sRGB is a standard RGB (Red Green Blue) color space created cooperatively by HP and Microsoft for use on monitors, printers, and the Internet. An RGB color space is any additive Color space based on the RGB color model. Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks
sRGB uses the ITU-R BT.709-5 primaries, the same as are used in studio monitors and HDTV, and a transfer function (gamma curve) typical of CRTs. ITU-R Recommendation BT709, more commonly know by the abbreviations Rec High-definition television (HDTV is a Digital television Broadcasting system with higher resolution than traditional television systems (standard-definition Gamma correction, gamma nonlinearity, gamma encoding, or often simply gamma, is the name of a nonlinear operation used to code and decode luminance This specification allows sRGB to be directly displayed on typical monitors, a factor which greatly aided its acceptance.
Unlike most other RGB color spaces, the sRGB gamma can not be expressed as a single numerical value. An RGB color space is any additive Color space based on the RGB color model. Gamma correction, gamma nonlinearity, gamma encoding, or often simply gamma, is the name of a nonlinear operation used to code and decode luminance The overall gamma is approximately 2. 2, consisting of a linear (gamma 1. 0) section near black, and a non-linear section elsewhere involving a 2. 4 exponent and a gamma (slope of log output versus log input) changing from 1. 0 through about 2. 3.
The sRGB color space has been endorsed by the W3C, Exif, Intel, Pantone, Corel, and many other industry players, and is well accepted and supported by Free Software such as GIMP, and is used in proprietary and open graphics file formats such as SVG. Exchangeable image file format ( Exif) is a specification for the Image File format used by Digital cameras The specification uses the existing Pantone Inc is a corporation headquartered in Carlstadt, New Jersey, USA Corel Corporation is a Canadian Computer software company headquartered in Ottawa, Canada Free software or software libre is Software that can be used studied and modified without restriction and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified The GNU Image Manipulation Program, or GIMP, is a free Raster graphics editor used to process digital graphics and photographs Image file formats are standardized means of organising and storing images
The sRGB color space is well-specified, and is designed to match typical home and office viewing conditions, rather than the darker environment typically used for commercial color matching.
Nearly all software was and is designed with the assumption that an 8-bit-per-channel image file placed unchanged onto an 8-bit-per-channel display will appear much as the sRGB specification dictates. LCDs, digital cameras, printers, and scanners all follow the sRGB standard. Digital photography is a form of Photography that utilizes Digital technology to make Digital images of subjects Devices which do not naturally follow sRGB (as was the case for older CRT monitors) include compensating circuitry or software so that in the end they also obey this standard. For this reason, one can generally assume, in the absence of embedded profiles or any other information, that any 8-bit-per-channel image file, or any 8-bit-per-channel image API or device interface, can be treated as being in the sRGB color space. When an RGB color space with a larger gamut is needed, color management usually must be employed to map image data to appear correctly on the display.
sRGB defines the chromaticities of the red, green, and blue primaries, the colors where one of the three channels is nonzero and the other two are zero. Primary colors are sets of Colors that can be combined to make a useful range ( Gamut) of colors The gamut of chromaticities that can be represented in sRGB is the color triangle defined by these primaries. In color reproduction including Computer graphics and Photography, the gamut, or color gamut (pronounced /ˈgæmət/ is a certain complete A color triangle is an arrangement of Colors within a Triangle, based on the additive combination of three Primary colors at its corners As with any RGB color space, for non-negative values of R, G, and B it is not possible to represent colors outside this triangle, which is well inside the range of colors visible to a human. An RGB color space is any additive Color space based on the RGB color model.
|x||0. In the study of the perception of Color, one of the first mathematically defined Color spaces was the CIE 1931 XYZ color space (also known as CIE 1931 color space 6400||0. 3000||0. 1500||0. 3127|
|y||0. 3300||0. 6000||0. 0600||0. 3290|
|z||0. 0300||0. 1000||0. 7900||0. 3583|
sRGB also defines a nonlinear transformation between the intensity of these primaries and the actual number stored. The curve is similar to the gamma response of a CRT display. It is more important to replicate this curve than the primaries to get correct display of an sRGB image. This nonlinear conversion means that sRGB is a reasonably efficient use of the values in an integer-based image file to display human-discernible light levels.
sRGB is sometimes avoided by high-end print publishing professionals because its color gamut is not big enough, especially in the blue-green colors, to include all the colors that can be reproduced in CMYK printing. CMYK (short for '''c'''yan, '''m'''agenta, '''y'''ellow, and k ey ( Black) and often referred to as process color See RGB color space for the view that Adobe RGB is a preferred color space for publishing. An RGB color space is any additive Color space based on the RGB color model. The Adobe RGB color space is an RGB color space developed by Adobe Systems in 1998.
The first step in the calculation of sRGB tristimulus values from the CIE XYZ tristimulus values is a linear transformation, which may be carried out by a matrix multiplication. In the study of the perception of Color, one of the first mathematically defined Color spaces was the CIE 1931 XYZ color space (also known as CIE 1931 color space  Note that these linear values are not the final result.
The intermediate parameters Rlinear, Glinear and Blinear for in-gamut colors are defined to be in the range [0,1], which means that the initial X, Y, and Z values need to be similarly scaled (if you start with XYZ values going to 100 or so, divide them by 100 first, or apply the matrix and then scale by a constant factor to the [0,1] range). In the study of the perception of Color, one of the first mathematically defined Color spaces was the CIE 1931 XYZ color space (also known as CIE 1931 color space Luminance is a photometric measure of the density of Luminous intensity in a given direction The linear RGB values are usually clipped to that range, with display white represented as (1,1,1); the corresponding original XYZ values are such that white is D65 with unit luminance (X,Y,Z = 0. CIE Standard Illuminant D65 (sometimes written D65) is a commonly-used Standard illuminant defined by the International Commission on Illumination 9505, 1. 0000, 1. 0890). Calculations assume the 2° standard colorimetric observer. In the study of the perception of Color, one of the first mathematically defined Color spaces was the CIE 1931 XYZ color space (also known as CIE 1931 color space 
sRGB was designed to reflect a typical real-world monitor with a gamma of 2. 2, and the following formula transforms the linear values into sRGB. Let Clinear be Rlinear, Glinear, or Blinear, and Csrgb be Rsrgb,Gsrgb or Bsrgb:
These gamma corrected values are in the range 0 to 1. If values in the range 0 to 255 are required, e. g. for video display or 8-bit graphics, the usual technique is to multiply by 255 and round to an integer.
Again the sRGB component values Rsrgb, Gsrgb, Bsrgb are in the range 0 to 1. (A range of 0 to 255 can simply be divided by 255).
or, expressed in other terms
where γ = 2. 4 and φ = 12. 92
The transformation was designed to approximate a gamma of about 2. Gamma correction, gamma nonlinearity, gamma encoding, or often simply gamma, is the name of a nonlinear operation used to code and decode luminance 2, but with a linear portion near zero to avoid having an infinite slope at K = 0, which can cause numerical problems. The condition that g(K) match at some K0 is
where (using γ = 2. 4) the standard value of φ = 12. 92 which was used above, yields , and this is the transformation used. If we impose the condition that the slope match as well then we must have
We now have two equations. If we take the two unknowns to be K0 and φ then we can solve to give and . These values, with corresponding linear-domain threshold at K0 / φ = 0. 00304, are sometimes used to describe sRGB conversion.  Publications by sRGB's creators used this K0, but rounded φ to 12. 92, resulting in a small discontinuity in the curve. Some authors adopted these values in spite of the discontinuity.  For the standard, the rounded φ=12. 92 was kept and the K0 value was recomputed to make the resulting curve continuous, as described above, resulting in a slope discontinuity from 12. 92 below the intersection to 12. 70 above.
|Luminance level||80 cd/m2|
|Illuminant white point||x = 0. 3127, y = 0. 3291 (D65)|
|Image surround reflectance||20% (~medium gray)|
|Encoding ambient illuminance level||64 lux|
|Encoding ambient white point||x = 0. 3457, y = 0. 3585 (D50)|
|Encoding viewing flare||1. 0%|
|Typical ambient illuminance level||200 lux|
|Typical ambient white point||x = 0. 3457, y = 0. 3585 (D50)|
|Typical viewing flare||5. 0%|
The sRGB specification assumes a dimly-lit encoding (creation) environment with an ambient correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5000K. It is interesting to note that this differs from the CCT of the illuminant (D65). Using D50 for both would have made the white point of most photographic paper appear excessively blue.  The other parameters, such as the luminance level, are representative of a typical CRT monitor.
For optimal results, the ICC recommends using the encoding viewing environment (i. e. , dim, diffuse lighting) rather than the less-stringent typical viewing environment. 
As the recommended color space for the Internet, sRGB should be used for editing and saving all images intended for publication to the WWW; however, due to sRGB's somewhat limited gamut, images intended for professional printing via a fully color-managed workflow, e. Image editing encompasses the processes of altering Images whether they be digital photographs traditional analog photographs or Illustrations In color reproduction including Computer graphics and Photography, the gamut, or color gamut (pronounced /ˈgæmət/ is a certain complete g. , prepress output, should choose another color space such as Adobe RGB (1998), which allows for a wider gamut. Prepress is the term used in the Printing and Publishing industries for the processes and procedures that occur between the procurement of a written manuscript and The Adobe RGB color space is an RGB color space developed by Adobe Systems in 1998.
Images intended for the Internet and created in one of the other color spaces may be converted to sRGB when editing, using a suitable editing program, e. g. , Paint Shop Pro or Adobe Photoshop; ideally, the original non-sRGB file should be saved and the conversion to sRGB done on a copy, as some loss of image information occurs when converting to the narrower color space. Paint Shop Pro ( PSP) is a Raster graphics editor and later in the series a Vector graphics editor for computers running the Microsoft Windows
Due to the standardization of sRGB on the Internet, on computers, and on printers, many low- to medium-end consumer digital cameras and scanners use sRGB as the default (or only available) working color space. Many compact digital still cameras can record Sound and moving Video as well as still Photograph. Historical precedent Scanners can be considered the successors of early telephotography input devices consisting of a rotating drum with a single Photodetector at For other uses of the word see the Default disambiguation page Used in conjunction with an inkjet printer, an sRGB image produces what is often regarded as satisfactory for home use. Inkjet printers operate by propelling variably-sized droplets of liquid or molten material ( Ink) onto almost any sized page However, consumer-level camera LCDs are typically uncalibrated, meaning that even though the image is being labelled as sRGB, one can't conclude that the image is color-accurate on the LCD.
The two dominant programming interfaces for 3D graphics, OpenGL and Direct3D, have both incorporated sRGB. OpenGL ( Open G raphics L ibrary is a standard specification defining a cross-language Cross-platform API for writing applications that produce Direct3D is part of Microsoft 's DirectX API. Direct3D is only available for Microsoft's various Windows Operating systems ( Windows OpenGL 2. 1 incorporates sRGB textures first introduced by the EXT_texture_sRGB extension. OpenGL's EXT_framebuffer_sRGB extensionsupports rendering into framebuffers assuming either a linear or sRGB color space. DirectX 9 supports sRGB textures and rendering into sRGB surfaces using Direct3D. Microsoft DirectX is a collection of Application programming interfaces (APIs for handling tasks related to Multimedia, especially Game programming and