Rosslyn Chapel, properly named the Collegiate Church of St Matthew, was founded on a small hill above Roslin Glen as a Roman Catholic collegiate church (with between 4 and 6 ordained canons and two boy choristers) in the mid-15th century. After the Scottish Reformation (1560) Roman Catholic worship in the Chapel was brought to an end, although the Sinclair family continued to be Roman Catholics until the early 18th century. From that time the Chapel was closed to public worship until 1861 when it was opened again as a place of worship according to the rites of the Scottish Episcopal Church.
The purpose of the college was to celebrate the Divine Office throughout the day and night and also to celebrate Holy Mass for all the faithful departed, including the deceased members of the Sinclair family. During this period the rich heritage of plainsong (a single melodic line) or polyphony (vocal harmony) would be used to enrich the singing of the liturgy. An endowment was made that would pay for the upkeep of the priests and choristers in perpetuity and they also had parochial responsibilities.
Rosslyn Chapel and the nearby Rosslyn Castle are located at the village of Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland. Roslin (sometimes spelt Rosslyn or Roslyn) is a village in Midlothian, Scotland, to the south of the Scottish capital city Edinburgh Midlothian ( Meadhan Lodainn in Gaelic) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and a lieutenancy area. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The chapel was founded by William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness (also spelled "Sainteclaire/Saintclair/Sinclair/St. William Sinclair (1410&ndash1484 1st Earl of Caithness (1455&ndash1476 3rd Earl of Orkney (1455&ndash1470 Baron of Roslin Clair") of the Sinclair family, a noble family descended from Norman knights, using the standard designs the medieval architects made available to him. Clan Sinclair is a Scottish clan of highland extraction with lands in the north of Scotland, the Orkney Islands, and the Lothians The term Scoto-Norman (also Scotto-Norman, Franco-Scottish or Franco-Gaelic) is used to described people families institutions and archaeological artifacts Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. Rosslyn Chapel is the third Sinclair place of worship at Roslin - the first being in Rosslyn Castle and the second (whose crumbling buttresses can still be seen today) in what is now Roslin Cemetery. 
The original plans for Rosslyn have never been found or recorded, so it is open to speculation whether or not the chapel was intended to be built in its current layout.
Construction of the chapel began on 20 September 1456, although it is often been recorded as 1446. Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. The confusion over the building date comes from the chapel's receiving its founding charter to build a collegiate chapel in 1446 from Rome. Sinclair did not start to build the chapel until he had built houses for his craftsmen. Although the original building was to be cruciform in shape, it was never completed; only the choir was constructed, with the retro-chapel, otherwise called the Lady Chapel, built on the much earlier crypt (Lower Chapel) believed to form part of an earlier castle. In terms of European architecture a crypt (from the Latin crypta and the Greek κρυπτη, kryptē) is a stone chamber or The foundations of the unbuilt nave and transepts stretching to a distance of 90 feet were recorded in the 19th century. In Romanesque and Gothic Christian Abbey, Cathedral Basilica and church Architecture, the nave is the Full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are found at the entry Cathedral diagram. The decorative carving was executed over a forty-year period. After the founder's death, construction of the planned nave and transepts was abandoned - either from lack of funds, disinterest, or a change in liturgical fashion. The Lower Chapel (also known as the crypt or sacristy) should not be confused with the burial vaults that lie underneath Rosslyn Chapel. 
The chapel stands on fourteen pillars, which form an arcade of twelve pointed arches on three sides of the nave. The three pillars at the east end of the chapel are named, from north to south, the Master Pillar, the Journeyman Pillar, and most famously, the Apprentice Pillar. These names only exist from the late Georgian period. Prior to this period they were called The Earl's Pillar, The Shekinah and the Prince's pillar or Matthew's Staff. At the west end, another three pillars divide the nave and the Lady Chapel. A Lady chapel is a traditional English term for a Chapel inside a Cathedral or large church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
The "Apprentice Pillar", or "Prentice Pillar", gets its name from an 18th century legend involving the master mason in charge of the stonework in the chapel and his young apprentice. According to the legend, the master mason did not believe that the apprentice could perform the complicated task of carving the column, without seeing the original which formed the inspiration for the design. The master mason travelled to see the original himself, but upon his return was enraged to find that the upstart apprentice had completed the column anyway. In a fit of jealous anger the mason took up his mallet and struck the apprentice on the head, killing him. 
It is also referred to as the "Princes Pillar" in An Account of the Chapel of Roslin (1778). On the architrave joining the pillar, there is the inscription Forte est vinum fortior est rex fortiores sunt mulieres super omnia vincit veritas: "Wine is strong, a king is stronger, women are stronger still, but truth conquers all" (1 Esdras, chapters 3 & 4)
Among Rosslyn's many intricate carvings are a sequence of 213 cubes or boxes protruding from pillars and arches with a selection of patterns on them. The architrave (also called epistyle or door frame) is a moulded or ornamental band framing a rectangular opening 1 Esdras (Εσδράς A′ is a book from the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament regarded as canonical in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy It is unknown whether these patterns have any particular meaning attached to them — many people have attempted to find information coded into them, but no interpretation has yet proven conclusive.
One recent attempt to make sense of the boxes has been to interpret them as a musical score. The motifs on the boxes somewhat resemble geometric patterns seen in the study of cymatics. Cymatics is the study of Wave phenomena It is typically associated with the physical patterns produced through the interaction of Sound The patterns are formed by placing powder upon a flat surface and vibrating the surface at different frequencies. By matching these Chladni patterns with musical notes corresponding to the same frequencies, the father-and-son team of Thomas and Stuart Mitchell produced a tune which Stuart calls the Rosslyn Motet. Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (ˈɛʀnst ˈfloːʀɛns ˈfʀiːdʀɪç ˈkladnɪ November 30, 1756 – April 3, 1827) was a German 
Another notable feature of Rosslyn's architecture is the presence of 'Green Men'. A Green Man is a Sculpture, Drawing, or other representation of a face surrounded by or made from leaves. These are carvings of human faces with greenery all around them, often growing out of their mouths. They are commonly thought to be a symbol of rebirth or fertility, pre-Christian in origin. Fertility is the natural capability of giving life As a measure "Fertility Rate" is the number of children born per couple person or population In Rosslyn they are found in all areas of the chapel, with one excellent example in the Lady Chapel, between the two middle altars of the east wall. The green men in Rosslyn symbolise the months of the year in progression from East to West in the Chapel. Young faces are seen in the East symbolising Spring and as we progress towards the setting sun in the West the carvings age as in Autumn of man's years. There are in excess of 110 carvings of Green men in and around the Chapel.
In addition to the boxes, there are carvings of what the novelists Robert Lomas and Christopher Knight believe could be ears of new world corn or maize in the chapel. Robert Lomas is a British Writer and business studies Academic. Christopher Anton Knight (born November 7, 1957) is an American actor best known for playing Peter Brady on the 1970s series Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica  This crop was unknown in Europe at the time of the chapel's construction, and was not cultivated there until several hundred years later. Knight and Lomas view these carvings as evidence supporting the idea that Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, travelled to the Americas well before Columbus. Mediaeval scholars interpret these carvings as stylised depictions of wheat, strawberries or lilies. 
The Chapel has also acted as a burial place for several generations of the Sinclairs — a crypt was once reachable from a descending stair at the rear of the chapel. This crypt has for many years been sealed shut, which may explain the recurrent legends that it is merely a front to a more extensive subterranean vault containing (variously) the mummified head of Jesus Christ, the Holy Grail, the treasure of the Templars, or the original crown jewels of Scotland. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) According to Christian mythology, the Holy Grail was the dish plate or cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper, said to possess miraculous powers Treasure (from Greek θησαυρος Thesaurus, meaning "a treasure of the chest" is a Cognate) is a concentration of riches often one The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.  In 1837 when the 2nd Earl of Rosslyn died, his wish was to be buried in the original vault, exhaustive searches over the period of a week were made, but no entrance to the original vault was found and he was buried beside his wife in the Lady Chapel. 
The chapel, built 150 years after the dissolution of the Knights Templar, supposedly has many Templar symbols, such as the "Two riders on a single horse" that appear on the Seal of the Knights Templar. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order The Master of the Knights Templar 's great seal was double-sided and showed the picture of The Dome of the Rock (some opinions are that the picture represents a circular The layout of the chapel is cited as echoing the layout of the Temple of Solomon. Solomon's Temple (בית המקדש transliterated Beit HaMikdash) also known as the First Temple, was according to 
With regards to a possible connection between the St. Clairs and the Knights Templar, the family testified against the Templars when that Order was put on trial in Edinburgh in 1309.  Historian Dr. Louise Yeoman, along with other mediaeval scholars, says the Knights Templar connection is false, and points out that Rosslyn Chapel was built by William Sinclair so that Mass could be said for the souls of his family. 
It is also claimed that other carvings in the chapel reflect Masonic imagery, such as the way that hands are placed in various figures. One carving may show a blindfolded man being led forward with a noose around his neck -- similar to the way a candidate is prepared for initiation into Freemasonry. The carving has been eroded by time and pollution and is difficult to make out clearly. The chapel was built in the 15th century, and the earliest records of Freemasonic lodges date back only to the late 16th and early 17th centuries. 
William Sinclair 3rd Earl of Orkney, Baron of Roslin and 1st Earl of Caithness, claimed by novelists to be a hereditary Grand Master of the Scottish stone masons, built Rosslyn Chapel. William Sinclair (1410&ndash1484 1st Earl of Caithness (1455&ndash1476 3rd Earl of Orkney (1455&ndash1470 Baron of Roslin  A later William Sinclair of Roslin became the first Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland and, subsequently, several other members of the Sinclair family have held this position. The Grand Lodge of Antient Free and Accepted Masons of Scotland was founded in 1736 – although in fact only about a third of all lodges were represented at the foundation 
These connections, to both the Templars and the Freemasons, means that Rosslyn features prominently in romantic conjectures that the Freemasons are direct descendants of the Knights Templar, though, as scholars point out, there is absolutely no historical connection between the two.
Alternative histories involving Rosslyn Chapel and the Sinclairs have recently been published by Andrew Sinclair and Timothy Wallace-Murphy arguing links with the Knights Templar and the supposed descendants of Jesus Christ. Andrew Sinclair (born 1935 is a British novelist historian critic and film-maker The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) The books in particular by Timothy Wallace-Murphy Rex Deus: The True Mystery of Rennes-le-Château And The Dynasty of Jesus (2000) and Custodians Of Truth: The Continuance Of Rex Deus (2005) have focused on the hypothetical Jesus bloodline with the Sinclairs and Rosslyn Chapel. A Jesus bloodline is a hypothetical sequence of direct descendants of the Historical Jesus and Mary Magdalene, or some other woman usually portrayed as On the ABC documentary Jesus, Mary and Da Vinci aired on 3 November 2003 Niven Sinclair hinted that the descendants of Jesus Christ existed within the Sinclair families. These alternative histories are relatively modern - not dating back before the early 1990s. The precursor to these Rosslyn theories is the 1982 book The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail by Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln that introduced the theory of the Jesus Christ bloodline in relation to the Priory of Sion - the main protagonist of which was Pierre Plantard, who for a time adopted the name Pierre Plantard de Saint-Clair. The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail (retitled Holy Blood Holy Grail in the United States) is a controversial book by Michael Baigent Michael Baigent is an Author and speculative historian who co-wrote a number of books that question mainstream perceptions of History and the life of Jesus Richard Leigh is the name of Richard Leigh (cricketer, English cricketer Richard Leigh (author (1943&ndash2007 co-author of The Holy Henry Lincoln (born 1930 is the most popular pseudonym of Henry Soskin, an English Writer and Actor. The Prieuré de Sion, translated from French as Priory of Sion, is the name of multiple groups both real and fictitious Pierre Athanase Marie Plantard ( March 18, 1920 &ndash February 3, 2000) was a French draughtsman, best known for being
The Chapel is a major feature in the last part of Dan Brown's 2003 novel The Da Vinci Code, though many incorrect assertions were made about the structure. Dan Brown (born June 22 1964 is an American Author of Thriller fiction, best known for the 2003 bestselling novel The Da Vinci Code The Da Vinci Code is a controversial mystery / detective Novel by US author Dan Brown, published in 2003 by Doubleday For example, Brown's book states that the Chapel was built by the Knights Templar, and contains a six-pointed Star of David worn into the stone floor although no such star is present. This article is solely about the medieval Order in Scotland The Modern Order is discussed in Scottish Knights Templar. The Star of David or Shield of David ( Magen David in Hebrew with nikkud or מגן דוד without academically transcribed Māḡēn Dāwīḏ by Many sources say that Brown never visited the Chapel until after the publication of his book,and most of his material came from previously published material.
Another claim from The Da Vinci Code is that the name "Rosslyn" is a form of the term Rose Line, and that a line starting in France also runs through the Chapel. Rose Line is a name given to the Paris Meridian in the Priory of Sion mythology and popularized by Dan Brown in his novel The Da Vinci Code It is suggested that the name "Rosslyn" comes from two Celtic words: "ros", meaning promontory or point, and "lyn", meaning waterfall.