacity he committed such oppression and extortion that only the influence of Caesar enabled him to escape condemnation. On his return to Rome he purchased and began laying out in great splendour the famous gardens on the Quirinal known as the Horti Sallustiani or Gardens of Sallust. The Quirinal Hill (Latin Collis Quirinalis) is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center The Gardens of Sallust ( Latin: Horti Sallustiani) were Roman gardens developed by the Roman historian Sallust in the 1st century These gardens would later belong to the emperors.
Sallust then retired from public life and devoted himself to historical literature, and further developing his Gardens of Sallust, upon which he spent much of his accumulated wealth. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions The Gardens of Sallust ( Latin: Horti Sallustiani) were Roman gardens developed by the Roman historian Sallust in the 1st century
Sallust's account of the Catiline conspiracy (De coniuratione Catilinae or Bellum Catilinae) and of the Jugurthine War (Bellum Jugurthinum) have come down to us complete, together with fragments of his larger and most important work (Historiae), a history of Rome from 78-67 BC, intended as a continuation of Cornelius Sisenna's work. Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC–62 BC known in English as Catiline, was a Roman Politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the The Jugurthine War takes its name from Jugurtha, nephew and later adopted son of Micipsa, King of Numidia. Year 78 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome In Rome, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus Events By place Rome Consuls Manius Acilius Glabrio and Gaius Calpurnius Piso. Lucius Cornelius Sisenna (ca 120 BC - 67 BC was a Roman soldier historian and annalist.
The Conspiracy of Catiline (Sallust's first published work) contains the history of the memorable year 63. Year 63 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Pompey conquers Phonecia, Coele-Syria Sallust adopts the usually accepted view of Catiline, and describes him as the deliberate foe of law, order and morality, and does not give a comprehensive explanation of his views and intentions. Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC–62 BC known in English as Catiline, was a Roman Politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings (Note that Catiline had supported the party of Sulla, which Sallust had opposed. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c ) Mommsen's suggestion — that Sallust particularly wished to clear his patron (Caesar) of all complicity in the conspiracy — may have contained some truth. Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen ( 30 November 1817 &ndash 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, For the fictional "charm" which is mentioned in the Harry Potter series of novels see Patronus Charm Latin translation
In writing about the conspiracy of Catiline, Sallust's tone, style, and descriptions of aristocratic behavior show him as deeply troubled by the moral decline of Rome. While he inveighs against Catiline's depraved character and vicious actions, he does not fail to state that the man had many noble traits — indeed all that a Roman man needed to succeed. In particular, Sallust shows Catiline as deeply courageous in his final battle.
This subject gave Sallust the opportunity of showing off his rhetoric at the expense of the old Roman aristocracy, whose degeneracy he delighted to paint in the blackest colours. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice On the whole, he does not treat Cicero unfairly. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman
Sallust's Jugurthine War is a brief monograph recording the war in Numida. The Helmeted Guineafowl ( Numida meleagris) is the best known of the Guineafowl Bird family Numididae, and the only member of the genus Its true value lies in the introduction of Marius and Sulla to the Roman political scene and the beginning of their rivalry. Sallust's time as governor of Africa Nova ought to have let the author develop a solid geographical and ethnographical background to the war, however, this is not evident in the monograph despite a diversion on the subject because Sallust's priority in the "Jugurthine War", as with the "Catiline Conspiracy", is to use history as a vehicle for his judgement on the slow destruction of Roman morality and politics.
The extant fragments of the Histories (some discovered in 1886) show sufficiently well the political partisan, who took a keen pleasure in describing the reaction against Sulla's policy and legislation after the dictator's death. Historians regret the loss of the work, as it must have thrown much light on a very eventful period, embracing the war against Sertorius (died 72 BC), the campaigns of Lucullus against Mithradates VI of Pontus (75 - 66 BC), and the victories of Pompey in the East (66 - 62 BC). Quintus Sertorius ( 123 BC - 72 BC) was a Roman statesman and general born in Nursia, in Sabine territory around 124 BC For his grandfather and namesake see Lucius Licinius Lucullus. See Mithridates for people and concepts with the same name Mithridates VI (Μιθριδάτης 132&ndash63 BC also known as Mithridates Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation
Two letters (Duae epistolae de republica ordinanda), letters of political counsel and advice addressed to Caesar, and an attack upon Cicero (Invectiva or Declamatio in Ciceronem), frequently attributed to Sallust, are thought by modern scholars to have probably come from the pen of the rhetorician Marcus Porcius Latro, also the supposed author of a counter-invective attributed to Cicero. Marcus Porcius Latro (fl late 1st century BC) was during the reign of Augustus a celebrated Roman Rhetorician considered one of the founders of scholastic 
On the whole, antiquity looked favourably on Sallust as an historian. Tacitus speaks highly of him (Annals, iii. Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. The Annals, or in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the four Roman Emperors succeeding 30); and Quintilian, although regarding him as inferior to Livy (ii.5), does not hesitate to put him on a level with Thucydides (x.1). Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (ca 35 – ca 100 was a Roman Rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome Thucydides ( C 460 BC &ndash C 395 BC) ( Greek Θουκυδίδης Thoukydídēs) was a Greek
Sallust struck out for himself practically a new line in literature, his predecessors having functioned as little better than mere dry-as-dust chroniclers, whereas he endeavoured to explain the connection and meaning of events and successfully delineated character. Generally a chronicle (chronica from Greek (from) is a historical account of facts and events in chronological order The contrast between his early life and the high moral tone adopted by him in his writings has frequently made him a subject of reproach, but history gives no reason why he should not have reformed.
In any case, his knowledge of his own former weaknesses may have led him to take a pessimistic view of the morality of his fellow-men, and to judge them severely. He took as his model Thucydides, whom he imitated in his truthfulness and impartiality, in the introduction of philosophizing reflections and speeches, and in the brevity of his style, sometimes bordering upon obscurity. Some readers have ridiculed his fondness for old words and phrases (in which he imitated his contemporary Cato the younger) as an affectation, but this very affectation and his rhetorical exaggerations made Sallust a favourite author in the 2nd century and later. Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC&ndash46 BC known as Cato the Younger ( Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather ( Cato the Elder The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
Nietzsche, in Twilight of the Idols (Section 13. 1) credits Sallust for his epigrammatic style: "My sense of style, for the epigram as a style, was awakened almost instantly when I came into contact with Sallust. " and praises him for being "compact, severe, with as much substance as possible, a cold sarcasm against 'beautiful words' and 'beautiful sentiments'. "
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to Digitize, archive and distribute Cultural works The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone