|Royal Munster Fusiliers|
"The Kaiser knows the Munsters,
by the Shamrock on their caps,
And the famous Bengal Tiger, ever ready for a scrap,
And all his big battalions, Prussion Guards and grenadiers,
Fear to face the flashing bayonets of the Munster Fusiliers. "
|Active||1881 - 1922|
|Country||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|
|March||Quick: The British Grenadiers|
St. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. The British Grenadiers is a marching song for the grenadier units of the British military dating from the 17th Century Patrick's Day
Won't You Come Home to Bom-Bombay
|Mascot||"Garry", an Irish wolfhound (1915-1922)|
|Battle honours||see text|
The Royal Munster Fusiliers was a regular Irish Infantry Regiment of the British Army. A battle honour is a military tradition practised in the Commonwealth countries of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists A regiment is a Military unit, composed of a variable number of Battalions – commanded by a Colonel. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. One of several Irish regiments raised and garrisoned in Ireland, it was originally formed in 1881 by the amalagamation of two regiments of the former East India Company. An Irish regiment is a Regiment (or similar military unit excluding those actually in the Irish Defence Forces, that at some time in its history has or had intentional The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or It served in India and the Great War until disbanded in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a Treaty In its history it had more Victoria Crosses to its name (eight) than any other Irish regiment. See below the section "Separate Commonwealth awards" Note that since
Its historic background goes back as far as 1652  , before it was reformed as part of a reorganization of the Army in 1881, from the 101st Regiment of Foot (Royal Bengal Fusiliers) and 104th Regiment of Foot (Bengal Fusiliers) and the Militia of Munster. The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service Munster ( Irish: An Mhumhain, ənˈvuːnʲ Cúige Mumhan or Mumha) is the southernmost of the four Provinces of Ireland. Both the Fusilier regiments had originated as "European" regiments of the East India Company (also known as "John's Company") and transferred to the British Army in 1861 when the British Crown had taken control of "John Company"'s private armies after the Indian rebellion of 1857. Fusilier was originally the name of a soldier armed with a light flintlock Musket called the fusil. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of Sepoys of British East India Company 's army on the 10th of May 1857 in the town of Meerut, Five of the European infantry battalions were given Irish territorial titles. The first and second RMF battalions were the former Bengal Fusilier regiments, the higher number battalions were the militia units.
The Childers Reforms linked regiments to recruiting areas - in this case the counties of Clare, Cork, Kerry, and Limerick. The Childers Reforms restructured the Infantry Regiments of the British army. County Clare ( Irish: Contae an Chláir) commonly referred to as simply Clare, is a county on Ireland and part of the wider County Cork (Contae Chorcaí is the most southerly and the largest of the modern counties of Ireland. County Kerry ( Contae Chiarraí in Irish) is a southwestern county of Ireland. County Limerick ( Contae Luimnigh in Irish) is a County in the Province of Munster, located in the mid-west of Ireland with County Militarily, the whole of Ireland was administered as a separate command with Command Headquarters at Parkgate (Phoenix Park) Dublin, directly under the War Office in London. The Phoenix Park (Páirc an Fhionn-Uisce is the largest enclosed urban public Park in Europe located 3 km to the north west of Dublin city centre in Ireland The War Office was a former department of the British Government, responsible for the administration of the British Army between the 17th century and 1963 when 
It consisted of two regular service and two reserve battalions prior to World War I. A battalion is a Military unit of around 500-1500 men usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All In August 1914 the need for further divisions resulted in the creation of a New Army. The New Army, often referred to as Kitchener's Army, was an (initially all-volunteer army formed in the United Kingdom following the outbreak of hostilities in Subsequently the Munsters had a total of 11 raised battalions. The Royal Munster Fusiliers was a peacetime Irish regiment of the Regular British Army up to the outbreak of World War I in August 1914 The Regiment was awarded 51 battle honours and three Victoria Crosses. A battle honour is a military tradition practised in the Commonwealth countries of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand See below the section "Separate Commonwealth awards" Note that since It suffered a total of 3,070 lost casualties.
In common with the other five Irish territorial regiments of the British Army located in former Southern Ireland, the remaining battalions of the Royal Munster Fusiliers were disbanded in July 1922 under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty with the founding of the Irish Free State. Southern Ireland (Deisceart Éireann was the short lived autonomous region (or Constituent country) of the United Kingdom established on 3 May The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a Treaty The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Many of its ex-servicemen and officers helped in establishing the newly formed Free State Force at the outbreak of the Irish Civil War. The Irish Army ( Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces ( Óglaigh na hÉireann) The Irish Civil War ( June 28 1922 &ndash May 24 1923) pitted supporters of the Anglo-Irish Treaty against its opponents
At the outbreak of war the 1st Munster’s (1RMF) battalion was acting as a regular garrison in Rangoon, Burma. Garrison (various spellings (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip" is the collective term for a body of Troops Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city and a former capital of Burma. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Their last home station had been Fermoy in 1899. Fermoy ( in County Cork, Ireland is a Town of some 5800 inhabitants environs included (2006 census situated on the River Blackwater in They arrived back at Avonmouth, UK in January 1915, and were entrained for Coventry where it was assigned to the 86th Brigade of the British 29th Division. Avonmouth is a port and suburb on the Severn Estuary, at the mouth of the River Avon. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Coventry ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in the County of West Midlands in England. The British 29th Division, known as the Incomparable Division, was a First World War regular army Infantry division formed in early 1915 In March it sailed for the Dardanelles, Turkey, when it numbered 28 officers and 1,002 other ranks. See also [[Hellespont]] The Dardanelles ( Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı Greek: Δαρδανέλλια Dardanellia) formerly Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches
Turkey had joined the Central Powers's side in November 1914, the object of the landing on the Dardanelles peninsula was to open the Dardanelles Strait in the Battle of Gallipoli to enable Allied relief convoys reach Russia. The Central Powers ( German: "Mittelmächte" Hungarian: "Központi hatalmak" Turkish: "İttifak See also [[Hellespont]] The Dardanelles ( Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı Greek: Δαρδανέλλια Dardanellia) formerly The Triple Entente (" entente " — French for "agreement" was the name given to the loose alignment of the United Kingdom, the Aboard the SS River Clyde , a converted collier with a capacity for over 2,000 men, they arrived on 25 April together with the 1st Battalion The Royal Dublin Fusiliers and some companies of the Royal Hampshires. The SS River Clyde was a 4000 ton collier built in Glasgow in 1905 and named after the River Clyde in Scotland. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. The Royal Dublin Fusiliers was an Irish Infantry Regiment of the British Army, one of eight Irish regiments raised and garrisoned "PWRR" redirects here For the railroad with these reporting marks see Portland and Western Railroad.
The ship ran gently ashore, its exit bows facing the beach, for what was to be the grossly mismanaged British "V" beach landing at Cape Helles. The landing at Cape Helles was part of the amphibious invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula by British and French forces on Small boats first carried companies of Dubliners to the beach, when four hidden Turkish machine gun posts opened fire and decimated them. Lighters to the shore were roped together, two companies of Munsters pouring out on to the bow’s gangway also to be 'literally slaughted like rats in a trap'.  Those who jumped to one side, drowned under their heavy equipment. The mutilation of these brave men continued until all boats and lighters were filled with dead and the bay a red sea of blood. The ship’s commanding officer on being informed that they were not succeeding, replied "in British military tradition, offensives once begun are never called off". That day the Munsters lost many of their longest serving veterans.
At daybreak next day just three companies of Munsters, two of Hampshires and one company Dubliners had made it to the shelter of some dunes. On the 26th they took fort Sedd-el-Bahr overlooking the bay, charging and taking the village behind. Sedd el Bahr (in modern Turkish Seddülbahir, meaning "Key of the Sea" is a village at Cape Helles on the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey It was in this attack that the heroic actions of William Cosgrove won the battalion’s first Victoria Cross (VC). William Cosgrove VC MSM ( 1 October 1888 &ndash 14 July 1936) born in Aghada, County Cork, was an See below the section "Separate Commonwealth awards" Note that since Turkish counter-attacks were held off. The 28th saw a renewed attack in the Battle for Krithia village, but by the 29th withdrawn due to heavy losses and amalgamated with the surviving Dublin Fusiliers, to form the "Dubsters" battalion of 8 officers and 770 men. The First Battle of Krithia was the first Allied advance of the Battle of Gallipoli during World War I.
On the night of 1 May the Turks, almost out of munition but sporned by the then young Ataturk carried out a tremendous attack "before we knew it began" . Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 &ndash 10 November 1938 was an army officer revolutionary Statesman Bayoneting on both sides was terrible. At dawn the Turks were mowed down, mounds of bodies and streams of blood remaining everywhere. The battalion was reduced to 4 officers and 430 men, who attempted further attacks the following days, but by the 11th were down to 372 men. Receiving new drafts on 29 May, the Munsters and Dubliners were separate units again, the Munsters by 4 June numbering 40 officers and 500 other ranks, though handicapped by the new recruits being much too young and inexperienced. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Shelling absolutely demoralised them. They withheld a further attack on 17 June killing 300 Turks. Events 1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II ( The Night Attack) forcing him to retreat New drafts replenished officers to 23, other ranks to 588. They took part in the Divisions assault on 28 June securing five trench lines. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. This provoked a general attack by the Turkish side along the Cape Helles front on 5 July, the Turks losing heavily. Events 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England.
Into the middle of July, taking trenches, losing and retaking them again, continued on both sides. More new drafts arrived to replace casualties, but this did not relieve the intense hunger, thirst and exhaustion suffered much of the time. A month’s rest was promised on 15 July, but by 22 July they were back in action, their strength around 500 of whom only 3 officers and 314 men remained from those who first landed on 25 April. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final Events 1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. The climax came with the Sulva attack on 21 August in the Battle of Scimitar Hill, the last great battle of the campaign, the Turks inflicting severe casualties, the scrub bushes then catching fire killing many wounded and others taking cover. Events 1192 - Minamoto Yoritomo becomes Seii Tai Shōgun and the De facto ruler of Japan. The Battle of Scimitar Hill ( Yusufçuk Tepe) was the last offensive mounted by the British at Suvla during the Battle of Gallipoli in The unsuccessful attack cost the Munsters 79 men and three officers that day alone.
There was little further action other than holding front lines from September through November, when the weather worsened. Late in the month gales swept over the peninsula, hundreds were drowned in the flooded trenches or from exposure or frostbite, followed on 28 November by a blizzard. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events The Battalion was evacuated as it arrived, on the River Clyde sailing 2 January 1916 for Alexandria. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια From there it sailed with the rest of the 29th Division arriving in France on 22 March. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Three years of warfare still remained for the battalion in France and Flanders on the Western Front. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. See Western Front (disambiguation for other meanings Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World It had already suffered 45% of its total losses for the entire war, and numbered 24 officers and 287 men when disembarking.
The 1RMF were in the front lines again on 23 April at the Somme sector, slowly building up strength to 26 officers and 476 men. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at The Somme is a department of France, located in the north of the country and named after the Somme river. On 29 May it was assigned to the 48th Brigade of the 16th (Irish) Division at Béthune and were reinforced by members from the disbanded 9th RMF, bringing the Battalion up to full strength. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Béthune (Betun is a city and commune of northern France, sous-préfecture of the Pas-de-Calais département They remained in the area of the Loos salient into August with some intermittent casualties. The 16th Irish Division was ordered south of the Somme battlefield, the 1RMF entering the line facing the strategic town of Ginchy on 5 September having suffered 200 previous casualties by gas-shelling on the way. Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. It took part in the ensuing attack and triumphant capture of Ginchy by the 16th Division but at a high cost for its battalions, the 1RMF reduced to 5 officers and 305 other ranks. The Battle of Ginchy took place on 9 September, 1916 during the Battle of the Somme when the British 16th (Irish Division captured the A London newspaper headlined How the Irish took Ginchy - Spendid daring of the Irish troops
The battalion was then moved northwards to the South of Ypres in Belgium and absorbed the 8th RMF on 23. Ypres ( French, generally used in English French ipʁ English ˈiːprə Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced /ˈiːpər/ or Ypern The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those November to bring it up to a strength of 48 officers and 1,069 men by 1 December. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Christmas 1916 was spent in the trenches, but as the New Year arrived, an official report relates "as if by mutual consent both sides ceased fire a minute or two before the close of the old year. On the stroke of midnight the pipers tuned up and gave us The Old Year out and the New Year in , A Nation Once Again ,God Save Ireland , and a few more songs of the old country, N. "A Nation Once Again" is a Song, written in the early to mid-1840s by Thomas Osborne Davis (1814-1845 " God Save Ireland " was the unofficial national anthem of the Irish Republic and the Irish Free State from 1919 to 1926 when it was displaced by the official C. O. s and men joining lustily in the choruses".
Up to the middle of March rotating routine trench duties continued with light casualties (2 officers and 20 men killed). The battalion rehearsed special training during April and May for the assault on the strategic Messines Ridge. The Battle of Messines was a battle of the western front of World War I. The begin of the Flanders offensive began at 3. 10am on 7 June 1917 with the detonation of nineteen huge mines previously burrowed under the German lines. Events 1099 - The First Crusade: The Siege of Jerusalem begins Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year There followed the advance of the 16th Irish Division opposite the village of Wytschaete, to the right the 36th (Ulster) Division opposite the village of Messines, the largest ever concentration of Irish soldiers on a battlefield. The 36th (Ulster Division was a division of Lord Kitchener's New Army formed in September 1914 Their advance across awful county has been reported by all who saw it as a sight never to be forgotten, a captured German officer stated that they moved as if on parade.
The 1RMF took all its objectives on schedule despite the loss of nearly all of its supporting tanks. The subsequent battle was a complete success militarily, the two divisions showing great fortitude -- the Germans no match for them as they mopped up all resistance, advancing over two miles in a few days with minimal losses, incredible by Western Front standards. Casualties were low in an action which was one of the most successful of the battalion’s actions, resulting from thorough planning, training and good leadership. It was then relieved, and returned to the Ypres salient front section in August. Continuous rain turned the battlefront into a sea of mud causing a multitude of casualties and failure to take specific positions reducing it to 37 officers and 701 men. Suffering less than other battalions, the battalion was moved with its Division back south into France where it built up to 1,089 all ranks.
The 16th (Irish) Division took up positions north of the main attack in the first Battle of Cambrai which opened on 21 November with the use of over 450 British tanks. The Battle of Cambrai ( 20 November - 3 December 1917) was a British campaign of World War I. The 1RMF advanced with such speed that only one enemy machine gun post was manned in time to open fire, which was taken with one loss. Considering the capture of a difficult object without tank support and taking 170 prisoners, losses were light, and followed previously unsuccessful attempts by other units during the Summer. The 1RMF’s final front tour ended on 2 December when the Division was moved south to take over a French section. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire From January through to March the battalion was involved in various engagements with snow, frost and mud. By St. Patrick’s day it became clear that the Germans were gaining the initiative and their forecasted “Big Move” was awaited.
On 21 March 1918 the German Army launched its largest offensive of the war, the devastating Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht, with 65 divisions along 54 miles of the British front. Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht ( Kaiser's Battle) and also known as the Ludendorff Offensive was a series of German attacks along the The 1RMF was fortunate to be in reserve as the Germans opened with a gas-bombardment. By next day the battalion was heavily engaged, the enemy using a new zigzag attack strategy. The battalion retaliated but was forced to withdraw and were quickly down to 7 officers and 450 men. There was then a general withdrawal across the Somme at Peronne where it reorganised itself into two companies of 170 men. The German offensive had decimated the 1RMF to a shadow of its previous strength. The 16th (Irish) Division was reduced to cadre having suffered the heaviest losses of any British division in the March retreat. The 1RMF was transferred to the 57th (2nd W.Lancs) Division which had not seen action since its arrival in February 1917. The 57th (2nd West Lancashire Division was a British Army unit created in 1914 as part of the massive expansion of the British military during World War I.
The battalion was glad to leave the 16th Div. , due to “rotten staffwork”, entering the lines again in May at Gommecourt , a quiet sector during the Summer. The arrondissement of Mantes-la-Jolie is an arrondissement of France, located in the Yvelines département, in the Île-de-France On 27. August it again entered the line for an attack near Croisilles taking enemy support trenches on the Hindenburg Line in half an hour with some losses. Croisilles is a commune and chief town of a canton in the Pas-de-Calais département in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region The Hindenburg Line (also known as the Siegfried Line) was a vast system of defences in northeastern France during World War I. Then came the assault of 2 September when Martin Doyle won the battalion’s second VC on the Drocourt-Queant Line south of the river Scarpe, suffering 350 casualties. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Martin Doyle VC, MM ( 25 October, 1891 - 20 November, 1940) born in New Ross, County Wexford was an Quéant is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais département in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France. The Scarpe is a River in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, left tributary of the Scheldt. The battalion was relieved and received replacements and was trained in preparation for the assault on the Cambrai to St. Quentin line. Cambrai (Dutch Kamerijk; old spelling Cambray) is a French town and commune, in the Nord département, The Battle of Mont St Quentin was a battle on the Western Front during World War I. With a 3,000 yard advance on 27 September Graincourt was captured. Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again The arrondissement of Arras is an arrondissement of France located in the Pas-de-Calais département, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais The Germans counter-attacked recapturing many positions. The battalion remained under shellfire even behind the lines and was reduced to 7 officers and 261 men by 3 October. Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's
The battalion supported the attack of 8 October on Cambrai, which was found to be evacuated the following day. Events 314 - Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses The Germans were in disorganised retreat. The 57th Division was then sent North to Armentieres, the battalion entering the line on 17 October, with no resistance. Armentières is a commune in the Nord department in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region in northern France. Events 539 BC - King Cyrus The Great of Persia marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost The following day Lille was captured. Lille (lil Rijsel is a city in northern France. It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in the country The battalion provided a guard of honour for the French President’s visit to Lille on 21 October. Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. The 1RMF was billeted in Lille until the Armistice of 11 November 1918. The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918 Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The 1st Battalion RMF remained a predominantly Irish battalion to the end, composed of many Dublin Fusiliers from May 1918. During the war at least 43 officers and 869 other ranks died in action with the battalion. It was demobilised in December reducing it to 13 officers and 89 others. In May 1919 after returning to England it absorbed the 3rd RMF at Plymouth. Plymouth ( is a city and unitary authority area on the coast of Devon, England about south west of London. It left for Silesia in September 1921, returning the following April to be disbanded in July 1922, ending a history going back 250 years. Etymology One theory claims that the name Silesia is derived from the Silingi, who were most likely a Vandalic (East Germanic people
The share of the battalion in the campaign on the Western Front is in many respects unique. See Western Front (disambiguation for other meanings Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Landing with the British Expeditionary Force, it was never out of earshot of the front line during the fifty-one months the war lasted. The British Expeditionary Force ( BEF) was the British army sent to the Western Front in France and Belgium on the outbreak of Thirteen times in the campaign it went into battle up to strength, or nearly so (+/- 1000); ten times it came out of action with less than 6 officers and 300 men all ranks. On five occasions it was surrounded by the enemy and cut off from all support; on four of these it cut its way through and joined up again; on the fifth it engaged an entire Army Corps of the enemy for over twelve hours. On seven different occasions it captured the objectives of adjacent units, as well as its own. (H. S. Jervis, The 2nd RMF in France, 1922).
The battalion had been stationed at Aldershot , England since 1912 having been previously stationed in Ireland. Aldershot is a town in the English County of Hampshire, located on heathland about 60 km (37 miles southwest of London. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland It was part of the 1st Army Brigade of the British 1st Division , and provided mainly their best trained men for the 1st Battalion RMF, a situation they were not happy with. At the outbreak of war it was under strength, reservists travelling from the regimental depots at Tralee and Fermoy amid much local cheering, 485 out of 703, to join the battalion at Aldershot bringing it up to a strength of 27 officers and 971 other ranks for its departure to France on the 13 August 1914. Tralee (Trá Lí (or Tráigh Lí is the county town of County Kerry, in the southwest corner of Ireland. Fermoy ( in County Cork, Ireland is a Town of some 5800 inhabitants environs included (2006 census situated on the River Blackwater in Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
The Germans were pushing their advance when on 27 August the 2RMF was chosen for the arduous task of forming the rearguard to cover the retreat of the 1st Division during the Battle of Mons. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan For the ancient Roman campaign see Battle of Mons Algidus. The Battle of Mons was the first major action of the British Expeditionary Force The Munsters were only to retreat if ordered. They made an epic stand losing 9 officers and 87 other ranks holding out in a renouned action at the village of Etreux, many others surrounded and taken prisoner. They stemmed the Germans who were five or six times their strength for over a day, allowing their division to escape. When the scattered battalion reassembled on 29 August it was down to a disastrous 5 officers and 196 others. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) These were withdrawn, seeing action most notably at Langemarck , Belgium on 22 October. Langemark is a town in the Belgian province of West Flanders, part of the Municipality of Langemark-Poelkapelle. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Events 202 BC - Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus By 5 November, recruits from home brought its strength up to over 800 men. Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany)
They next saw action near Zillebeke , Belgium on 12 November and helped to defend against the last great German effort in the First Battle of Ypres. Zillebeke is a village in the Flemish province of West-Vlaanderen in Belgium Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days The First Battle of Ypres, also called the Battle of Flanders, was the last major battle of the first year of World War I (1914 From 15 November as snows began they drove off further attacks, trench warfare now becoming dominant. Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static Early December they aided in the evacuation of the Ypres Benedictine Convent, whose occupants subsequently established Kylemore Abbey in Connemara, Ireland. Ypres ( French, generally used in English French ipʁ English ˈiːprə Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced /ˈiːpər/ or Ypern Kylemore Abbey (Mainistir na Coille Móire is a Benedictine monastery founded in 1920 on the grounds of Kylemore Castle in Connemara, County Galway Connemara (in Irish: Conamara) which derives from Conmhaicne Mara (meaning descendants of Con Mhac of the sea is a district in the west of
The battalion was moved south to the Festubert sector in France, after a 36 hour march were ordered on 22 November to fill a gap by taking two lines of trenches. Festubert is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais département in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran There were 200 casualties in the first 10 minutes of heavy fire. Withdrawing in total exhaustion on the next day, many wounded drowned in water-filled shell holes. Throughout Christmas and New Year they were fully occupied maintaining the trenches. On 25 January, the Kaiser’s birthday the Germans tried unsuccessfully to break through with terrific shellfire. Events 41 - After a night of negotiation Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate There then followed three months of rebuilding and training the battalion when it numbered 28 officers and 700 other ranks in May. Only four of the officers were pre-war.
The 2RMF next role was participating in the Franco-British Battle of Aubers Ridge, in the area of the March attack at Neuve Chapelle. See also Battle of Hill 60 (Gallipoli The Battle of Hill 60 was a British assault that was subsidiary to the Battle of Neuve Chapelle. Neuve-Chapelle is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais département in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France. The day before the attack of 9 May 1915 the battalion received Absolution from their chaplain (depicted in the famous Matania painting). Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The British bombardment began at 5 a. m. , the Munsters then pressing forward with extraordinary bravery, German fire sweeping No-Mans-Land, some Munsters audaciously charging ahead through the German lines , briefly waving a green flag on its breastwork, then moving beyond until cut off by the British artillery bombardment that followed, which killed many sheltering in shell craters.
By 11 a. m. the 2RMF was withdrawn forming 3 officers and 200 men having lost 19 and 370 respectively. It was one of only two battalions to reach the German lines. But suffered the regiments highest loss of any one day of the war, 11 officers and 140 men killed in action. It was an unsuccessful day for the British forces overall, casualties exceeding 11,000, the devastating losses exposing the British forces weakness in artillery. Morale was subsequently at a low ebb.
The summer was relatively quiet after the battalion moved in June to the Loos sector. Various tours and shell attacks brought some casualties in July and August. Other battalions were being withdrawn to reinforce the Gallipoli campaign, no reinforcements or recruits arriving, keeping the battalion weak as the Loos offensive began on 25 September 1915. The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year At first in reserve they then had to hold the line with over 200 casualties, leaving the 2RMF with around 350 all ranks, reduced to 250 by the time the battle died down on 13 October. Events 54 - Nero ascends to the Roman throne 409 - Vandals and Alans crossed the Pyrenees A month later on 15 November John Redmond M. Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. John Edward Redmond (Seán Éamonn Mac Réamoinn (1 September 1856 &ndash 6 March 1918 was an Irish nationalist Politician, Barrister, MP P. , the Irish leader, visited the lines, promising to fill the depleted 2RMF with Irish recruits.
There followed three months of bitter winter in appalling trench conditions, spades, shovels and picks more in use than weapons. New young recruits began arriving, but in the relative inactivity, sixty five men were hit by harassing random fire. Forty went down with frost bite and trench fever in the Arctic weather. The Arctic is the Region around the Earth 's North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. In May the 2RMF received many of the personnel from the disbanded 9RMF, bringing it up to strength for the summer campaign. The first noteworthy operation was the Lievin raid on 25 June into which much preparation had been put, a VC. Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians being awarded to Lieutenant Arthur Batten-Pooll, though losses were heavy with 5 officers and 60 other ranks (2 and 12 resp. Arthur Hugh Henry-Batten-Pooll VC MC (25 October 1891-21 January 1971 was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious killed).
The battalion was transferred with its Division down to the Somme in July for the opening of the Battle of the Somme, entering the lines on 14 July capturing its objectives two days later, and repulsing the German counter attack on 18 July, in all with an officer and 26 men killed, 127 wounded and 50 gassed. The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, fought from July to November 1916 was among the largest battles of the First World War Events 1223 - Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father Philip II of France. Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, They were in reserve until 20 August, when they entered the lines again for steady fighting but ran into heavy off-target and ineffective British bombardment, killing 4 officers and 29 other ranks. Events 636 - Battle of Yarmouk: Arab forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid take control of Syria and Palestine A continual toll of casualties made September a costly month. After a months break in October, the 2RMF returned to the Somme for maintenance duties, then into front-line trenches full of mud from 27 November onwards, with steady frost bite and raids continuing to the end of December. Events 1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont
Throughout the Somme campaign the 2RMF retained its local and Irish character. They were in the front trenches again in February at Barleux when a thaw turned everything into a sea of mud. Barleux is a commune in the Somme département in the Picardy region of France. In March the first major event was the German withdrawal from the old Somme battlefield to their new Hindenburg Line. The Hindenburg Line (also known as the Siegfried Line) was a vast system of defences in northeastern France during World War I. The battalion followed across the Somme, but was held up removing mines and booby-traps and repairing communications into May. They then moved to near Nieuwpoort in Flanders for an intended amphibious landing with an impressive 43 officers and 1,070 men which was aborted by a surprise German attack on 10. Nieuwpoort is a Municipality located in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium, and in the Flemish province of West Flanders Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. July. They went through severe shelling and gas. The division was moved to Dunkirk for another attempt near Zeebrugge to link with a land offensive through Passchendaele, also cancelled when not gaining enough footing. Dunkirk ( French: Dunkerque, dœ̃kɛʀk or; Dutch:; is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the Zeebrugge ( Dutch: Zeebrugge, French: Zeebruges, "Seabruges" in literal translation is a village on the coast of Belgium "Passchendaele" redirects here For the 2008 film by that name see Passchendaele (film The 1917 Battle of Passchendaele, also known as
By 6 November 1917 the 2RMF now numbered 20 officers and 630 other ranks when it arrived at Irish Farm in the Ypres salient. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The ground was a quagmire full of water-logged shell-holes after four months of battle. It was to be the last British effort of the Passchendaele campaign. The 2RMF was to be one of two battalions leading the 1st Division’s attack at 6 a. m. on 10 November. Events 1444 - Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka Ulaszlo I of Hungary and Wladyslaw Weighed down with equipment they waded waist deep through mud and water, initially taking all objectives within 45 minutes. Seeing the progress by the Canadians on the right they pressed on. Land Force Command ( LFC) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Forces. The artillery support requested to break up the enemy landed as so often on the battalion's extended positions. The South Welch Borders advance had left a gap the Germans made use of to cut off most of the 2RMF. The Welch Regiment (or "The Welch" was a British Army Regiment from 1881 to 1969. Three hours later saw only 7 officers and 240 other ranks present. 12 and 393 having become casualties. The battalion was railed out to Brielleu for the rest of the year.
By the end of January 1918 the 2RMF numbered up 44 officers and 823 men O. R. s. , and was transferred to the 48th Brigade of the 16th (Irish) Division on 3 February near Peronne where it entered the lines a week later, the Division now under the inadequate command of General Hubert Gough. Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states General Sir Hubert de la Poer Gough, GCB, GCMG, KCVO (12 August 1870 &ndash 1963 was a British World War I general who The next great initiative was expected from the Germans after their victory on the eastern front giving them a superiority of numbers in the west. The British front was at its lengthiest when the German March "Spring Offensive" (Kaiserschlacht) opened with a devastating bombardment early on 21 March from 4. The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht ( Kaiser's Battle) and also known as the Ludendorff Offensive was a series of German attacks along the Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. 15am until noon after which a fierce attack by fresh troops was launched. The battalion suffered badly from the shelling but held the Germans up all night, before they broke through and overwhelmed the Munsters who dashed to retreat, some few making it to a high ridge trench, there driven out and retiring to Epehy by dark, fog having allowed the Germans to infiltrate easily. Épehy is a commune in the Somme department and Picardie region of France. Next day the battalion was withdrawn to Tincourt where the depleted 16th (Irish) Division was concentrated, the 2RMF now numbering only 290 other ranks, from 629 the day before. On 22 March the battalion crossed back over the Somme at Péronne. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Péronne is a commune of the Somme département, in France. It is close to where the Battles of the Somme took place
By 25 March the battalion had lost 27 officers and 550 men, as the rest tried to reform, holding off several attacks and near encirlements, they formed a 400 man column and attempted a night retreat, half reaching friendly positions next morning at Hamel. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Hamel may refer to Hamel Western Australia, town Hamel Nord, a commune of the Nord département in northern France Undergoing further bombardment they attempted to retake positions lost, which reduced them further until the remaining 3 officers and 93 men had to be withdrawn into a reserve position. Merely 2 officers and 42 O. R. reinforcements joined them on 3 April. Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. The 2RMF was largely destroyed by the German offensive losing 36 officers and 796 O. R. s since 21 March. Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. It moved northwards to amalgamate with the equally hard hit 1RMF at Inghem on 14 April when the resulting unit numbered 28 officers and 896 O. Inghem is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais département in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France. Events 43 BC - Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Julius Caesar 's assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in R. s. The 2RMF was reduced to a training cadre of 11 officers who left the 16th (Irish) Division to provide instruction for newly arrived American units. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities.
The battalion began reconstruction on 7 June 1918 when most of the 6RMF who had returned from Palestine were transferred to the 2RMF. Events 1099 - The First Crusade: The Siege of Jerusalem begins Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. The battalion made its last transfer to the 150th Brigade of the 50th Division at Arras for the beginning of the Hundred Days Offensive and were largely made up of other men back from Salonika and Palestine, most hardened by malaria and more resistant to the now apparent deadly influenza epidemic. The British 50th (Northumbrian Division was a first-line Territorial Force division. Arras (Atrecht is the capital of the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of World War I, where the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including
The battalion was finally transported on 1 October to Epéhy, scene of its March experiences where it was again ordered into the lines on 4 October, to capture La Chatelet. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas Largely gaining their objective, they had to retire encountering heavy counter attacks and failures elsewhere on the line, losing many 6RMF pre-war veterans who had survived Gallipoli. The 50th Division’s advance was resumed on 10 October, and the battalion was reduced to 13 officers and 411 men by 16 October. Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western
The Battle of Epéhy began on 18 October to drive the Germans behind the river, the Munsters going in next day in fog surprising the Germans, taking many prisoner as well the objectives. The Battle of Épehy was a World War I battle fought on 18 September 1918, involving the British Fourth Army (under the command of General Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid The Munsters overran their objectives and were caught in another Division’s barrage, losses again were heavy. They were then withdrawn and reorganised for what to be their final operation of the war, successfully taking a large area around Haute Noyelles on 4 November, the number of prisoners taken indicative of the low state of German morale. Events 1333 - Flood of the Arno River, causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani After a counter-bombardment on 7 November the battalion was withdrawn for the remaining days up until the Armistice. Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918
Last reassembled in December before demobilisation the 2RMF numbered 25 officers and 581 other ranks. After demobilisation by February, the last cadre of 14 officers and 54 O. R. s left France in June 1919 and was reabsorbed into the reformed battalion on the Isle of Wight numbering 900, of these a high 500 with war service. The Isle of Wight is an English Island and county in the English Channel between three and five miles (8 km from the south coast of the The 2RMF served in Egypt from November 1919 to May 1922 returning for demobilisation and disbandment in July 1922. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Their last commander wrote “Its losses amounted to 179 officers and 4,088 rank and file killed, wounded or missing. There were twenty-eight changes in the battalion’s command during the war. The battalion retained its essentially Irish character to the end of the war, and was first to last composed of voluntarily enlisted soldiers. During the war 346 officers and over 8,000 O. R. s passed through its ranks”.
History of 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th (Service) Battalions related under
History of 3rd, 4th and 5th (Reserve) Battalions and
History of 1st and 2nd (Garrison) Battalions related under